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Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Status and Scope from Marine Organisms  [PDF]
Noel Vinay Thomas,Se-Kwon Kim
Biochemistry Research International , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/845975
Abstract: Marine environment has been the source of diverse life forms that produce different biologically active compounds. Marine organisms are consistently contributing with unparalleled bioactive compounds that have profound applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. In this process, screening of natural products from marine organisms that could potentially inhibit the expression of metalloproteinases has gained a huge popularity, which became a hot field of research in life sciences. Metalloproteinases, especially, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of structurally similar enzymes that contribute to the extracellular matrix degradation and play major role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Imbalance in the expression of MMPs leads to severe pathological condition that could initiate cardiac, cartilage, and cancer-related diseases. Three decades of endeavor for designing potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory substances (MMPIs) with many not making upto final clinical trials seek new resources for devising MMPIs. Umpteen number of medicinally valuable compounds being reported from marine organisms, which encourage current researchers to screen potent MMPIs from marine organisms. In this paper, we have made an attempt to report the metalloproteinase inhibiting substances from various marine organisms.
Metalloproteinase Inhibitors: Status and Scope from Marine Organisms  [PDF]
Noel Vinay Thomas,Se-Kwon Kim
Biochemistry Research International , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/845975
Abstract: Marine environment has been the source of diverse life forms that produce different biologically active compounds. Marine organisms are consistently contributing with unparalleled bioactive compounds that have profound applications in nutraceuticals, cosmeceuticals, and pharmaceuticals. In this process, screening of natural products from marine organisms that could potentially inhibit the expression of metalloproteinases has gained a huge popularity, which became a hot field of research in life sciences. Metalloproteinases, especially, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of structurally similar enzymes that contribute to the extracellular matrix degradation and play major role in normal and pathological tissue remodeling. Imbalance in the expression of MMPs leads to severe pathological condition that could initiate cardiac, cartilage, and cancer-related diseases. Three decades of endeavor for designing potent matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory substances (MMPIs) with many not making upto final clinical trials seek new resources for devising MMPIs. Umpteen number of medicinally valuable compounds being reported from marine organisms, which encourage current researchers to screen potent MMPIs from marine organisms. In this paper, we have made an attempt to report the metalloproteinase inhibiting substances from various marine organisms. 1. Introduction Metalloproteinases are a family of proteolytic enzymes generally termed as endopeptidases. This group of endopeptidases majorly consists of enzymes from metzincin family that include serralysins, astacins, adamalysins (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain or ADAMs), and matrixins (matrix metalloproteinases or MMPs) [1, 2]. The involvement of the regulated degradation of extracellular matrix (ECM) is essential for the physiological remodeling processes like tissue repair, development, and morphogenesis. Interestingly, the remodeling process found to be uncontrolled and deleterious immunological response to repair the tissue damages, which was credited by cardio-related ailments, cancer, and arthritis [3]. MMPs are exceptionally studied and focused because of their evident role in carcinogenesis and cellular invasion by catabolising the ECM [2]. MMPs are zinc-dependant endopeptidases that degrade the ECM [4] and this remodeling of ECM facilitates several physiological processes like wound healing, bone resorption, uterine involution, and organogenesis as well as pathologic conditions including inflammatory, vascular, and autoimmune disorders, and carcinogenesis [5]. Until now, about 25?MMPS
Novel Anti-Infective Compounds from Marine Bacteria  [PDF]
Hafizur Rahman,Brian Austin,Wilfrid J. Mitchell,Peter C. Morris,Derek J. Jamieson,David R. Adams,Andrew Mearns Spragg,Michael Schweizer
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8030498
Abstract: As a result of the continuous evolution of microbial pathogens towards antibiotic-resistance, there have been demands for the development of new and effective antimicrobial compounds. Since the 1960s, the scientific literature has accumulated many publications about novel pharmaceutical compounds produced by a diverse range of marine bacteria. Indeed, marine micro-organisms continue to be a productive and successful focus for natural products research, with many newly isolated compounds possessing potentially valuable pharmacological activities. In this regard, the marine environment will undoubtedly prove to be an increasingly important source of novel antimicrobial metabolites, and selective or targeted approaches are already enabling the recovery of a significant number of antibiotic-producing micro-organisms. The aim of this review is to consider advances made in the discovery of new secondary metabolites derived from marine bacteria, and in particular those effective against the so called “superbugs”, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE), which are largely responsible for the increase in numbers of hospital acquired, i.e., nosocomial, infections.
Seascape Genetics of a Globally Distributed, Highly Mobile Marine Mammal: The Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Genus Delphinus)  [PDF]
Ana R. Amaral, Luciano B. Beheregaray, Kerstin Bilgmann, Dmitri Boutov, Luís Freitas, Kelly M. Robertson, Marina Sequeira, Karen A. Stockin, M. Manuela Coelho, Luciana M. M?ller
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031482
Abstract: Identifying which factors shape the distribution of intraspecific genetic diversity is central in evolutionary and conservation biology. In the marine realm, the absence of obvious barriers to dispersal can make this task more difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies have provided valuable insights into which factors may be shaping genetic structure in the world's oceans. These studies were, however, generally conducted on marine organisms with larval dispersal. Here, using a seascape genetics approach, we show that marine productivity and sea surface temperature are correlated with genetic structure in a highly mobile, widely distributed marine mammal species, the short-beaked common dolphin. Isolation by distance also appears to influence population divergence over larger geographical scales (i.e. across different ocean basins). We suggest that the relationship between environmental variables and population structure may be caused by prey behaviour, which is believed to determine common dolphins' movement patterns and preferred associations with certain oceanographic conditions. Our study highlights the role of oceanography in shaping genetic structure of a highly mobile and widely distributed top marine predator. Thus, seascape genetic studies can potentially track the biological effects of ongoing climate-change at oceanographic interfaces and also inform marine reserve design in relation to the distribution and genetic connectivity of charismatic and ecologically important megafauna.
Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms  [PDF]
Rajeev Kumar Jha,Xu Zi-rong
Marine Drugs , 2004, DOI: 10.3390/md203123
Abstract: The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The lifesaving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.
Trends in the Discovery of New Marine Natural Products from Invertebrates over the Last Two Decades – Where and What Are We Bioprospecting?  [PDF]
Miguel Costa Leal, Jo?o Puga, Jo?o Ser?dio, Newton C. M. Gomes, Ricardo Calado
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0030580
Abstract: It is acknowledged that marine invertebrates produce bioactive natural products that may be useful for developing new drugs. By exploring untapped geographical sources and/or novel groups of organisms one can maximize the search for new marine drugs to treat human diseases. The goal of this paper is to analyse the trends associated with the discovery of new marine natural products from invertebrates (NMNPI) over the last two decades. The analysis considers different taxonomical levels and geographical approaches of bioprospected species. Additionally, this research is also directed to provide new insights into less bioprospected taxa and world regions. In order to gather the information available on NMNPI, the yearly-published reviews of Marine Natural Products covering 1990–2009 were surveyed. Information on source organisms, specifically taxonomical information and collection sites, was assembled together with additional geographical information collected from the articles originally describing the new natural product. Almost 10000 NMNPI were discovered since 1990, with a pronounced increase between decades. Porifera and Cnidaria were the two dominant sources of NMNPI worldwide. The exception was polar regions where Echinodermata dominated. The majority of species that yielded the new natural products belong to only one class of each Porifera and Cnidaria phyla (Demospongiae and Anthozoa, respectively). Increased bioprospecting efforts were observed in the Pacific Ocean, particularly in Asian countries that are associated with the Japan Biodiversity Hotspot and the Kuroshio Current. Although results show comparably less NMNPI from polar regions, the number of new natural products per species is similar to that recorded for other regions. The present study provides information to future bioprospecting efforts addressing previously unexplored taxonomic groups and/or regions. We also highlight how marine invertebrates, which in some cases have no commercial value, may become highly valuable in the ongoing search for new drugs from the sea.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF BENTHIC MARINE ALGAE EXTRACTS FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN COAST OF MOROCCO  [PDF]
Hanaa Zbakh,Houda Chiheb,Hassan Bouziane,Virginia Motilva Sánchez
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Marine organisms are potentially prolific sources of highly bioactive secondary metabolites that might represent useful leads in the development of new pharmaceutical agents. The Moroccan marine biodiversity including macroalgae remains partially unexplored in term of their potential bioactivities. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts from 20 species of macroalgae (9 Chlorophyta, 3 Phaeophyta and 8 Rhodophyta) collected from Moroccan Mediterranean coasts was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis. The extracts of the studied Rhodophyceae inhibited considerably the growth of the three tested bacterial strains and gave inhibition zones between 20 and 24 mm. The results indicate that these species of seaweed present a significant capacity of antibacterial activities, which makes them interesting for screening for natural products.
Antitumor Peptides from Marine Organisms  [PDF]
Lan-Hong Zheng,Yue-Jun Wang,Jun Sheng,Fang Wang,Yuan Zheng,Xiu-Kun Lin,Mi Sun
Marine Drugs , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/md9101840
Abstract: The biodiversity of the marine environment and the associated chemical diversity constitute a practically unlimited resource of new antitumor agents in the field of the development of marine bioactive substances. In this review, the progress on studies of antitumor peptides from marine sources is provided. The biological properties and mechanisms of action of different marine peptides are described; information about their molecular diversity is also presented. Novel peptides that induce apoptosis signal pathway, affect the tubulin-microtubule equilibrium and inhibit angiogenesis are presented in association with their pharmacological properties. It is intended to provide useful information for further research in the fields of marine antitumor peptides.
Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens  [PDF]
O. Zielinski,J. A. Busch,A. D. Cembella,K. L. Daly
Ocean Science Discussions (OSD) , 2009,
Abstract: Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.
Detecting marine hazardous substances and organisms: sensors for pollutants, toxins, and pathogens  [PDF]
O. Zielinski,J. A. Busch,A. D. Cembella,K. L. Daly
Ocean Science (OS) & Discussions (OSD) , 2009,
Abstract: Marine environments are influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. Real-time measurements of pollutants, toxins, and pathogens across a range of spatial scales are required to adequately monitor these hazards, manage the consequences, and to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution. Significant technological advancements have been made in recent years for the detection and analysis of such marine hazards. In particular, sensors deployed on a variety of mobile and fixed-point observing platforms provide a valuable means to assess hazards. In this review, we present state-of-the-art of sensor technology for the detection of harmful substances and organisms in the ocean. Sensors are classified by their adaptability to various platforms, addressing large, intermediate, or small areal scales. Current gaps and future demands are identified with an indication of the urgent need for new sensors to detect marine hazards at all scales in autonomous real-time mode. Progress in sensor technology is expected to depend on the development of small-scale sensor technologies with a high sensitivity and specificity towards target analytes or organisms. However, deployable systems must comply with platform requirements as these interconnect the three areal scales. Future developments will include the integration of existing methods into complex and operational sensing systems for a comprehensive strategy for long-term monitoring. The combination of sensor techniques on all scales will remain crucial for the demand of large spatial and temporal coverage.
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