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Prevalence and Associated Factors of Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy among Recently Delivered Women in Public Health Facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia
Tariku Laelago, Tefera Belachew, Meseret Tamrat
Open Access Library Journal (OALib Journal) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oalib.1100997
Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence is recognized as a worldwide serious public health problem. It can cause serious injury, disability or death. Risk factors for intimate partner violence during pregnancy are often similar to risk factors for intimate partner violence in general. Objectives: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy among recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya Zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2014. Methods: Facility based cross sectional study was conducted among 195 recently delivered women in public health facilities of Hossana Town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia from March 31-April 30, 2014. The data were collected by pretested structured questionnaire. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were done to identify predictors of intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Results: Twenty three percent (23%) of women experienced at least one form of Intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Psychological violence was the most common form (20%) followed by physical (15%) and sexual violence (12%). Alcohol drinking by the partners (AOR = 22 (7.4, 65.6), no formal education of the partners (AOR = 10.8 (1.06, 108.5) and planned pregnancy (AOR = 0.23 (0.08, 0.67) were significantly associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Conclusion: Our study established that intimate partner violence during pregnancy was a common experience. Partners’ alcohol drinking, no formal education of partners and planned pregnancy were associated with intimate partner violence during pregnancy. Health sector, police, lawyers and advocators should give due emphasis to the victims of this problem.
The magnitude of intimate partner violence in Brazil: portraits from 15 capital cities and the Federal District
Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo;Moraes, Claudia Leite;Szklo, André;Hasselmann, Maria Helena;Souza, Edinilsa Ramos de;Lozana, José de Azevedo;Figueiredo, Valeska;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2006000200020
Abstract: this paper concerns the prevalence of intimate partner violence in 15 state capital cities and the federal district of brazil. a population-based multi-stage survey in 2002/2003 involved 6,760 15-69-year-old women (respondents). using the conflict tactics scales - form r, the overall prevalence of psychological aggression and "minor" and severe physical abuse within couples was 78.3%, 21.5%, and 12.9%, respectively. prevalence rates varied distinctively between cities. for instance, total physical abuse ranged from 13.2% to 34.8%. on the whole, prevalence was higher in the north and northeast cities than in the southeast, south, and central west. also, all types of intimate partner violence were more frequent in couples including women who were younger (< 25 years) and had less schooling (< 8 years). after stratifying by gender, although women tended to perpetrate at least one act of physical abuse more often, scores were consistently higher among male partners who were perpetrators. the results are compared to international findings. regional, demographic, and gender differentials are discussed in light of the growing role of the brazilian health sector in relation to intimate partner violence.
The magnitude of intimate partner violence in Brazil: portraits from 15 capital cities and the Federal District  [cached]
Reichenheim Michael Eduardo,Moraes Claudia Leite,Szklo André,Hasselmann Maria Helena
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2006,
Abstract: This paper concerns the prevalence of intimate partner violence in 15 State capital cities and the Federal District of Brazil. A population-based multi-stage survey in 2002/2003 involved 6,760 15-69-year-old women (respondents). Using the Conflict Tactics Scales - Form R, the overall prevalence of psychological aggression and "minor" and severe physical abuse within couples was 78.3%, 21.5%, and 12.9%, respectively. Prevalence rates varied distinctively between cities. For instance, total physical abuse ranged from 13.2% to 34.8%. On the whole, prevalence was higher in the North and Northeast cities than in the Southeast, South, and Central West. Also, all types of intimate partner violence were more frequent in couples including women who were younger (< 25 years) and had less schooling (< 8 years). After stratifying by gender, although women tended to perpetrate at least one act of physical abuse more often, scores were consistently higher among male partners who were perpetrators. The results are compared to international findings. Regional, demographic, and gender differentials are discussed in light of the growing role of the Brazilian health sector in relation to intimate partner violence.
Towards a Global Interdisciplinary Evidence-Informed Practice: Intimate Partner Violence in the Ethiopian Context  [PDF]
Sepali Guruge,Amy Bender,Fekadu Aga,Ilene Hyman,Melesse Tamiru,Damen Hailemariam,Andargachew Kassa,Khosro Refaie-Shirpak
ISRN Nursing , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/307271
Abstract: Background. Intimate partner violence is a global health issue and is associated with a range of health problems for women. Nurses, as the largest health workforce globally, are well positioned to provide care for abused women. Objectives. This nursing-led interdisciplinary project was conducted to understand the current state of knowledge about intimate partner violence in Ethiopia and make recommendations for country-specific activities to improve response to intimate partner violence through practice changes, education, and research. Methods. The project involved two phases: review of relevant literature and an interdisciplinary stakeholder forum and a meeting with nurse educators. Findings. The literature review identified the pervasiveness and complexity of intimate partner violence and its sociocultural determinants in the Ethiopian context. Two significant themes emerged from the forum and the meeting: the value of bringing multiple disciplines together to address the complex issue of intimate partner violence and the need for health care professionals to better understand their roles and responsibilities in actively addressing intimate partner violence. Conclusions. Further research on the topic is needed, including studies of prevention and resilience and “best practices” for education and intervention. Interdisciplinary and international research networks can support local efforts to address and prevent intimate partner violence. 1. Introduction Intimate partner violence (IPV) is defined as the threat of, and/or actual, physical, sexual, psychological, or verbal abuse by a current or former spouse or nonmarital partner [1]. At a global level, IPV occurs in epidemic proportions; the rates of IPV are comparable to those for cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and HIV/AIDS [2]. IPV has been linked to a range of physical and mental health problems [3–7] that may persist long after the violence has ended. Although IPV is considered to be a global public health problem, few health sciences studies have focused on it in low-income countries. This gap is a major impediment to improving the response of local health sectors to the needs of women who are experiencing IPV in these countries and to improving health equity for women everywhere [8]. In particular, the response of nurses as frontline care providers could be improved. This paper presents the findings from a nurse-led, international, interdisciplinary project aimed at understanding the current situation of IPV in Ethiopia and developing recommendations for country-specific activities to address
High Prevalence and Partner Correlates of Physical and Sexual Violence by Intimate Partners among Street and Off-Street Sex Workers  [PDF]
Elena Argento, Katherine A. Muldoon, Putu Duff, Annick Simo, Kathleen N. Deering, Kate Shannon
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0102129
Abstract: Objectives Intimate partner violence (IPV) is associated with increased risk of HIV among women globally. There is limited evidence and understanding about IPV and potential HIV risk pathways among sex workers (SWs). This study aims to longitudinally evaluate prevalence and correlates of IPV among street and off-street SWs over two-years follow-up. Methods Longitudinal data were drawn from an open prospective cohort, AESHA (An Evaluation of Sex Workers Health Access) in Metro Vancouver, Canada (2010–2012). Prevalence of physical and sexual IPV was measured using the WHO standardized IPV scale (version 9.9). Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to examine interpersonal and structural correlates of IPV over two years. Results At baseline, 387 SWs had a male, intimate sexual partner and were eligible for this analysis. One-fifth (n = 83, 21.5%) experienced recent physical/sexual IPV at baseline and 26.2% over two-years follow-up. In multivariable GEE analysis, factors independently correlated with physical/sexual IPV in the last six months include: childhood (<18 years) sexual/physical abuse (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.14–3.69), inconsistent condom use for vaginal and/or anal sex with intimate partner (AOR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.07–3.16),
Women at Risk of Physical Intimate Partner Violence: A Crosssectional Analysis of a Low-income Community in Southwest Nigeria
Eme T Owoaje, Funmilola M OlaOlorun
African Journal of Reproductive Health , 2012,
Abstract: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is prevalent in Nigeria but a culture of silence exists, making it difficult to identify women at risk. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was employed to determine the prevalence and predictors of physical IPV in a low income, high density community in south west Nigeria. Among 924 interviews of everpartnered women aged 15-49 years, prevalence of lifetime experience of physical IPV was 28.2%. The significant predictors for physical IPV were previous experience of psychological abuse (adjusted OR: 4.71; 95% CI: 3.23-6.85); sexual abuse (aOR: 5.18; 3.21-8.36); having attitudes supportive of IPV (aOR: 1.75; 1.2-2.4); partner’s daily alcohol consumption (aOR: 2.85; 1.50-5.41); and previous engagement in a physical fight (aOR: 3.49; 1.87-6.50). Community based IPV prevention programmes targeted at breaking the cycle of abuse, transforming gender norms which support IPV and reducing alcohol consumption should be developed.
Intimate partner violence and depression among women in rural Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study  [cached]
Deyessa Negussie,Berhane Yemane,Alem Atalay,Ellsberg Mary
Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1745-0179-5-8
Abstract: Background Studies from high-income countries have shown intimate partner violence to be associated with depression among women. The present paper examines whether this finding can be confirmed in a very different cultural setting in rural Ethiopia. Method A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in Ethiopia among 1994 currently married women. Using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), cases of depressive episode were identified according to the ICD-10 diagnosis. Using a standardized questionnaire, women who experienced violence by an intimate partner were identified. A multivariate analysis was conducted between the explanatory variables and depressive status of the women, after adjusting for possible confounders. Results The 12-month prevalence of depressive episode among the women was 4.8% (95% CI, 3.9% and 5.8%), while the lifetime prevalence of any form of intimate partner violence was 72.0% (95% CI, 70.0% and 73.9%). Physical violence (OR = 2.56, 95% CI, 1.61, 4.06), childhood sexual abuse (OR = 2.00, 95% CI, 1.13, 3.56), mild emotional violence (OR = 3.19, 95% CI, 1.98, 5.14), severe emotional violence (OR = 3.90, 95% CI, 2.20, 6.93) and high spousal control of women (OR = 3.30, 95% CI, 1.58, 6.90) by their partners were independently associated with depressive episode, even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Conclusion The high prevalence of intimate partner violence, a factor often obscured within general life event categories, requires attention to consider it as an independent factor for depression, and thus to find new possibilities of prevention and treatment in terms of public health strategies, interventions and service provision.
Intimate partners’ violence in Southern Ethiopia: Examining the prevalence and risk factors in the Sidama Zone
N Regassa
Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: The high level of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women in many population groups in Ethiopia and the risk factors associated with the practice is not well understood among scholars and decision makers. This study examined the prevalence and risk factors associated with intimate partner violence in Sidama, a populous zone in Southern Ethiopia. A combination of simple random and multistage sampling techniques were used to select 1094 households, comprising women and men participants, for the field study. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained using structured questionnaire and focus group discussions. Household, women and husband characteristics were used as explanatory variables while intimate partner violence served as the dependent variable. The study revealed that the prevalence of intimate partners’ violence is high in the study population (ranging from 14.7 to 61.2%) with physical violence (beating, causing physical damage and slapping) accounting for the largest share of the overall abusive acts. The predicted probability, using logistic regression, shows that literate women living with alcoholic husbands, women engaged in gainful income generating activities and women living in food insecure households were more susceptible to intimate partner violence. The study concluded that while the main determinants are generally embedded in the socio-cultural practices and attitudes of the community, there are certain individual and household level variables which significantly affect its likely occurrence.
Intimate partner violence against women in west Ethiopia: a qualitative study on attitudes, woman’s response, and suggested measures as perceived by community members  [cached]
Abeya Sileshi,Afework Mesganaw,Yalew Alemayeh
Reproductive Health , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4755-9-14
Abstract: Introduction Intimate partner violence against women is more prevalent in Ethiopia and among the highest in the world. This study was aimed to explore the attitudes of the community on intimate partner violence against women, the strategies women are using after the violence act, and suggested measures to stop or reduce the act in East Wollega Zone. Methods A total of 12 focus group discussions involving 55 men and 60 women were conducted from December, 2011 to January, 2012. Discussants were purposefully selected from urban and rural settings of the study area. The analyses followed the procedure for qualitative thematic analysis. Results Three themes (attitudes, coping strategies, and suggested measures) were emerged. Most discussants perceived, intimate partner violence is accepted in the community in circumstances of practicing extra marital sex and suspected infidelity. The majority of women are keeping silent and very few defend themselves from the violent husbands/partners. The suggested measures by the community to stop or reduce women’s violence were targeting actions at the level of individual, family, community, and society. Conclusion In the study community, the attitude of people and traditional norms influence the acceptability for the act of intimate partner violence against women. Most victims are tolerating the incident while very few are defending themselves from the violent partners. The suggested measures for stopping or reducing women’s violence focused on provision of education for raising awareness at all levels using a variety of approaches targeting different stakeholders. It is recommended that more efforts are needed to dispel myths, misconceptions and traditional norms and beliefs of the community. There is a need for amending and enforcing the existing laws as well as formulating the new laws concerning women violence including rape. Moreover, providing professional help at all levels is essential.
Intimate partner violence against women in western Ethiopia: prevalence, patterns, and associated factors
Sileshi G Abeya, Mesganaw F Afework, Alemayehu W Yalew
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-913
Abstract: A cross-sectional, population based household survey was conducted from January to April, 2011 using standard WHO multi-country study questionnaire. A sample of 1540 ever married/cohabited women aged 15-49 years was randomly selected from urban and rural settings of East Wollega Zone, Western Ethiopia. Data were principally analyzed using logistic regression.Lifetime and past 12 months prevalence of intimate partner violence against women showed 76.5% (95% CI: 74.4-78.6%) and 72.5% (95% CI: 70.3-74.7%), respectively. The overlap of psychological, physical, and sexual violence was 56.9%. The patterns of the three forms of violence are similar across the time periods. Rural residents (AOR 0.58, 95% CI 0.34-0.98), literates (AOR 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.88), female headed households (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.27-0.76) were at decreased likelihood to have lifetime intimate partner violence. Yet, older women were nearly four times (AOR 3.36, 95% CI 1.27-8.89) more likely to report the incident. On the other hand, abduction (AOR 3.71, 95% CI 1.01-13.63), polygamy (AOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.64-0.73), spousal alcoholic consumption (AOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.21-3.22), spousal hostility (AOR 3.96, 95% CI 2.52-6.20), and previous witnesses of parental violence (AOR 2.00, 95% CI 1.54-2.56) were factors associated with an increased likelihood of lifetime intimate partner violence against women.In their lifetime, three out of four women experienced at least one incident of intimate partner violence. This needs an urgent attention at all levels of societal hierarchy including policymakers, stakeholders and professionals to alleviate the situation.Violence against women (VAW) is "...any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life" [1]. Since women are disproportionately affected than men (95% Vs
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