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STAT3 Regulates MMP3 in Heme-Induced Endothelial Cell Apoptosis  [PDF]
Mingli Liu, Nana O. Wilson, Jacqueline M. Hibbert, Jonathan K. Stiles
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0071366
Abstract: Background We have previously reported that free Heme generated during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) in mice, is central to the pathogenesis of fatal ECM. Heme-induced up-regulation of STAT3 and CXCL10 promotes whereas up-regulation of HO-1 prevents brain tissue damage in ECM. We have previously demonstrated that Heme is involved in the induction of apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In the present study, we further tested the hypothesis that Heme reduces blood-brain barrier integrity during ECM by induction of apoptosis of brain vascular endothelial cells through STAT3 and its target gene matrix metalloproteinase three (MMP3) signaling. Methods Genes associated with the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway induced upon stimulation by Heme treatment, were assessed using real time RT2 Profile PCR arrays. A human MMP3 promoter was cloned into a luciferase reporter plasmid, pMMP3, and its activity was examined following exposure to Heme treatment by a luciferase reporter gene assay. In order to determine whether activated nuclear protein STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter and regulates MMP3 gene, we conducted a ChIP analysis using Heme-treated and untreated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBVEC), and determined mRNA and protein expression levels of MMP3 using qRT-PCR and Western blot. Apoptosis in HBVEC treated with Heme was evaluated by MTT and TUNEL assay. Results The results show that (1) Heme activates a variety of JAK/STAT3 downstream pathways in HBVEC. STAT3 targeted genes such as MMP3 and C/EBPb (Apoptosis-related genes), are up regulated in HBVEC treated with Heme. (2) Heme-induced HBVEC apoptosis via activation of STAT3 as well as its downstream signaling molecule MMP3 and upregulation of CXCL10 and HO-1 expressions. (3) Phosphorylated STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter in HBVEC cells, STAT3 transcribed MMP3 and induced MMP3 protein expression in HBVEC cells. Conclusions Activated STAT3 binds to the MMP3 promoter region and regulates MMP3 in Heme-induced endothelial cell apoptosis.
Complement activation in Ghanaian children with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria
Gideon K Helegbe, Bamenla Q Goka, Joergen AL Kurtzhals, Michael M Addae, Edwin Ollaga, John KA Tetteh, Daniel Dodoo, Michael F Ofori, George Obeng-Adjei, Kenji Hirayama, Gordon A Awandare, Bartholomew D Akanmori
Malaria Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-6-165
Abstract: The direct Coombs test (DCT) and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3bαβ) and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35) and decay accelerating factor (CD55)] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb) levels and RD were investigated.Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27%) were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8%) were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2%) were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2–6.7, p < 0.001). DCT correlated significantly with RD (β = -304, p = 0.006), but multiple regression analysis revealed that, Hb (β = -0.341, p = 0.012) and coma (β = -0.256, p = 0.034) were stronger predictors of RD than DCT (β = 0.228, p = 0.061). DCT was also not associated with IVH, p = 0.19, while spleen size was inversely correlated with Hb (r = -402, p = 0.001). Flow cytometry showed similar mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) values of CD35, CD55 and C3bαβ levels on the surfaces of RBC in patients and asymptomatic controls (AC). However, binding of C3bαβ correlated significantly with CD35 or CD55 (p < 0.001).These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement regulatory proteins, CD35 and CD55 and malarial anaemia. These findings suggest that complement activation could also be involved in the pathogenesis of RD but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.The mortality associated with malaria largely occurs in children as a result of complication
Chemical Probes that Competitively and Selectively Inhibit Stat3 Activation  [PDF]
Xuejun Xu, Moses M. Kasembeli, Xueqing Jiang, Benjamin J. Tweardy, David J. Tweardy
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004783
Abstract: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 is an oncogene constitutively activated in many cancer systems where it contributes to carcinogenesis. To develop chemical probes that selectively target Stat3, we virtually screened 920,000 small drug-like compounds by docking each into the peptide-binding pocket of the Stat3 SH2 domain, which consists of three sites—the pY-residue binding site, the +3 residue-binding site and a hydrophobic binding site, which served as a selectivity filter. Three compounds satisfied criteria of interaction analysis, competitively inhibited recombinant Stat3 binding to its immobilized pY-peptide ligand and inhibited IL-6-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3. These compounds were used in a similarity screen of 2.47 million compounds, which identified 3 more compounds with similar activities. Examination of the 6 active compounds for the ability to inhibit IFN-γ-mediated Stat1 phosphorylation revealed that 5 of 6 were selective for Stat3. Molecular modeling of the SH2 domains of Stat3 and Stat1 bound to compound revealed that compound interaction with the hydrophobic binding site was the basis for selectivity. All 5 selective compounds inhibited nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of Stat3, while 3 of 5 compounds induced apoptosis preferentially of breast cancer cell lines with constitutive Stat3 activation. Thus, virtual ligand screening of compound libraries that targeted the Stat3 pY-peptide binding pocket identified for the first time 3 lead compounds that competitively inhibited Stat3 binding to its pY-peptide ligand; these compounds were selective for Stat3 vs. Stat1 and induced apoptosis preferentially of breast cancer cells lines with constitutively activated Stat3.
Characterization of STAT3 activation and expression in canine and human osteosarcoma
Stacey L Fossey, Albert T Liao, Jennifer K McCleese, Misty D Bear, Jiayuh Lin, Pui-Kai Li, William C Kisseberth, Cheryl A London
BMC Cancer , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-9-81
Abstract: To examine STAT3 and Src expression in OSA, we performed Western blotting and RT-PCR. OSA cells were treated with either STAT3 siRNA or small molecule Src (SU6656) or STAT3 (LLL3) inhibitors and cell proliferation (CyQUANT), caspase 3/7 activity (ELISA), apoptosis (Western blotting for PARP cleavage) and/or viability (Wst-1) were determined. Additionally, STAT3 DNA binding after treatment was determined using EMSA. Expression of STAT3 targets after treatment was demonstrated with Western blotting, RT-PCR, or gel zymography.Our data demonstrate that constitutive activation of STAT3 is present in a subset of canine OSA tumors and human and canine cell lines, but not normal canine osteoblasts. In both canine and human OSA cell lines, downregulation of STAT3 activity through inhibition of upstream Src family kinases using SU6656, inhibition of STAT3 DNA binding and transcriptional activities using LLL3, or modulation of STAT3 expression using siRNA, all resulted in decreased cell proliferation and viability, ultimately inducing caspase-3/7 mediated apoptosis in treated cells. Furthermore, inhibition of either Src or STAT3 activity downregulated the expression of survivin, VEGF, and MMP2, all known transcriptional targets of STAT3.These data suggest that STAT3 activation contributes to the survival and proliferation of human and canine OSA cells, thereby providing a potentially promising target for therapeutic intervention. Future investigational trials of LLL3 in dogs with spontaneous OSA will help to more accurately define the role of STAT3 in the clinical setting.Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins comprise a family of transcription factors that play important roles in cell survival, growth, proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, metastasis, and angiogenesis [1-3]. Accumulating evidence suggests that constitutively activated STAT3 contributes to tumor development and progression in numerous forms of cancer including those of the brea
STAT3 Activation in Pressure-Overloaded Feline Myocardium: Role for Integrins and the Tyrosine Kinase BMX
Christopher D. Willey, Arun P. Palanisamy, Rebecca K. Johnston, Santhosh K. Mani, Hirokazu Shiraishi, William J. Tuxworth, Michael R. Zile, Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian, Dhandapani Kuppuswamy
International Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Growth, survival and cytoskeletal rearrangement of cardiomyocytes are critical for cardiac hypertrophy. Signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT3) activation is an important cardioprotective factor associated with cardiac hypertrophy. Although STAT3 activation has been reported via signaling through Janus Kinase 2 (JAK2) in several cardiac models of hypertrophy, the importance of other nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs) has not been explored. Utilizing an in vivo feline right ventricular pressure-overload (RVPO) model of hypertrophy, we demonstrate that in 48 h pressure-overload (PO) myocardium, STAT3 becomes phosphorylated and redistributed to detergent-insoluble fractions with no accompanying JAK2 activation. PO also caused increased levels of phosphorylated STAT3 in both cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. To investigate the role of other NTKs, we used our established in vitro cell culture model of hypertrophy where adult feline cardiomyocytes are embedded three-dimensionally (3D) in type-I collagen and stimulated with an integrin binding peptide containing an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) motif that we have previously shown to recapitulate the focal adhesion complex (FAC) formation of 48 h RVPO. RGD stimulation of adult cardiomyocytes in vitro caused both STAT3 redistribution and activation that were accompanied by the activation and redistribution of c-Src and the TEC family kinase, BMX, but not JAK2. However, infection with dominant negative c-Src adenovirus was unable to block RGD-stimulated changes on either STAT3 or BMX. Further analysis in vivo in 48 h PO myocardium showed the presence of both STAT3 and BMX in the detergent-insoluble fraction with their complex formation and phosphorylation. Therefore, these studies indicate a novel mechanism of BMX-mediated STAT3 activation within a PO model of cardiac hypertrophy that might contribute to cardiomyocyte growth and survival.
Raf Kinase Inhibitor Protein (RKIP) Blocks Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) Activation in Breast and Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
Saad Yousuf, MeiLi Duan, Erika L. Moen, Sam Cross-Knorr, Kate Brilliant, Benjamin Bonavida, Theresa LaValle, Kam C. Yeung, Fahd Al-Mulla, Eugene Chin, Devasis Chatterjee
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092478
Abstract: Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) is a member of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding-protein (PEBP) family that modulates the action of many kinases involved in cellular growth, apoptosis, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, motility, invasion and metastasis. Previously, we described an inverse association between RKIP and signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. In this study, we elucidated the mechanism by which RKIP regulates STAT3 activity in breast and prostate cancer cell lines. RKIP over expression inhibited c-Src auto-phosphorylation and activation, as well as IL-6-, JAK1 and 2-, and activated Raf-mediated STAT3 tyrosine and serine phosphorylation and subsequent activation. In MDA-231 breast cancer cells that stably over express RKIP, IL-6 treatment blocked STAT3 phosphorylation and transcriptional activation. Conversely, in RKIP knockdown MDA-231 cells: STAT3 phosphorylation and activation increased in comparison to parental MDA-231 cells. RKIP over expression resulted in constitutive physical interaction with STAT3 and blocked c-Src and STAT3 association. The treatment of DU145 prostate, but not PC3 prostate or MDA-231 breast, cancer cell lines with ENMD-1198 or MKC-1 dramatically increased expression of RKIP. Overexpression of RKIP sensitized PC3 and MDA-231 cells to MTI-induced apoptosis. Moreover, MTI treatment resulted in a decrease in Src-mediated STAT3 tyrosine phosphorylation and activation, an effect that was significantly enhanced by RKIP over expression. In stable RKIP over expressing MDA-231 cells, tumor xenograft growth induced by activated STAT3 is inhibited. RKIP synergizes with MTIs to induce apoptosis and inhibit STAT3 activation of breast and prostate cancer cells. RKIP plays a critical role in opposing the effects of pro-oncogenic STAT3 activation.
A Molecular Model for the Differential Activation of STAT3 and STAT6 by the Herpesviral Oncoprotein Tip  [PDF]
Eman Dey Mazumder, Christophe Jardin, Benjamin Vogel, Elke Heck, Brigitte Scholz, Doris Lengenfelder, Heinrich Sticht, Armin Ensser
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034306
Abstract: Constitutive STAT signaling provides growth promoting signals in many forms of malignancy. We performed molecular modeling and molecular dynamics studies of the interaction between the regulatory Src homology 2 (SH2) domains of STAT3 and 6 with phosphorylated peptides of the herpesviral oncoprotein Tip, which facilitates Src kinase mediated STAT-activation and T cell proliferation. The studies give insight into the ligand binding specificity of the STAT SH2 domains and provide the first model for the differential activation of STAT3 or STAT6 by two distinct regions of the viral Tip protein. The biological relevance of the modeled interactions was then confirmed by activation studies using corresponding recombinant oncoproteins, and finally by respective recombinant viruses. The functional data give experimental validation of the molecular dynamics study, and provide evidence for the involvement of STAT6 in the herpesvirus induced T cell proliferation.
CYLD Enhances Severe Listeriosis by Impairing IL-6/STAT3-Dependent Fibrin Production  [PDF]
Gopala Nishanth,Martina Deckert,Katharina Wex,Ramin Massoumi,Katrin Schweitzer,Michael Naumann,Dirk Schlüter
PLOS Pathogens , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003455
Abstract: The facultative intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) may cause severe infection in humans and livestock. Control of acute listeriosis is primarily dependent on innate immune responses, which are strongly regulated by NF-κB, and tissue protective factors including fibrin. However, molecular pathways connecting NF-κB and fibrin production are poorly described. Here, we investigated whether the deubiquitinating enzyme CYLD, which is an inhibitor of NF-κB-dependent immune responses, regulated these protective host responses in murine listeriosis. Upon high dose systemic infection, all C57BL/6 Cyld?/? mice survived, whereas 100% of wildtype mice succumbed due to severe liver pathology with impaired pathogen control and hemorrhage within 6 days. Upon in vitro infection with Lm, CYLD reduced NF-κB-dependent production of reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-6 secretion, and control of bacteria in macrophages. Furthermore, Western blot analyses showed that CYLD impaired STAT3-dependent fibrin production in cultivated hepatocytes. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that CYLD interacted with STAT3 in the cytoplasm and strongly reduced K63-ubiquitination of STAT3 in IL-6 stimulated hepatocytes. In addition, CYLD diminished IL-6-induced STAT3 activity by reducing nuclear accumulation of phosphorylated STAT3. In vivo, CYLD also reduced hepatic STAT3 K63-ubiquitination and activation, NF-κB activation, IL-6 and NOX2 mRNA production as well as fibrin production in murine listeriosis. In vivo neutralization of IL-6 by anti-IL-6 antibody, STAT3 by siRNA, and fibrin by warfarin treatment, respectively, demonstrated that IL-6-induced, STAT3-mediated fibrin production significantly contributed to protection in Cyld?/? mice. In addition, in vivo Cyld siRNA treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation, fibrin production, pathogen control and survival of Lm-infected WT mice illustrating that therapeutic inhibition of CYLD augments the protective NF-κB/IL-6/STAT3 pathway and fibrin production.
Heme on innate immunity and inflammation  [PDF]
Fabianno F. Dutra,Marcelo T. Bozza
Frontiers in Pharmacology , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2014.00115
Abstract: Heme is an essential molecule expressed ubiquitously all through our tissues. Heme plays major functions in cellular physiology and metabolism as the prosthetic group of diverse proteins. Once released from cells and from hemeproteins free heme causes oxidative damage and inflammation, thus acting as a prototypic damage-associated molecular pattern. In this context, free heme is a critical component of the pathological process of sterile and infectious hemolytic conditions including malaria, hemolytic anemias, ischemia-reperfusion, and hemorrhage. The plasma scavenger proteins hemopexin and albumin reduce heme toxicity and are responsible for transporting free heme to intracellular compartments where it is catabolized by heme-oxygenase enzymes. Upon hemolysis or severe cellular damage the serum capacity to scavenge heme may saturate and increase free heme to sufficient amounts to cause tissue damage in various organs. The mechanism by which heme causes reactive oxygen generation, activation of cells of the innate immune system and cell death are not fully understood. Although heme can directly promote lipid peroxidation by its iron atom, heme can also induce reactive oxygen species generation and production of inflammatory mediators through the activation of selective signaling pathways. Heme activates innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils through activation of innate immune receptors. The importance of these events has been demonstrated in infectious and non-infectious diseases models. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms behind heme-induced cytotoxicity and inflammation and the consequences of these events on different tissues and diseases.
Role of STAT3 in inflammatory bowel disease  [cached]
Ken Sugimoto
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2008,
Abstract: Signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) play an important role in various autoimmune disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have revealed that STAT3 activation plays distinctly different roles between innate immune responses and acquired immune responses in colitis. STAT3-mediated activation of acquired immune responses plays a pathogenic role in colitis by enhancing the survival of pathogenic T cells. In contrast, STAT3-mediated activation of innate responses contributes to the suppression of colitis. This review will summarize the current understanding of the roles of STAT3 in IBD and the potential of targeting STAT3 for the treatment of IBD, emphasizing recent observations.
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