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External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) under scanning electron microscopy
Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa;Queiroz, Raul Guerra de;Ward, Richard Douglas;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762001000800013
Abstract: in the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (lutzomyia longipalpis, l. migonei, l. evandroi, l. lenti, l. sericea, l. whitmani and l. intermedia) of the state of ceará, brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. the antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. a prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus nyssomyia. the taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. the papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.
External morphology of sensory structures of fourth instar larvae of neotropical species of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) under scanning electron microscopy  [cached]
Pessoa Felipe Arley Costa,Queiroz Raul Guerra de,Ward Richard Douglas
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2001,
Abstract: In the present study, some morphological structures of antennae, maxillary palps and caudal setae of fourth instar larvae of laboratory-reared phlebotomine sand flies (Lutzomyia longipalpis, L. migonei, L. evandroi, L. lenti, L. sericea, L. whitmani and L. intermedia) of the State of Ceará, Brazil, were examined under scanning electron microscopy. The antennal structures exhibited considerable variation in the morphology and position. A prominent digitiform distal segment has been observed only on the antenna of species of the subgenus Nyssomyia. The taxonomic relevance of this and other antennal structure is discussed. The papiliform structures found in the maxillae and the porous structures of the caudal setae of all species examined may have chemosensory function. Further studies with transmission electron microscopy are needed to better understand the physiological function of these external structures.
Relationships of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera)
Williams, Paul;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1993, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761993000200001
Abstract: the status of phlebotomine sand flies in relationship to the family psychodidae (diptera) is reviewed. it is concluded that sand flies should be given familial recognition as phlebotomidae, divided into subfamilies phlebotominae and bruchomyiinae. a comparison is made between the evolution of psychodidae and phlebotomidae, and it is concluded that the two families represent contrasting evolutionary experiments at an early stage of the diversification of diptera.
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in the State of Pernambuco
Dantas-Torres, Filipe;Andrade, Andrey José de;Tenório, Klaudia Emanuela Ramos;Andrade Filho, José Dilermando;Balbino, Valdir de Queiroz;Brand?o-Filho, Sinval Pinto;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822010000600028
Abstract: introduction: phlebotomine sand flies are small insects of great medical relevance. this article presents an updated list of the phlebotomine sand flies occurring in the state of pernambuco, brazil. methods: a review of literature published since the 1940s up to may 2010 was conducted and voucher material deposited in reference collections were studied. results: a total of 37 phlebotomine species have previously been reported as occurring in pernambuco, but the record of six species needs confirmation. conclusions: this work provides an updated list of phlebotomine sand flies of pernambuco, with some notes on their taxonomy, ecology, distribution and epidemiological relevance.
Bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the province of Al-Baha, Saudi Arabia
Doha, Said Abdallah;Samy, Abdallah M;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02762010000700002
Abstract: the bionomics of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) were studied for two successive years (january 1996-december 1997) at 12 collecting stations representing six sectors of the province of al-baha, saudi arabia. the predominant species was phlebotomus bergeroti (41.7%), followed by lesser numbers of phlebotomus sergenti (11%), phlebotomus arabicus (10.6%), sergentomyia tiberiadis (10.5%), phlebotomus papatasi (10.2%), sergentomyia antennata (9.6%), phlebotomus alexandri (3%), phlebotomus orientalis (2.3%) and sergentomyia clydei (1.1%). the distribution of the collected species including species that are elsewhere known to act as vectors of human cutaneous leishmaniasis were distributed across different altitudes in al-baha. p. bergeroti, p. papatasi and p. arabicus were more abundant indoors; however, p. sergenti was more abundant outdoors. sand fly populations exhibited three patterns of seasonal abundance in terms of their monthly activity. p. bergeroti, p. sergenti and p. arabicus were found to be naturally infected with leishmania-like flagellates at an infection rate of 0.2%.
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil
Andrade, Andrey J de;Dantas-Torres, Filipe;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000100016
Abstract: the phlebotomine sand fly fauna of the state of minas gerais is presented based on an extensive review of the literature. the fauna, which is a rich one, is currently known to consist of at least 93 species included in 16 genera. the genus evandromyia (16 spp.) is the most representative one, followed by micropygomyia (13 spp.), psathyromyia (12 spp.), brumptomyia (11 spp.), pintomyia (9 spp.), lutzomyia (7 spp.), psychodopygus (7 spp.), martinsmyia (4 spp.), nyssomyia (3 spp.), deanemyia (2 spp.), expapillata (2 spp.), pressatia (2 spp.), and sciopemyia (2 spp.). the genera bichromomyia, trichopygomyia, and migonemyia are represented by only one species. an updated list of phlebotomine sand fly species occurring in minas gerais is provided. finally, the importance of the species of public health concern is discussed.
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) of Alagoas state, northeast of Brazil
Andrade Filho, José D;Brazil, Reginaldo P;
Neotropical Entomology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2009000500022
Abstract: the phlebotomine sandflies of the state of alagoas are poorly known, with more than 40 years since the last report on sandflies in the state. in here, psathyromyia brasiliensis (costa lima), micropygomyia quinquefer (dyar,) and evandromyia termitophila (martins, falc?o & silva) are registered for the first time in alagoas. this report increases to nine the number of species collected in the state, including lutzomyia longipalpis (lutz & neiva), migonemyia migonei (fran?a), nyssomyia whitmani (antunes & coutinho) and nyssomyia intermedia (lutz & neiva), all vectors of leishmania in brazil.
Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the province of Chaco, Argentina
Rosa, Juan R;Salomon, Oscar D;Andrade Filho, José D;Carvalho, Gustavo M L;Szelag, Enrique A;Stein, Marina;Tapia, Eliana S;Brazil, Reginaldo P;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000200024
Abstract: the phlebotomine sandflies of the province of chaco, argentina, are poorly known, with reports from more than 40 years or captures related with outbreaks of leishmaniasis. in here, mycropygomyia peresi (mangabeira) is reported for the first time in argentina, extending the known dstribution of migonemyia migonei (fran?a), evandromyia sallesi (galv?o & coutinho), mycropygomyia quinquefer (dyar), brumptomyia brumpti (larousse) y nemapalpus spp to the province of chaco. mg. migonei, together with nyssomyia neivai (pinto), evandromyia cortelezzii (brèthes), and psathyromyia shannoni (dyar) also captured in chaco, were incriminated as vectors of leishmania in argentina.
Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Iran and their Role on Leishmania Transmission  [cached]
MR Yaghoobi-Ershadi
Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases , 2012,
Abstract: Sand fly research has a long history in Iran beginning with the work of Adler, Theodor and Lourie in 1930 and followed by Mesghali’s foundational taxonomic work on sand flies in 1943. Since then, research has continued unabated throughout the country and official publications report the existence of at least 44 species of sand flies (26 of the genus Phlebotomus and 18 of genus Sergentomyia) in Iran. So far, seven Phlebotomus species and one Sergentomyia species have been collected and described by Iranian researchers for the first time. Natural promastigote infection have been repeatedly found in 13 species of sand flies and modern molecular techniques are used routinely to characterize Leishmania parasite isolates from endemic areas of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. Because of anthropogenic environmental modifications or human population movements, data on phlebotomine sand flies should be regularly updated and verified at least every five years by fieldwork and taxonomy in foci of leishmaniasis, to incriminate vector species of relevance to the ecology of transmission and to support development and implementation of control programs.
Diagnostic Importance of Female External Genital Structure of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera:Psychodidae) as Observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1997, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761997000100012
Abstract: morphological description of sand flies has remained a neglected area. the different organs used in taxonomy have not yet been described adequately with the scanning electron microscopy (sem). we have examined the external genital structures of females of three old world phlebotomine sand flies under sem and recorded the morphological variations of the organs. we have found the female external genital structures of the three species varied considerably in morphology. the importance of the female external genital structures in sand fly identification is indicated
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