oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Aging Phenotypes of Common Marmosets (Callithrix jacchus)  [PDF]
Corinna N. Ross,Kenneth Davis,Georgina Dobek,Suzette D. Tardif
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/567143
Abstract: Characterizing the phenotypic changes associated with aging in a short-lived primate is necessary in order to develop better translational models for human health, aging, and disease research. A population of conventionally housed marmoset monkeys was assessed to determine if phenotypes of body composition, hematology, and morphometrical measures were associated with age or risk of death. We found that the cause of mortality in older marmosets was more likely to be due to cardiac and chronic kidney disease than in younger marmosets. Older marmosets have decreased fat mass, morphometric measures, and serum albumin. Older marmosets are more likely to show a modified posture while at rest and this modified posture was significantly associated with an increased risk of imminent death. These assessments provide an initial definition of aged health in marmosets and a base for future translational aging research with this species. 1. Introduction The relationships between health, aging, tissue function, and disease in primates and humans is often not well-modeled by rodent studies [1]. Nonhuman primates are our closest evolutionary relatives and as such are more similar to humans in terms of anatomy, embryology, fetal development, immunology, biochemistry, gene interactions, sensory apparatus, and overall physiological and psychological function than any other animal group. As a consequence, research with nonhuman primates is particularly relevant for the understanding of human health, disease, and therapeutics. The characterization of aging in a short-lived primate will open new possibilities for the assessment of health in the context of aging. Marmosets are small new world primates that offer a valuable resource as an animal model to examine adult disease risk, aging, and functional decline because they have the shortest average lifespan and fastest reproduction of any anthropoid primate [2]. Additionally, the long-standing use of marmosets as a model for family interactions, hormonal development, reproductive output, and medical research has resulted in a large base of average values for growth, body weight, and hematological measures. Marmosets are sexually monomorphic, and adults weigh an average of 300–500 grams in captivity [2]. They typically produce litters consisting of fraternal twins, with a gestational length of 143 days. Marmosets reach sexual maturity at approximately eighteen months, and the average lifespan in captivity for Callithrix jacchus is 4 to 6 years [2–4]. Marmosets are often considered “aged” at 8 years of age at which point studies
Cross-fostering between two species of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata)
GUERRA, R. F.;TAKASE, E.;SANTOS, C. V.;
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 1998, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-71081998000400014
Abstract: cross-fostering technique can be defined as adoption of infants by adults of other species. this phenomenon is poorly investigated because very young animals have few opportunities to interact peacefully with non-conspecific adults, either in captivity or in natural conditions. this study describes the induction of cross-fostering in captivity between white tufted-ear (callithrix jacchus) and black tufted-ear marmosets (callithrix penicillata). we conclude that this technique can be very useful for preserving the life of rejected by parents or orphan infants, mainly in the case of species with low reproduction rate in captivity or those threatened by extinction, as well for investigating the environmental effects on the typical behavior of species (courtship, food preference, vocalization patterns, e.g.).
Cross-fostering between two species of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix penicillata)
GUERRA R. F.,TAKASE E.,SANTOS C. V.
Revista Brasileira de Biologia , 1998,
Abstract: Cross-fostering technique can be defined as adoption of infants by adults of other species. This phenomenon is poorly investigated because very young animals have few opportunities to interact peacefully with non-conspecific adults, either in captivity or in natural conditions. This study describes the induction of cross-fostering in captivity between white tufted-ear (Callithrix jacchus) and black tufted-ear marmosets (Callithrix penicillata). We conclude that this technique can be very useful for preserving the life of rejected by parents or orphan infants, mainly in the case of species with low reproduction rate in captivity or those threatened by extinction, as well for investigating the environmental effects on the typical behavior of species (courtship, food preference, vocalization patterns, e.g.).
Cytogenetic study in natural hybrids of Callithrix (Callitrichidae: Primates) in the Atlantic forest of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Nogueira, Denise M.;Ferreira, Ana Maria R.;Goldschmidt, Beatriz;Pissinatti, Alcides;Carelli, Juliane B.;Verona, Carlos E.;
Iheringia. Série Zoologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0073-47212011000200002
Abstract: in the atlantic forest of rio de janeiro, callithrix aurita (é. geoffroy in humboldt, 1812) is a native species vulnerable to extinction and c. jacchus (linnaeus, 1758) and c. penicillata (é. geoffroy, 1812) are invasive species. the major threats to the native species are habitat degradation and hybridization, although there are currently no genetic data about natural hybrids available. previous studies have revealed that species of the callithrix genus are extremely homogeneous in their karyotypes with the exceptions of the morphology and size of the y chromosome and its nucleolar organizer region (nor) banding pattern. three male marmosets captured in the wild in guapimirim municipality, rio de janeiro, brazil, considered as possible hybrids between c. aurita and c. jacchus or c. penicillata on the basis of pelage pattern, were cytogenetically studied. metaphase chromosomes were obtained by using short-term lymphocyte cultures and ag-nor staining was performed. the hybrids karyotypes were 2n=46, 14 uni- and 30 bi-armed autosomes, a median size submetacentric x and nor bearing autosomes, being compatible with that observed for the genus. in the three individuals studied, y chromosomes were similar to those found for c. aurita, without nors. the data obtained suggest the involvement of c. aurita in natural hybridization with one of the invasive species. we discuss the possible consequences of this hybridization.
Behavioral and ecological interactions between reintroduced golden lion tamarins (Leontopithecus rosalia Linnaeus, 1766) and introduced marmosets (Callithrix spp, Linnaeus, 1758) in Brazil's Atlantic Coast forest fragments
Ruiz-Miranda, Carlos Ramon;Affonso, Adriana Gomes;Morais, Marcio Marcelo de;Verona, Carlos Eduardo;Martins, Andreia;Beck, Benjamin B.;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132006000100012
Abstract: marmosets (callithrix spp.) have been introduced widely in areas within rio de janeiro state assigned for the reintroduction of the endangered golden lion tamarin (leontopithecus rosalia). the objetives of this study were to estimate the marmoset (cm) population in two fragments with reintroduced golden lion tamarin to quantify the association and characterize the interactions between species. the cm population density (0,09 ind/ha) was higher than that of the golden lion tamarin (0,06 ind/ha). the mean association index between tamarins and marmosets varied among groups and seasons (winter=62% and summer=35%). during the winter, competition resulted in increases in territorial and foraging behavior when associated with marmosets. evidence of benefits during the summer was reduced adult vigilance while associated to marmosets. golden lion tamarins were also observed feeding on gums obtained from tree gouges made by the marmosets. marmosets represented a threat for the conservation of golden lion tamarins.
Presence of Viral Genome in Urine and Development of Hematuria and Pathological Changes in Kidneys in Common Marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) after Inoculation with Dengue Virus  [PDF]
Meng Ling Moi,Tsutomu Omatsu,Takanori Hirayama,Shinichiro Nakamura,Yuko Katakai,Tomoyuki Yoshida,Akatsuki Saito,Shigeru Tajima,Mikako Ito,Tomohiko Takasaki,Hirofumi Akari,Ichiro Kurane
Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/pathogens2020357
Abstract: Common marmosets ( Callithrix jacchus) developed high levels of viremia, clinical signs including fever, weight loss, a decrease in activity and hematuria upon inoculation with dengue virus (DENV). Presence of DENV genome in urine samples and pathological changes in kidneys were examined in the present study. Levels of DENV genome were determined in 228 urine samples from 20 primary DENV-inoculated marmosets and in 56 urine samples from four secondary DENV-inoculated marmosets. DENV genome was detected in 75% (15/20) of marmosets after primary DENV infection. No DENV genome was detected in urine samples from the marmosets with secondary infection with homologous DENV (0%, 0/4). Two marmosets demonstrated hematuria. Pathological analysis of the kidneys demonstrated non-suppressive interstitial nephritis with renal tubular regeneration. DENV antigen-positive cells were detected in kidneys. In human dengue virus infections, some patients present renal symptoms. The results indicate that marmosets recapitulate some aspects of the involvement of kidneys in human DENV infection, and suggest that marmosets are potentially useful for the studies of the pathogenesis of DENV infection, including kidneys.
Predation on artificial nests by marmosets of the genus Callithrix (Primates, Platyrrhini) in a Cerrado fragment in Southeastern Brazil
Marcos Vinícius de Almeida,Anderson da Silva Lucindo,Thiago Vernaschi Vieira da Costa,Hugo Medeiros Garrido de Paula
Biotemas , 2013,
Abstract: Although the causes of decline in bird populations in forest fragments are not well known, nest predation seems to play a major role in these events. A way to estimate the relative importance of predation for the reproduction of native birds is the use of artificial nests. Here, there is a report on the high rates of predation on artificial nests by two marmoset species from the genus Callithrix, C. pennicillata and C. jacchus, as well as their hybrid derivatives, in a Cerrado fragment in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. By means of artificial nests and quail eggs filled with paraffin, it was possible to identify the marmosets as predators through the bite pattern left on the paraffin. The results suggest a possible occurrence of predation on natural nests. Further studies involving the monitoring of natural nests will be able to confirm the role of marmosets in the decline of bird populations in the study area.
The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)
Clarke, J.A.;Daly, M. de B.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2002000400005
Abstract: the aortic-pulmonary regions (apr) of seven adult marmosets (callithrix jacchus) and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. in both regions serial 5-μm sections were cut and stained by the martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (ptp) tissue was only observed in the apr. ptp tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. the distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. the cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. there was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. the cells, 10-15 μm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. no evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. in conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the apr of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. a survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.
The distribution of presumptive thoracic paraganglionic tissue in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus)  [cached]
Clarke J.A.,Daly M. de B.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002,
Abstract: The aortic-pulmonary regions (APR) of seven adult marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) and the region of the right subclavian artery of a further three marmosets were diffusion-fixed with 10% buffered formol-saline solution. In both regions serial 5-μm sections were cut and stained by the Martius yellow, brilliant crystal scarlet and soluble blue method. Presumptive thoracic paraganglionic (PTP) tissue was only observed in the APR. PTP tissue was composed of small groups of cells that varied in size and number. The distribution of the groups of cells was extremely variable, so much so that it would be misleading to attempt to classify their position; they were not circumscribed by a connective tissue capsule, but were always related to the thoracic branches of the left vagus nerve. The cells lay in loose areolar tissue characteristic of this part of the mediastinum and received their blood supply from small adjacent connective tissue arterioles. Unlike the paraganglionic tissue found in the carotid body the cells in the thorax did not appear to have a profuse capillary blood supply. There was, however, a close cellular-neural relationship. The cells, 10-15 μm in diameter, were oval or rounded in appearance and possessed a central nucleus and clear cytoplasm. No evidence was found that these cells possessed a 'companion' cell reminiscent of the arrangement of type 1 and type 2 cells in the carotid body. In conclusion, we found evidence of presumed paraganglionic tissue in the APR of the marmoset which, however, did not show the characteristic histological features of the aortic body chemoreceptors that have been described in some non-primate mammals. A survey of the mediastina of other non-human primates is required to establish whether this finding is atypical for these animals.
Distribution of collagen types I, III, and IV in gastric tissue of marmosets (Callithrix spp., Callitrichidae: Primates)
Mello, Marcela F.V. de;Pissinatti, Alcides;Ferreira, Ana M.R.;
Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-736X2010000400006
Abstract: extracellular matrix (ecm) components such as fibrillar collagens play a fundamental role in wound repair and have also been studied in association with the gastric ulcer healing process in gastroenterology. nevertheless, there have been no studies in the literature to date regarding the description and characterization of ecm components, neither in normal nor in injured gastric tissue of primate species. the objective of this study was to investigate the expression of gastric collagen types i, iii, and iv in marmosets (callithrix sp.). histological specimens from the stomach of 6 callithrix jacchus, 12 c. kuhli, and 12 c. geoffroyi were evaluated. the specimens were immunostained with anti-types i and iii collagen polyclonal antibodies and anti-type iv collagen monoclonal antibody. collagen types i and iii were detected in the submucosa and lamina propria between the mucosal glands while collagen type iv was detected in the muscularis mucosae, muscular layers, blood vessels, and gastric mucosa between the mucosal glands. it is hoped that these findings can contribute to future studies on the gastric extracellular matrix components in primates and to comparative studies in the area of gastroenterology.
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.