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Comparison of Chest HRCT in Inspiration and Expiration of patients with Chemical Gas Exposure
Kh. Bakhtavar
Iranian Journal of Radiology , 2005,
Abstract: Background/Objectives: Chemical weapon agents (CWA) including Sulfur Mustard (SM), were com-monly used in the Iran-Iraq war and pulmonary complications are known to occur in over half of the exposed patients. Previous studies showed that HRCT in inspiration was normal in most of the patients. In this study comparison between the HRCT findings in deep inspiration and full expiration was carried out. Materials and Method: HRCT in deep inspiration and full expiration in 473 patients with history of chemi-cal gas exposure during the war was performed and the results were compared. The study was prospective during one year since 1382 to 1383. Results: In our study, 366 patients (77%) showed normal HRCT in deep inspiration, however in corre-sponding expiration cuts, 54% showed abnormal findings, from which, patchy air trapping was the most common (78%). Other findings in our study were pulmonary fibrotic changes (30%), emphysema (19%), and bronchiectasis (10%). Conclusion: Exposure to SM has pulmonary compli-cations and results in disability in the affected pa-tients. HRCT is normal only in inspiration in most of the affected patients; expiratory HRCT showed patchy air trapping as the most common finding which is suggestive of bronchiolitis obliterans. There-fore, HRCT should be advised to be done both in deep inspiration and full expiration in patients with history of CWA exposure.
Effects of Anxin Granules on blood lipid and ultrastructure of aorta in rabbits with dyslipidemia  [cached]
FANG Xian-Ming
Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao , 2005,
Abstract: Objective: To study the effects of Anxin Granules on dyslipidemia in rabbits caused by high fat plus high cholesterol diet. Methods: Thirty-two healthy New Zealand male white rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, untreated group, Zhibituo Tablet-treated group and Anxin Granule-treated group. Rabbits in the normal control group were fed with regular chow, while rabbits in the other three groups were fed with high fat plus high cholesterol diet. Zhibituo Tablets and Anxin Granules were administered to the rabbits in Zhibituo Tablet-treated group and Anxin Granule-treated group at a daily oral dose respectively. At the end of the 10th week, the levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) were tested in each group, and the ultrastructures of the aorta were also observed by an electron microscope. Results: Anxin Granules could reduce the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C and ApoB. The results observed by electron microscope showed that, as compared with the untreated group and the Zhibituo Tablet-treated group, the atherosclerosis of aorta in the Anxin Granule-treated group was lighter. And it was found that there were few lipid droplet vacuoles in cytoplasm of the endothelial cells, and various cell organs and elastic membrane were existed, but no lipid droplet vacuoles in cytoplasm of the medial smooth muscle cells. Conclusion: Anxin Granules can regulate the metabolism of blood lipid and inhibit the formation of atherosclerosis caused by hyperlipidemia in rabbits.
Inhalant Dependence and its Medical Consequences  [PDF]
Mehmet Hamid Bozta?
Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar , 2010,
Abstract: The term of inhalants is used for matters easily vapors. Inhalants are preferred for rapid, positive reinforcement and mild high effects. Products including inhalants are cheap, accessible, legal substances and are prevalently used in community. The prevalence of inhalant use in secondary schools in Turkey is about 5.1%. Inhalant substance dependence is generally observed within 14-15 age group. Age at first use could be as low as 5 to 6 years of age. Substance dependence is more probable in adults working in substance existing places. Inhalant usage is common in disadvantaged groups, children living in street, people with history of crimes, prison, depression, suicide, antisocial attitudes and conflict of family, history of abuse, violence and any other drug dependence and isolated populations. Inhalants are absorbed from lungs, after performing their quick and short effect metabolized by cytochrom P450 enzyme system except inhalant nitrites group which has a depressing effect like alcohol. In chronic use general atrophy, ventricular dilatation and wide sulcus were shown in cerebrum, cerebellum and pons by monitoring brain. Defects are mostly in periventricular, subcortical regions and in white matter. Demyelinization, hyperintensity, callosal slimming and wearing off in white and gray matter margins was also found. Ravages of brain shown by brain monitorisation are more and serious in inhalant dependence than in other dependences. It is important to decrease use of inhalants. Different approaches should be used for subcultures and groups in prevention. Prohibiting all the matters including inhalant is not practical as there are too many substances including inhalants. Etiquettes showing harmful materials can be used but this approach can also lead the children and adolescents recognize these substances easily.. Despite determintal effects of inhalant dependence, there are not yet sufficient number of studies conducted on prevention and treatment. Future studies should focus on these issues. As majority of inhalant users are adolescents who are living in streets, identification of these groups in detail could be beneficial for planning and implementation of future interventions.
Workplace Inhalant Abuse in Adult Female: Brief Report
Rohit Verma,Yatan Pal Singh Balhara,Smita N. Deshpande
Case Reports in Psychiatry , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/905380
Abstract: Inhalant abuse is the purposeful inhalation of intoxicating gases and vapors for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. With its propensity for being yet an under-recognized form of substance use, being gateway to hard substances, cross-cultural penetration crossing socioeconomic boundaries, and causing significant morbidity and mortality in early ages, the prevention of inhalant misuse is a highly pertinent issue. This clinical report identifies a newer perspective in the emergence of inhalant abuse initiation. We report a case of an adult female with late onset of inhalant dependence developing at workplace and recommend for greater awareness, prevention, and management of this expanding substance abuse problem.
The prevalence and clinical significance of inhalant withdrawal symptoms among a national sample  [cached]
Perron BE,Glass JE,Ahmedani BK,Vaughn MG
Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation , 2011,
Abstract: Brian E Perron1, Joseph E Glass2, Brian K Ahmedani3, Michael G Vaughn4, Daniel E Roberts1, Li-Tzy Wu51University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Washington University, St Louis, MO, USA; 3Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI, USA; 4St Louis University, St Louis, MO, USA; 5Duke University, Durham, NC, USABackground: Inhalants are among the most common and dangerous forms of substance use, but very little research on inhalant use disorders exist. Unlike other substances, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) indicates that inhalants do not have an associated withdrawal syndrome among persons who meet criteria for inhalant dependence.Methods: Using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, this study examines the prevalence of withdrawal symptoms among inhalant users. Prevalence of inhalant withdrawal symptoms for inhalants was also compared with the prevalence of cocaine withdrawal symptoms to help determine the presence of an inhalant withdrawal syndrome.Results: Approximately 47.8% of persons who met criteria for inhalant dependence reported experiencing three or more inhalant-related withdrawal symptoms that were clinically significant. Among those with inhalant dependence, almost half of the withdrawal symptoms were as common as the corresponding withdrawal symptoms experienced by persons with cocaine dependence. Furthermore, the percentage of persons with inhalant dependence reporting clinically significant inhalant withdrawal symptoms was almost equal to the percentage of persons with cocaine dependence reporting clinically significant cocaine withdrawal symptoms.Conclusions: These data provide evidence for an inhalant-related withdrawal syndrome among persons with inhalant dependence. Revisions to DSM-IV should consider including inhalant withdrawal as a diagnostic criterion for this disorder.Keywords: Inhalants, volatile solvents, withdrawal, inhalant use disorders
Inhalant abuse by adolescents: A new challenge for Indian physicians  [cached]
Basu Debasish,Jhirwal Om,Singh Jaspreet,Kumar Suresh
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences , 2004,
Abstract: Inhalant abuse has been commonly reported especially in the young during the last decades globally. The reason for the relative paucity of literature from India may be attributed to a lack of knowledge about this growing problem among health professionals. A series of five cases of inhalant abuse is described in order to understand this growing public health concern. Most of the cases started inhalant abuse during adolescence. All patients except one abused typewriter erasing fluid and thinner which contains toluene. All the patients reported using inhalants as addictive substance because of their easy accessibility, cheap price, their faster onset of action and the regular ′high′ that it provided. Whereas several features of inhalant dependence were fulfilled, no physical withdrawal signs were observed. The diagnosis of inhalant abuse can be difficult and relies almost entirely on clinical judgment. Treatment is generally supportive.
Crackle Pitch Rises Progressively during Inspiration in Pneumonia, CHF, and IPF Patients  [PDF]
Andrey Vyshedskiy,Raymond Murphy
Pulmonary Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/240160
Abstract: Objective. It is generally accepted that crackles are due to sudden opening of airways and that larger airways produce crackles of lower pitch than smaller airways do. As larger airways are likely to open earlier in inspiration than smaller airways and the reverse is likely to be true in expiration, we studied crackle pitch as a function of crackle timing in inspiration and expiration. Our goal was to see if the measurement of crackle pitch was consistent with this theory. Methods. Patients with a significant number of crackles were examined using a multichannel lung sound analyzer. These patients included 34 with pneumonia, 38 with heart failure, and 28 with interstitial fibrosis. Results. Crackle pitch progressively increased during inspirations in 79% of all patients. In these patients crackle pitch increased by approximately 40?Hz from the early to midinspiration and by another 40?Hz from mid to late-inspiration. In 10% of patients, crackle pitch did not change and in 11% of patients crackle pitch decreased. During expiration crackle pitch progressively decreased in 72% of patients and did not change in 28% of patients. Conclusion. In the majority of patients, we observed progressive crackle pitch increase during inspiration and decrease during expiration. Increased crackle pitch at larger lung volumes is likely a result of recruitment of smaller diameter airways. An alternate explanation is that crackle pitch may be influenced by airway tension that increases at greater lung volume. In any case improved understanding of the mechanism of production of these common lung sounds may help improve our understanding of pathophysiology of these disorders. 1. Introduction Crackles are intermittent short-lived sounds that emanate from the lung and are associated with pulmonary disorders including pneumonia (PN), congestive heart failure (CHF), and interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) [1–3]. The mechanism underlying crackle generation is not well understood, however, and the spectral, temporal, and spatial characteristics of crackles have not been well quantified. In this paper we characterized crackles in patients with PN, CHF, and IPF. We quantified these events using multiple microphones placed on the chest surface and we focused in particular on differences in pitch between crackles generated at different lung volumes. 2. Materials and Methods 2.1. Patients Selection Patients were selected for this study from a pool of patients who had undergone lung sound analysis as a part of a broader study of the correlation of disease processes with lung sounds
Effects of the Coupon Expiration Date and Stamp on Consumers’Value Perception of Coupons  [cached]
Hyung Seok Lee
International Journal of Business and Management , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n8p13
Abstract: This study examines the effects of the coupon expiration date and stamp on consumers’ perceived value of coupons. The causal relationships were analyzed using data collected from consumers, and the impacts of the coupon expiration date and stamp on the value perception of coupons were compared between college students and office workers.
Short reflex expirations (expiration reflexes) induced by mechanical stimulation of the trachea in anesthetized cats
Ivan Poliacek, Melanie J Rose, Lu Corrie, Cheng Wang, Jan Jakus, Helena Barani, Albert Stransky, Hubert Polacek, Erika Halasova, Donald C Bolser
Cough , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1745-9974-4-1
Abstract: In an additional 8 cats, the effect of codeine administered via the vertebral artery was tested. Codeine, in a dose (0.03 mg/kg) that markedly suppressed cough did not significantly alter either the incidence rate or magnitudes of ERt.In the anesthetized cat the ERt induced by mechanical stimulation of the trachea was similar to the ERg from the glottis. These two reflex responses differ substantially only in the frequency of occurrence in response to mechanical stimulus and in the intensity of motor output.Forceful expirations are substantial part of airway defense. They arise particularly during tracheal and laryngeal coughs, sneeze, and the expiration reflex. Basic characteristics of these behaviors are known (see e.g. [1,2]) including the complex movement of the larynx [3-5].The expiration reflex (ER) is characterized by a single and short expulsion without a preceding inspiration. ER is regularly induced from the glottis (ERg) by mechanical stimulation. Its function is to expel foreign particles from the upper airways by fast expiratory airflows [1,6]. The reflex represents a fundamental aspiration prevention mechanism [7] and is significant particularly in gastro-esophageal reflux [8], in laryngopharyngeal reflux [9,10], and under other conditions when a risk of the aspiration is markedly increased.Several authors have observed short reflex expirations that were not preceded by an inspiration during stimulation in the trachea (ERt) of cats [11,12], dogs [13], and humans [14]. Others reported that from 1/3 [15] up to 60% ([16], also personal communication) of repetitive cough episodes induced in lower airways of anesthetized cats began with expulsion. The presence of an ER in response to mechanical stimulation of the trachea represents an important component of airway defense related to aspiration prevention. This behavior presumably is a "backup" to ER from the larynx and serves to eject foreign material from the trachea when the laryngeal ER (ERg) has failed
Nanotechnology: Inspiration from Nature
Sheeparamatti B,Sheeparamatti R,Kadadevaramath J
IETE Technical Review , 2007,
Abstract: Nanotechnology is molecular manipulation. Any branch of technology that results from our ability to control and manipulate matter on length scales of 1-100 nm can be treated as nanotechnology. Nanotechnology is not new to nature. Nature has been doing molecular manipulation to build its systems like plants and animals. After observing and understanding the fundamental design principles of natural products, one gets inspiration to build his own nanoproducts. This paper stimulates a nanotechnician or a student to study nanotechnology and to think inline with nature, since it has been a great nanoscientist and nanotechnologist.

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