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Práticas alimentares na gravidez: um estudo com gestantes e puérperas de um complexo de favelas do Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brasil)
Bai?o,Mirian Ribeiro; Deslandes,Suely Ferreira;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232010000800025
Abstract: this study aimed to analyze the self-reported eating practices of pregnant and postpartum women living in a group of slum communities in the city of rio de janeiro, rj, brazil. the interpretative methodology used a semi-structured interview and thematic content analysis. the sample (n=26) consisted of 18 pregnant and 8 postpartum women, of whom 7 were adolescents and 19 adults, including both primiparous and multiparous subjects. according to these women, eating while watching television, eating out, and eating with relatives and friends on weekends were forms of associating leisure-time activities with food, thus increasing their pleasure in eating. income was identified as the principal obstacle to consuming healthier foods, which were reserved for their children as a priority. thus, milk, vegetables, greens, and fruit were rarely consumed. their diet consisted mainly of rice, beans and chicken. there was a clear preference for "junk food". the women were limited to a monotonous diet. it is important to understand and value socio-cultural and economic issues that influence eating practices in order for food and nutritional orientation aimed at healthy eating to be negotiated and adjusted to pregnant women's objective and subjective needs.
Factors associated with the Household Income of Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in China  [cached]
Xiulan Zhang,Yurong Zhang,Tamara Aleong,Tobi Baker
Global Journal of Health Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/gjhs.v4n3p108
Abstract: This study provides a profile of 866 people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in three provinces in rural China and identifies factors associated with per-capita income in AIDS-affected households. The majority of the participants were female, married, had completed primary school, and were 30-49 years of age. Thirty percent of respondents lived in a household with at least one other HIV/AIDS patient and 15% had experienced the death of a household member due to HIV/AIDS. Therefore, health professionals should be aware of issues of grief and caregiver burnout among rural PLWHA and their families. Three-quarters of the respondents continued to work after being diagnosed with HIV/AIDS. Household per capita income was significantly higher for married individuals and those still working. Possible government and workplace policy initiatives that endeavor to increase income and mitigate the economic impact of HIV/AIDS on households are discussed.
The Safety of Walking Space for the Elderly People Living in Communities in Beijing, China  [PDF]
Shuwen Yang, Qing Zhu
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.54014
Abstract: China has become an aging society. Aging in place is an important option for the elderly people in China due to the influence of Chinese tradition. Communities are the environment where the elderly people spend most of their time. The walking space in the communities is important for the safety of the elderly people. The research studied the safety of walking space of the elderly people living in the communities by using the data collected by observation, interviews and questionnaire surveys. The results identified three types of risks which are caused by pavements, public facilities and surrounding environment based on the qualitative analysis. The results of the quantitative analysis by using SPSS 19.0 found that the risks are highest in surrounding environment than the pavements and public facilities. The public facilities have the lowest risks. The findings of this study provide knowledge for future transformation of the old communities and the planning of new communities.
Prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in Pregnant Women Living in the Metropolitan Area of Rio de Janeiro  [PDF]
Denise Leite Maia Monteiro ,Stella Regina Taquette,Danielle Bittencourt Sodré Barmpas,Nádia Cristina P. Rodrigues,Sérgio A. M. Teixeira,Lucia Helena C. Villela,Márcio Neves Bóia,Alexandre José Baptista Trajano
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0003146
Abstract: Background HTLV-1/2 infection can cause severe and disabling diseases in children and adults. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection in pregnant women living in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Methodology/Principal Findings 1,204 pregnant women were tested upon hospital admission for delivery in two public hospitals in the cities of Rio de Janeiro and Mesquita, between November, 2012 and April, 2013. The samples were screened by chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA) and reactive ones were confirmed by Western blot (WB). Epi-info software was used for building the database and performing the statistical analysis. Eight patients had confirmed HTLV-1/2 infection (7 HTLV-1, one HTLV-2), equivalent to a prevalence rate of 0.66%. Two further reactive screening tests had negative Western blot results and therefore were considered negative in the statistical analysis. All HTLV-1/2-positive patients were born in Rio de Janeiro, most were non-Caucasian (87.5%), in a stable relationship (62.5%), had at least ten years of formal education (62.5%) and a monthly family income of up to US$600.00 (87.5%). There was only one case of coinfection with syphilis and none with HIV. The mean age of the infected women was 28.4 (SD = 6.3) years and of the seronegative ones was 24.8 (SD = 6.5) (p = 0.10). The median number of pregnancies were 3.0 and 1.0 (p = 0.06) and the median number of sexual partners were 3.5 and 3.0 (p = 0.33) in the seropositive and negative groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusions/Significance A significant prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was found in our population. The socio-epidemiological profile of carrier mothers was similar to the controls. Such findings expose the need for a public health policy of routine HTLV-1/2 screening in antenatal care, since counselling and preventive measures are the only strategies currently available to interrupt the chain of transmission and the future development of HTLV-1/2-related diseases.
Situation analysis as indicator of food security in low-income rural communities
WH Oldewage-Theron, SS Duvenage, AA Egal
Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences /Tydskrif vir Gesinsekologie en Verbruikerswetenskappe , 2012,
Abstract: Chronic malnutrition was identified in a low-income rural Qwa-Qwa community. To verify the situation in the broader region, socio-demographic and economic determinants, dietary intake, and nutritional status were investigated as indicators of household and individual food security in three additional communities. A cross-sectional baseline survey was conducted. A socio-demographic and economic questionnaire (n=271, both genders), a structured 24-hour recall questionnaire (n=383 female caregivers), and anthropometric measurements for body weight, height and waist circumference (n=207 female caregivers), were applied. Households were mostly single-headed (51,5%), and characterised by a high level of unemployment (caregivers 75,7%, spouses 67,5%), larger than average household size (4,9 persons) and limited income (≤ZAR1500/month/household to meet all needs). A mainly staple-based diet was consumed, consisting of maize meal (88%), sugar (60%) and tea (50%). The extensive limitations reported in variety and quantities of food consumed compromised intake of most nutrients. Most respondents were either overweight (26%) or obese (41,9%). The limitation in resources for obtaining appropriate foods for a nutritious diet signified compromised access to food. Insufficient food was available for consumption at household level, which jeopardised nutritional intake at individual level. The food situation of households and individuals in these communities is insecure.
Disordered Microbial Communities in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Cigarette Smokers  [PDF]
Emily S. Charlson,Jun Chen,Rebecca Custers-Allen,Kyle Bittinger,Hongzhe Li,Rohini Sinha,Jennifer Hwang,Frederic D. Bushman,Ronald G. Collman
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0015216
Abstract: Cigarette smokers have an increased risk of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract. Some effects of smoking on specific respiratory tract bacteria have been described, but the consequences for global airway microbial community composition have not been determined. Here, we used culture-independent high-density sequencing to analyze the microbiota from the right and left nasopharynx and oropharynx of 29 smoking and 33 nonsmoking healthy asymptomatic adults to assess microbial composition and effects of cigarette smoking. Bacterial communities were profiled using 454 pyrosequencing of 16S sequence tags (803,391 total reads), aligned to 16S rRNA databases, and communities compared using the UniFrac distance metric. A Random Forest machine-learning algorithm was used to predict smoking status and identify taxa that best distinguished between smokers and nonsmokers. Community composition was primarily determined by airway site, with individuals exhibiting minimal side-of-body or temporal variation. Within airway habitats, microbiota from smokers were significantly more diverse than nonsmokers and clustered separately. The distributions of several genera were systematically altered by smoking in both the oro- and nasopharynx, and there was an enrichment of anaerobic lineages associated with periodontal disease in the oropharynx. These results indicate that distinct regions of the human upper respiratory tract contain characteristic microbial communities that exhibit disordered patterns in cigarette smokers, both in individual components and global structure, which may contribute to the prevalence of respiratory tract complications in this population.
Livelihood Strategies and Rural Income: The Case of Fishing Communities in Kainji Lake Basin Nigeria
A.A. Tafida,A.A. Adebayo,M. Galtima,A. Raji,M. Jimme,C.T. John
Agricultural Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.3923/aj.2011.259.263
Abstract: Rural communities in Nigeria have suffered some neglect in terms of development over the years. Most of these communities are isolated and the community members are dependent mostly on the natural resource base for their survival and well-being. Fishing communities in Kainji Lake Basin (KLB) are not exceptional to that fact and their major resource base (fishery) is fast depleting due to poor management and over exploitation. The effect of resource decline does not only stop at poor catch but translates to poor income and poor well-being of fishing households. Livelihood diversification has been identified as a good option that lessens vulnerability, enhance well-being and improve rural economy. This study highlights the contributions of various livelihood activities and the best activity combination from empirical data collected from 30 fishing communities selected from 297 communities using stratification technique. Production function model and descriptive statistics were used for the analysis.
Longitudinal study of acute respiratory diseases in Rio de Janeiro: occurrence of respiratory viruses during four consecutive years
Nascimento, Jussara P.;Siqueira, Marilda M.;Sutmoller, Frits;Krawczuk, Murilo M.;Farias, Vivian de;Ferreira, Vanja;Rodrigues, Maria José;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1991, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651991000400008
Abstract: the occurrence of different viruses in nasopharyngeal secretions from children less than 5 years old with acute respiratory infections (ari) was investigated over a period of 4 years (1982-1985) in rio de janeiro. of the viruses known to be associated with ari, all but influenza c and parainfluenza types 1, 2 and 4 were found. viruses were found more frequently in children attending emergency or pediatric wards than in outpatients. this was clearly related to the high incidence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in the more severe cases of ari. rsv positive specimens appeared mainly during the fall, over four consecutive years, showing a clear seasonal ocurrence of this virus. emergency wards provide the best source of data for rsv surveillance, showing sharp increase in the number of positive cases coinciding with increased incidence of ari cases. adenovirus were the second most frequent viruses isolated and among these serotypes 1,2 and 7 were predominant. influenza virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 were next in frequency. influenza a virus were isolated with equal frequency in outpatient departments, emergency and pediatric wards. influenza b was more frequent among outpatients. parainfluenza type 3 caused outbreaks in the shanty town population annually during the late winter or spring and were isolated mainly from outpatients. herpesvirus, enterovi-rus and rhinovirus were found less frequently. other viruses than rsv and parainfluenza type 3 did not show a clear seasonal incidence.
Differences in perceptions and fast food eating behaviours between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods of Chandigarh, India  [cached]
Aloia Christopher Robert,Gasevic Danijela,Yusuf Salim,Teo Koon
Nutrition Journal , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-4
Abstract: Background Increased density of fast food restaurants is associated with increased prevalence of obesity in developed countries. However, less is known about this relationship in developing countries undergoing rapid urbanization and how differences in neighbourhood income affect the patronage of fast food outlets. The purpose of the study is to explore the differences in fast food preferences, perceptions, and patronage between Indians living in high- and low-income neighbourhoods. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 204 men and women (35 to 65 years in age) from high- and low-income neighbourhoods who completed a questionnaire on fast food consumption. The questionnaire asked participants to define fast food and to provide reasons for and frequency of visits to fast food restaurants. The differences were analyzed using Chi square and t-tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Results Participants from a high-income neighbourhood were more likely to perceive Western -style fast food as fast food, while people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to identify food sold by street vendors as fast food (p <0.001). Furthermore, compared to participants from the high-income neighbourhood, people from the low-income neighbourhood were more likely to report buying food from street vendors while less likely to dine out at both fast food and non-fast food restaurants (p<0.001). Although the high-income neighbourhood group was more likely to report enjoying eating at fast food restaurants than their low-income neighbourhood counterparts, there were no significant differences in the reasons for visiting fast food restaurants (convenience, price, social enjoyment, and quality of meals) between the two groups. Both groups preferred home cooked over restaurant meals, and they recognized that home cooked food was healthier. Conclusions Overall, consumption of fast food was low. People from a high-income neighbourhood dined out more frequently and were more likely to perceive Western-style food as fast food compared to their counterparts from the low-income neighbourhood.
Nutritional status of children of urban low-income communities, Brazil (1986)
Molina,Maria Carmen Bisi; Gross,Rainer; Schell,Bernd; Le?o,Maria Antonia Cuelho; Strack,Ulrike; Brunken,Brunke;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101989000200002
Abstract: during the second half of 1986 the health and nutritional status of 254 children aged up to six years was studied, as well as the socio-economic situation of their parents in two favelas (shantytowns) in belo horizonte, brazil. the nutritional status of the children was characterized by stunting (z-score: 20.1% < -2) but not by wasting (z-score: 3.7% < -2). consideration was also given to how far stunting was caused by high morbidity such as acute respiratory infections (point prevalence: 38.5%), diarrheal diseases (point prevalence: 11.5%) and parasitosis (point prevalence: 70.3%). furthermore, anemia (point prevalence: 29.7%) appeared as another health problem. the most important determinant of anthropometric indices turned out to be the mother's schooling. from the present data it can be hypothesized that the nutritional status of the children was limited less by the lack of food than by their poor health status.
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