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The Residential Demand for Electricity in the United States  [cached]
Hayden Neeland
Economic Analysis and Policy , 2009,
Abstract: This paper analyses historical data of residential electricity demand in the United States for the period 1970-2007. Such analysis is conducted through an ADF unit root test, Johansen test and a rolling regression. The results indicate that the primary driver of adjustments in electricity consumption is the own price elasticity of demand and growth in real income per capita.
Simulation of Thermal Comfort of a Residential House
Masine Md. Tap,Haslinda Mohamed Kamar,Abdul Kadir Marsono,Nazri Kamsah
International Journal of Computer Science Issues , 2011,
Abstract: In hot and humid climates thermal comfort can become a problem to the occupants of many residential buildings especially when they are not equipped with air-conditioning system. This paper presents outcomes of an ongoing research work to investigate thermal comfort level in a naturally ventilated residential house in Malaysia using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Actual measurements of the temperature distribution, relative humidity and air flow pattern were conducted. CFD simulations on the model of the house allow us to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The thermal comfort in the house was found to be well outside the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the middle of the hall section and rotating at 150 RPM. It was found that the fan produced swirling flow pattern in the hall section resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution inside the house. However, there is no significant improvement in the thermal comfort level in the house. Results of CFD simulations also show that the use of small extractor fans installed on the front and back walls has no significant effects on the thermal comfort level in the house. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers and engineers to further improved the level of thermal comfort in residential houses in hot and humid climates that are naturally ventilated.
Pricing Residential Electricity Based on Individual Consumption Behaviors  [PDF]
Siddharth Patel,Raffi Sevlian,Baosen Zhang,Ram Rajagopal
Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1109/PESGM.2014.6939793
Abstract: The conventional practice of retail electric utilities is to aggregate customers geographically. The utility purchases electricity for its customers via bulk transactions on the wholesale market, and it passes these costs along to its customers, the end consumers, through their rate plan. Typically, all residential consumers are offered the same per unit rate plan, which leads to cost sharing. Some consumers use their electricity at peak hours, when it is more expensive on the wholesale market, and others consume mostly at off peak hours, when it is cheaper, but they all enjoy the same per unit rate through their utility. This paper proposed a method for the utility to segment a population of consumers on the basis of their individual consumption patterns. An optimal recruitment algorithm was developed to aggregate consumers into groups with a relatively low per unit cost of electricity on the wholesale market. It was then proposed that the utility should group together enough consumers to ensure an adequately low forecast error, which is related to risks it faces in wholesale market transactions. Finally, it was shown that by repeated application of this process, the utility could segment the entire population into groups and offer them differentiated rate plans based on their actual consumption behavior. These groupings are stable in the sense that no one consumer can unilaterally improve her outcome.
International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET) , 2016,
Abstract: The current construction practices require a great effort to balance the factors such as money, time and quality. Comparing with other industries it seemed that construction industry remains the toughest one to deal with. It is proven that certain modern techniques can be easily adapted to the project to balance the factors above said. Value engineering is an efficient tool among them for fostering the construction quality with an aim of low cost and high services. The value engineering study is carried out with analysis of basic functions of the project and based on that analysis unwanted elements in the project are scrutinized and eliminated. The function analysis is carried out with the help of FAST tool and the projects study deals with a step by step process. This thesis deals with implementing the value engineering concepts in a residential building project in order to reach out better quality with lower cost.
The Relationship between Residential Land Prices and House Prices in Lagos State, Nigeria
Gambo, Y. L.,Nubi, T. G.
International Journal of Economic Development Research and Investment , 2011,
Abstract: This study focused on the relationship between residential land prices and house prices in Lagos State, Nigeria. It examined whether high land prices in urban areas cause high property prices or whether high property prices leads to high land prices. Lagos was considered in the study as one of the cities in Nigeria with glaring high land and landed property transactions. The hypotheses are based on neoclassical theory of land rent and Ricardiant rent theory. The study was an applied research to establish relationships and test existing theories in practical setting. Land and house prices were collected from records of land and house sales in 19 different locations from published records of professional estate surveying and valuation firms and property development companies in the study area. The prices of house (dependent variables) were regressed against land prices (independent variables) using correlation regression model and one sample t-test was used to test the hypotheses. It was found that land prices influenced house prices significantly but there was no relationship to show that high house prices influence land prices. This shows a significant departure from Ricardiant rent theory. The study therefore recommends that government should facilitate ease of access to land so as to enhance housing affordability to the citizenry as a social commodity by deregulating land market.
Impacts of Climate Change on Seasonal Residential Electricity Consumption by 2050 and Potential Adaptation Options in Alexandria Egypt  [PDF]
Mohamed Abdel Karim A. Abdrabo, Mahmoud Adel Hassaan, Hatem Abdelraouf
American Journal of Climate Change (AJCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2018.74035
Abstract: Climate change and associated more frequent, hot or cold, extreme/weather events, as well as increasing temperature may increase future residential demand for electricity for heating and cooling purposes. The paper in hand intends to assess potential impacts of increasing temperature attributed to climate change on seasonal residential electricity consumption in Alexandria city, Egypt. Additionally, it aims to identify and discuss potential soft and hard adaptation options to such impacts. For this purpose, seasonal changes in electricity consumption were investigated. For this purpose, data on monthly residential electricity consumption, population size and income levels at district level as well as maximum monthly temperature in Alexandria city, Egypt over the period 2007-2016 were collected. This is followed by developing a panel-data model to simulate influence of temperature on residential electricity consumption. It was found that there is a significant growth trend over the study period as well as considerable seasonal variation with summer season experienced significant increase in consumption. It was found that increasing temperature, under RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5, may contribute to significant increase in residential summer electricity consumption by 2050. Different adaptation options to such an increase in consumption, both soft and hard, have been identified and assessed.
Association of House Dust Allergen Concentrations With Residential Conditions in City and in Rural Houses
Aleksandra Wardzyńska, Barbara Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Jolanta Pe?ka, Leszek Korzon, Magdalena Kacza?a, Marzanna Jarz?bska, Tomasz Gwardys, Marek L Kowalski
World Allergy Organization Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1097/wox.0b013e3182447fa8
Abstract: Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing.Concentrations of mite allergens were lower, and cat and dog allergen levels were higher in urban houses. Fel d1 and Can f1 levels depended on the presence of a respective animal in the house. In urban houses, Der p1 + Der f1 concentration was lower in households with central heating, whereas Can f1 concentration was related to building age. Multivariate analyses revealed that the concentrations of house dust mite and dog allergens were associated with relative humidity, number of people in the household, and the presence of a dog at home. There was no significant association between allergen level and sensitization or atopic diseases.Concentrations of indoor allergens in urban and rural houses differ significantly, and residential conditions associated with allergen levels seem to be different in both environments.
Moving from Outsider to Insider: Peer Status and Partnerships between Electricity Utilities and Residential Consumers  [PDF]
Peter Morris, Laurie Buys, Desley Vine
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101189
Abstract: An electricity demand reduction project based on comprehensive residential consumer engagement was established within an Australian community in 2008. By 2011, both the peak demand and grid supplied electricity consumption had decreased to below pre-intervention levels. This case study research explored the relationship developed between the utility, community and individual consumer from the residential customer perspective through qualitative research of 22 residential households. It is proposed that an energy utility can be highly successful at peak demand reduction by becoming a community member and a peer to residential consumers and developing the necessary trust, access, influence and partnership required to create the responsive environment to change. A peer-community approach could provide policymakers with a pathway for implementing pro-environmental behaviour for low carbon communities, as well as peak demand reduction, thereby addressing government emission targets while limiting the cost of living increases from infrastructure expenditure.
Electricity Cost Minimization for a Residential Smart Grid with Distributed Generation and Bidirectional Power Transactions  [PDF]
Yi Liu,Naveed Ul Hassan,Shisheng Huang,Chau Yuen
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: In this paper, we consider the electricity cost minimization problem in a residential network where each community is equipped with a distributed power generation source and every household in the community has a set of essential and shiftable power demands. We allow bi-directional power transactions and assume a two-tier pricing model for the buying and selling of electricity from the grid. In this situation, in order to reduce the cost of electricity we are required to make, 1) Scheduling decisions for the shiftable demands, 2) The decisions on the amount of energy purchased from the gird by the users, 3) The decisions on the amount of energy sold to the grid by the users. We formulate a global centralized optimization problem and obtain the optimal amount of electricity consumed, sold and purchased for each household, respectively by assuming the availability of all current and future values of time-varying parameters. In reality, the lack of perfect information hampers the implementation of such global centralized optimization. Hence, we propose a distributed online algorithm which only requires the current values of the timevarying supply and demand processes. We then compare and determine the tradeoff between both formulations. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes can provide effective management for household electricity usage.
DYNA , 2010,
Abstract: in this document is presented the implementation of the programming schedules as a method of lighting control, to perform a total saving and a personalized saving using neural networks. with the acquisition of a series of data about the operation of five lightings located in different parts of a specific house, it was designed a neural network to illuminate it and was implemented this design to the remaining. these neural networks were trained with input vectors; hour of the day, day of the week, holiday monday's and their respective objective vectors "total saving and personalized saving" with the purpose of evaluating the performance of the neural networks in the optimization of methods for saving electric energy in residential lighting.
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