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Electron Microscopic Radioautographic Study on Mitochondrial DNA Synthesis in Adrenal Cortical Cells of Developing and Aging Mice  [cached]
Tetsuji Nagata
The Scientific World Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1100/tsw.2008.93
Role of nitric oxide and prostaglandin in the maintenance of cortical and renal medullary blood flow
Gomez, S.I;Strick, D.M.;Romero, J.C.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2008000200014
Abstract: this study was undertaken in anesthetized dogs to evaluate the relative participation of prostaglandins (pgs) and nitric oxide (no) in the maintenance of total renal blood flow (trbf), and renal medullary blood flow (rmbf). it was hypothesized that the inhibition of no should impair cortical and medullary circulation because of the synthesis of this compound in the endothelial cells of these two territories. in contrast, under normal conditions of perfusion pressure pg synthesis is confined to the renal medulla. hence pg inhibition should predominantly impair the medullary circulation. the initial administration of 25 μm kg-1 min-1 ng-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester produced a significant 26% decrease in trbf and a concomitant 34% fall in rmbf, while the subsequent inhibition of pgs with 5 mg/kg meclofenamate further reduced trbf by 33% and rmbf by 89%. in contrast, the initial administration of meclofenamate failed to change trbf, while decreasing rmbf by 49%. the subsequent blockade of no decreased trbf by 35% without further altering rmbf. these results indicate that initial pg synthesis inhibition predominantly alters the medullary circulation, whereas no inhibition decreases both cortical and medullary flow. this latter change induced by no renders cortical and rmbf susceptible to a further decrease by pg inhibition. however, the decrease in medullary circulation produced by no inhibition is not further enhanced by subsequent pg inhibition.
Combined Adrenal Medullary Hyperplasia and Myelolipoma: A Mimicker of Pheochromocytoma
Servet Güre?ci,Cengiz Kara,Derun Taner Ertu?rul,Ali ünsal
Turkish Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism , 2009,
Abstract: A 53-year-old female patient with long-standing hypertension was evaluated for left flank pain. Abdominal CT scan revealed a 2,8 cm left adrenal mass. Metanephrine, normetanephrine and vanylmandelic acid levels in a 24-hour urine sample were increased. The levels of serum cortisol, renin, aldosteron, calcitonin, parathormone, calcium and phosphate were normal. Left adrenalectomy was performed. There was a nodular mass with a red cut surface in medullary region. The medulla was enlarged in other parts. On microscopic examination, the mass was composed of mature adipose tissue admixed with hematopoietic cells. The medulla was hyperplastic with a corticomedullary ratio of 1:5. After surgery, blood pressure and catecholamine levels normalized. Although myelolipomas are incidental findings, they can rarely present with endocrine dysfunction. In conclusion, surgical excision should be considered in adrenal incidentalomas with characteristic radiographic features of myelolipoma, presenting with biochemical abnormalities. Turk Jem 2009; 13: 84-6
Changes in renal cortical and medullary perfusion in a patient with renal vein thrombosis  [cached]
Al-Said Jafar,Kamel Olfat
Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation , 2010,
Abstract: Dynamic renal perfusion computerized tomographic (CT) scan was performed to test the cortical and medullary perfusion in a patient with unilateral renal vein thrombosis secondary to idiopathic focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Forty mL of Iohexol was injected intra-venously. Multiple fixed repeated axial renal CT scan cuts at specific intervals, over the mid pole, were recorded over 400 seconds. Radio density was measured over the aorta, cortex and medulla during that period. Graphs for the radio contrast density against time were plotted. Aortic, cortical and medullary perfusions were calculated by estimating the slopes of the curves. Based on the CT scan findings, perfusion of different parts of the kidney was measured. The reduction in kidney function with renal vein thrombosis seems to be secondary to hypoperfusion of renal cortex and medulla. Further studies are required to confirm this observation. The blood flow to the kidney im-proved within four days after therapy with anticoagulation and pulse steroids. The sequences of events that take place need further studies for validation.
Composite adrenal medullary tumor: A rare cause of hypertension in a young male  [cached]
Menon Santosh,Mahajan Pravin,Desai Sangeeta
Urology Annals , 2011,
Abstract: Composite tumors of the adrenal medulla, containing pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma, are rare. A 27-year-old male presented to us with dyspnea and was found to have labile hypertension. A left suprarenal mass was detected on computed tomography. The patient was operated under the cover of alpha anti-adrenergic drugs. The histopathological examination demonstrated that the tumor consisted of pheochromocytoma and ganglioneuroma elements, and hence, a diagnosis of composite adrenal medullary tumor (CAMT) was made. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of CAMT reported from India.
Effect of Intrathecal Transplantation of Adrenal Medullary Tissue on the Sciatic Nerve Regeneration Following Chronic Constriction Injury in the Rat  [PDF]
Homa Manaheji,Farinaz Nasirinezhad,Gila Behzadi
Cell Journal , 2005,
Abstract: Introduction: It has been demonstrated that the adrenal medullary transplants into the spinal subarachnoid space can alleviate neuropathic pain behaviors. The aim of the present study was to test the possibility that histological changes of the sciatic nerve in a neuropathic model as well as sensory dysfunction are repaired by adrenal medullary transplantation. Material and Methods: Left sciatic nerve was ligated in three groups of rats by 4 loose ligatures (CCI). After one week of nerve constriction, rats of first group were implanted with adrenal medullary tissue (CCI + adrenal medulla) and rats of the second group with striated muscle at the level of L1-L2 (CCI + muscle). The third group received only left ligature (CCI) and in the fourth group the sciatic nerve was exposed and then muscle and skin sutured (sham). Behavioral assessment was evaluated before surgery and 2, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, and 56 days after the onset of experiment. According to behavioral results, 4 rats in each group were anesthetized and then the distal part of sciatic nerve were isolated and prepared for histological quantitative investigation of nerve regeneration. Results: The results showed that CCI was accompanied with hyperalgesia and morphological changes in the distal part of sciatic nerve. In animals with adrenal medullary transplantation, not only hyperalgesia was markedly reduced or even eliminated, but also the number of myelinated fibers in the distal segment of nerve increased to nearly normal. Conclusions: Our findings showed that the implantation of adrenal medullary tissue might have caused regeneration of ligated nerves as well as alleviation of pain behavior.
Foxn1 Regulates Lineage Progression in Cortical and Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells But Is Dispensable for Medullary Sublineage Divergence  [PDF]
Craig S. Nowell,Nicholas Bredenkamp,Stéphanie Tetélin,Xin Jin,Christin Tischner,Harsh Vaidya,Julie M. Sheridan,Frances Hogg Stenhouse,Raphaela Heussen,Andrew J. H. Smith,C. Clare Blackburn
PLOS Genetics , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002348
Abstract: The forkhead transcription factor Foxn1 is indispensable for thymus development, but the mechanisms by which it mediates thymic epithelial cell (TEC) development are poorly understood. To examine the cellular and molecular basis of Foxn1 function, we generated a novel and revertible hypomorphic allele of Foxn1. By varying levels of its expression, we identified a number of features of the Foxn1 system. Here we show that Foxn1 is a powerful regulator of TEC differentiation that is required at multiple intermediate stages of TE lineage development in the fetal and adult thymus. We find no evidence for a role for Foxn1 in TEC fate-choice. Rather, we show it is required for stable entry into both the cortical and medullary TEC differentiation programmes and subsequently is needed at increasing dosage for progression through successive differentiation states in both cortical and medullary TEC. We further demonstrate regulation by Foxn1 of a suite of genes with diverse roles in thymus development and/or function, suggesting it acts as a master regulator of the core thymic epithelial programme rather than regulating a particular aspect of TEC biology. Overall, our data establish a genetics-based model of cellular hierarchies in the TE lineage and provide mechanistic insight relating titration of a single transcription factor to control of lineage progression. Our novel revertible hypomorph system may be similarly applied to analyzing other regulators of development.
Clear Discrepancy in Neurofibromin Expression between NF1 Pheochromocytoma Cells and Non-Tumorous Adrenal Medullary Cells  [PDF]
Koji Mikami, Yumiko Okuno, Masayoshi Zaitsu, Hiroki Tanaka, Koichi Sakazume, Akiko Tonooka, Toshimasa Uekusa, Takumi Takeuchi
Open Journal of Urology (OJU) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/oju.2016.65016
Abstract: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common inherited disorder with an autosomal dominant trait. We encountered an NF1 patient who showed adrenal pheochromocytoma, and analyzed expression of neurofibromin in an excised specimen. A 54-year-old man showing multiple neurofibromas and café-au-lait spots in the skin was pointed out to have a right adrenal tumor by ultrasonography. Abdominal CT also revealed a right adrenal tumor. He was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 1 with no family history. Urine catecholamines, metanephrine, and normetanephrine levels were elevated. MIBG scintigraphy showed positive right adrenal uptake, and so pheochromocytoma was also diagnosed. The patient underwent laparoscopic right adrenalectomy. The excised adrenal specimen of this patient was stained with anti-neurofibromin polyclonal antibody. The NF1 pheochromocytoma was completely negative for neurofibromin protein expression, while the NF1 non-pheochromocytomatous adrenal medulla was neurofibromin-positive in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The clear discrepancy in neurofibromin expression between pheochromocytoma cells and “normal” adrenal medullary cells of the patient may well be explained by Knudson’s two-hit hypothesis.
Ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the gastric wall: Case report
Pei-Tu Ren,Hong Fu,Xiao-Wen He
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2013, DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i5.778
Abstract: Ectopic adrenal cortical neoplasms are extremely rare. Ectopic adrenocortical tissue can be found in locations such as the celiac axis, the broad ligament, the adnexa of the testes, and the spermatic cord; however, they rarely involve the stomach. We report an unusual case of a patient with an ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma in the gastric wall. The patient was a 72-year old female admitted to our hospital with upper abdominal discomfort. Physical examination revealed tenderness below the xiphoid process. Both computed tomography and fibergastroscopy revealed a mass on the lesser curvature side of the gastric antrum; it was initially diagnosed as a gastric stromal tumor. After adequate preparation, the patient underwent surgery. During the procedure, we found a 30 mm × 30 mm mass with medium density in the lesser curvature near the gastric antrum within the serosa. Following immunohistochemistry examination, we corrected the diagnosis to an ectopic adrenal cortical adenoma; the tumor was nonfunctional.
Asfandiyarov F.R.,Kafarov E.S.,Trizno M.N.
Saratov Journal of Medical Scientific Research , 2009,
Abstract: Research objective is the study of volume variations of arterial and venous vessels of cortical and medullary kidney substances of male and female sexes. Morphological changes in kidneys in the process of ageing have been revealed and have been characterized as a progressive nephrosclerosis.
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