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Sexually Transmitted Infections in Tehran
Maryam Afrakhteh,Hadi Beyhaghi,Afshin Moradi,Seyed Jalil Hosseini
Journal of Family and Reproductive Health , 2008,
Abstract: "nObjective: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) remain a public health problem of major significance in most parts of the world. This study aimed to detect the most prevalent pathogens in patients with signs and symptoms of STI referring to a group of university clinics in Tehran."nMaterials and methods: In this cross-sectional study using randomized cluster sampling, 507 consecutive male and female patients presenting with signs and symptoms of STI referring to selected health care centers of Shahid Beheshti University were evaluated between May 2005 and May 2007. Diagnosis was made according to WHO criteria for signs and symptoms of STI in addition to microscopic study of genital discharges. "nResults: The most prevalent STI pathogens were Candida, Trichomona, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia with respective frequencies of 53.96%, 18.87%, 4.91% and 22.26% in women and 47.10%, 8.67%, 9.50% and 34.71% in men."nConclusion: Candida was detected in majority of cases. Chlamydia was the most prevalent STI in both sexes. Simple preventive care has crucial role in decreasing the frequency of STIs in society.
Sexually transmitted infections in Pakistan  [cached]
Maan Muhammad,Hussain Fatma,Iqbal Javed,Akhtar Shahid
Annals of Saudi Medicine , 2011,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a major global health problem leading to morbidity, mortality and stigma. Prior to this study there was no information on the prevalence and knowledge of STIs in Faisalabad, Pakistan. Design and Setting: Prospective, cross-sectional study in patients attending STI clinics from July 2006 to September 2009. Patients and Methods: After obtaining consent, patients completed structured questionnaires used for behavioral surveys. Blood and urethral swabs were collected and tested for syphilis, gonococcus, genital herpes, chlamydia and chancroid. Result: Mean (standard deviation) age of the 1532 participants was 38.9 (9.4) years, including 37.8 (10.2) years for males and 35.5 (6.3) years females. Male gender (n=1276, 83.3%), low socioeconomic class (n=1026, 67.0%) and residence in rural suburbs (n=970, 63.3%) were more common. Most (n=913, 59.6%) were aware of the modes of transmission of STIs and the associated complications, 20% (n=306) were condom users, and 21.2% (n=324) had knowledge of safe sex. Opposite-sex partners were preferred by 972 (63.4%) patients, while 29.9% (n=458) had both homosexual and heterosexual sex partners. Syphilis was present in 29.5% of patients (n=452); gonorrhea, in 13% (n=200), HSV-2, in 3.2% (n=49), chlamydia, in 4.7% (n=72) and chancroid, in 1.3% (n=20). Conclusion: This report establishes baseline local prevalence rates for STIs. Syphilis emerged as the most prevalent STI in Faisalabad. Population-based studies are required to study the epidemiology of STIs, along with initiation of national health-education campaign.
Women and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Africa  [PDF]
Gita Ramjee, Nathlee S. Abbai, Sarita Naidoo
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2015.57056
Abstract: Despite efforts to control the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), these infections are still highly prevalent in the developing world, especially in Africa where the prevalence and incidence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is also very high. Unfortunately, women bear the disproportionate burden of both STIs and HIV in this region. Early diagnosis, treatment and prevention of STIs is therefore crucial in this population given the strong evidence that some STIs have been shown to facilitate the transmission of HIV. This review summarizes the epidemiology, and management of the common STIs affecting African women, and the health complications associated with these infections in the era of emerging antimicrobial resistance.
Sexually transmitted infections in Saudi Arabia
Tariq A Madani
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-6-3
Abstract: This is a case series descriptive study of all confirmed STIs diagnosed in SA from January, 1995 through December, 1999.A total of 39049 STIs were reported to the Ministry of Health. Reported STIs included nongonococcal urethritis (14557 infections, 37.3%), trichomoniasis (10967 infections, 28.1%), gonococcal urethritis (5547 infections, 14.2%), syphilis (3385 infections, 8.7%), human immunodeficiency virus (2917 infections, 7.5%), genital warts (1382, 3.5%), genital herpes (216 infections, 0.6%), and chancroid (78 infections, 0.2%). The average annual incidence of STIs per 100,000 population for Saudis and non-Saudis, respectively, was as follows: 14.8 and 7.5 for nongonococcal urethritis, 9.4 and 10.4 for trichomoniasis, 5.2 and 4.2 for gonorrhea, 1.7 and 6.4 for syphilis, 0.6 and 8.0 for HIV, 1.4 and 0.7 for genital warts, 0.1 and 0.4 for genital herpes, and 0.1 and 0.1 for chancroid. The incidence of STIs was somewhat steady over the surveillance period except for nongonococcal urethritis which gradually increased.Nongonococcal urethritis, trichomoniasis, and gonococcal urethritis were the most commonly reported STIs in SA. Even though the incidence of STIs in SA is limited, appropriate preventive strategies that conform to the Islamic rules and values are essential and should be of highest priority for policymakers because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are one of the most under-recognized health problems worldwide. While extremely common, STIs are difficult to track. Many people with these infections do not have symptoms and remain undiagnosed. Further, diseases that are diagnosed are frequently not reported and counted. Most of the published data on the prevalence and incidence of STIs come from developed countries.Despite the tracking difficulties, the estimated global annual incidence of curable STIs (excluding HIV and viral hepatitis) is 333 million cases; gonococcal infecti
Pregnancy and sexually transmitted viral infections  [cached]
Singhal P,Naswa S,Marfatia Y
Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases , 2009,
Abstract: Viral infections in pregnancy are a major cause of morbidity and mortality for both mother and fetus. Viral STIs occur as surface infection and then gradually infect immunologically protected sites. Therefore, these are asymptomatic, hidden and hence underdiagnosed, persistent and difficult to treat. HSV, HPV, HBV, HIV and CMV (cytomegalovirus) are the common ones. Most of these are transmitted during intrapartum period. Proper screening, identification and treatment offered during prenatal period may help in preventing their complications. Twenty five percent of women with a history of genital herpes have an outbreak at some point during the last month of pregnancy. Acyclovir is the accepted efficacious and safe therapy for HSV in pregnancy. Globally, HPV infection is the most common sexually transmitted infection. Neonatal transmission can occur in the absence of clinically evident lesions. HPV 6 or 11 may lead to Juvenile Onset Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (JORRP). TCA, liquid nitrogen, laser ablation or electrocautery can be used to treat external genital HPV lesions at any time during pregnancy. Cesarean section is recommended only if the lesions are obstructing the birth canal. Mother to child transmission (MTCT) in HIV accounts for 15-30% during pregnancy and delivery, and a further 5-20% of transmission occurs through breastfeeding. HBV infection during pregnancy does not alter the natural course of the disease. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg, vertical transmission is approximately 90%. Pregnancy is not a contraindication for HBV vaccination. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common intrauterine infection. Cytomegalic inclusion disease (CID) is the most severe form of congenital CMV infection. Treatment is supportive.
Experimental vaccines for sexually transmitted infections  [PDF]
Jovanovi? Marina,Karadagli? ?or?ije,Golu?in Zoran,Brki? Silvija
Medicinski Pregled , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/mpns0902042j
Abstract: Introduction. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major global public health problems. Present strategies for prevention have limitations. Vaccines are an attractive addition to the current prevention armamentarium because they provide durable protection and do not require repetitive adherence to be effective. Challenges for vaccination include induction and long-term maintaince of mucosal immune responses in the female genital tract. Vaccines: a realistic goal?. For the time being, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have recommended only hepatitis and HPV immunization to be routinely offered. Final, III stage trials are underway on other prophylactic vaccines for human papillomavirus and genital herpes. Though vaccines against Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are in early stages of development they do offer the hope of preventing pelvic inflammations. The high incidence of HIV-infection for which a vaccine would not be readily available, 'cries out' for an effective vaccine. Vaccines for HPV infections. According to a recent meta-analysis of worldwide prevalence data, vaccinating with HPV-16/18 VLP against HPV-16 and HPV-18 could prevent over 70% of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. The latest release of data from the phase III trial of a quadrivalent recombinant non-infectious vaccine HPV-6/11/ 16/18 L1 VLP, including HPV types 6,11,16,18 have given complete protection against HPV-16/18-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasias 1, 2/3, and adenocarcinoma in situ and cancer through 2 years of post-vaccination follow up. Conclusion. Despite the fact that the development of vaccines for STI prevention was rather slow in the past, the ideal vaccine would decrease transmission of the infection between partners and would prevent complications of disease. Moreover, in future decades, increasingly successful universal vaccination of newborns and children will substantially reduce the need for vaccination of persons with specific risk factors, including sexual risk.
Impact of sexually transmitted infections on women health  [PDF]
Manisha Yadav, Neha Verma, Rakesh Singh Dhanda
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.58165
Abstract:

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are the infections that can be transmitted from one sex partner, who already has such infection, to another. The causes of STIs in human are very well elucidated and their causative agents are identified as bacteria, parasites and viruses. The worldwide epidemiology of more than 20 types of STIs has been established, which includes diseases like Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Genital herpes, HIV/ AIDS, HPV, Syphilis and Trichomoniasis. Though STIs affect both men and women indiscriminately, however, the pathophysiology of disease is more obvious among women. Other than abstinence, the most effective way to prevent the transmission or acquisition of STIs is to use a condom during sexual intercourse. Condoms are effective in decreasing the transmission of HIV. However, once contacted, STIs caused by bacteria or parasites can be treated with antibiotics. STIs caused by a virus may not virtually have any cure though the medicines may keep the disease under control. Correct usage of preventive measures greatly reduces but does not completely eliminate the risk of catching or spreading STIs.

Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections
Holmes,King K.; Levine,Ruth; Weaver,Marcia;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862004000600012
Abstract: in june 2000, the united states national institutes of health (nih) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (stis). the review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of hiv to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other stis was considered to be insufficient. we review the findings of prospective studies published after june 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing stis. we searched medline for publications in english and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. these prospective studies, published since june 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of stis, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. while no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (hpv) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical hpv infection in women and with regression of hpv-associated penile lesions in men. research findings available since the nih review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against stis. although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of stis within populations.
Sexually transmitted infections and private physicians in Peru, 2003
Hsieh,Evelyn J.; Blas,Magaly M.; La Rosa Roca,Sayda; Garcia,Patricia J.;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892006000900002
Abstract: objectives: to analyze demographic and practice characteristics of private physicians in 10 cities of peru, and to shed light on the role of private practice in the delivery of medical care to patients with sexually transmitted infections (stis). methods: as part of an interventional trial designed to improve physician management of stis in 10 cities in peru, detailed information was compiled regarding numbers of physicians in each city. a door-to-door survey was then conducted within each city of all private and public medical offices and institutions. each physician encountered who had a private practice was asked to answer a questionnaire regarding demographic information, medical education, specialty, type of private and public practices currently engaged in, number of sti cases seen per month, and average earnings per consultation. results: of 2 060 physicians working in the 10 cities, 507 reported having a private practice, either exclusively or concurrently with other clinical positions. almost all the private physicians (97.4%) reported managing cases of stis. regional differences among private physicians were found in physician density, gender, and place of medical training. in addition, significant variations by gender were seen in rates of specialization, earnings per consultation, and numbers of female patients with stis seen per month. conclusions: studies of the physician workforce can provide meaningful insights for potential use in addressing public health problems. this study provides valuable information that can help understand the important role of private physicians in managing stis in peru.
Effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections  [cached]
Holmes King K.,Levine Ruth,Weaver Marcia
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2004,
Abstract: In June 2000, the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH) organized a review of the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of condoms in preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The review concluded that condoms were effective in protecting against transmission of HIV to women and men and in reducing the risk of men becoming infected with gonorrhoea. Evidence for the effectiveness of condoms in preventing other STIs was considered to be insufficient. We review the findings of prospective studies published after June 2000 that evaluated the effectiveness of condoms in preventing STIs. We searched Medline for publications in English and included other articles, reports, and abstracts of which we were aware. These prospective studies, published since June 2000, show that condom use is associated with statistically significant protection of men and women against several other types of STIs, including chlamydial infection, gonorrhoea, herpes simplex virus type 2, and syphilis. Condoms may also be associated with protecting women against trichomoniasis. While no published prospective study has found protection against genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, two studies reported that condom use was associated with higher rates of regression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and clearance of cervical HPV infection in women and with regression of HPV-associated penile lesions in men. Research findings available since the NIH review add considerably to the evidence of the effectiveness of condoms against STIs. Although condoms are not 100% effective, partial protection can substantially reduce the spread of STIs within populations.
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