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A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea, Tapejaridae) from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning, China and its implications for biostratigraphy
Xiaolin Wang,Zhonghe Zhou
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2003, DOI: 10.1007/BF03183326
Abstract: In this article we describe a new and exceptionally well-preserved pterodactyloid pterosaur,Sinopterus dongi gen. et sp. nov. from the Jiufotang Formation in western Liaoning Province of northeast China. The new species is referred to the family Tapejaridae, representing its first record outside Brazil. It also represents the earliest occurrence as well as the most complete skeleton of the family. Some revisions are made about the family according to the morphological observations of the postcranial bones ofSinopterus. Two pterosaur assemblages appear to have existed in the Jehol Group, represented by the lower Yixian Formation and upper Jiufotang Formation, respectively. The lower pterosaur assemblage shows some resemblance to that of the Late Jurassic in Solnhofen (Tithonian) by sharing members of the Pterodactylidae and Anurognathidae. The upper one shows more resemblance to that of the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation (Aptian/Albian) by comprising only pterodactyloids such as the Tapejaridae. The age of the Yixian Formation is younger than that of the Solnhofen lithographic limestone, and the age of the Jiufotang Formation (Aptian) is slightly older than the Santana Formation.
A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea, Tapejaridae) from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning, China and its implications for biostratigraphy
A new pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea,Tapejaridae) from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of Western Liaoning,China and its implications for biostratigraphy

WANG Xiaolin,ZHOU Zhonghe,
WANGXiaolin
,ZHOUZonghe

科学通报(英文版) , 2003,
Abstract: In this article we describe a new and excep-tionally well-preserved pterodactyloid pterosaur, Sinopterus dongi gen. et sp. nov. from the Jiufotang Formation in west-ern Liaoning Province of northeast China. The new species is referred to the family Tapejaridae, representing its first re-cord outside Brazil. It also represents the earliest occurrence as well as the most complete skeleton of the family. Some revisions are made about the family according to the mor-phological observations of the postcranial bones of Sinop-terus. Two pterosaur assemblages appear to have existed in the Jehol Group, represented by the lower Yixian Formation and upper Jiufotang Formation, respectively. The lower pterosaur assemblage shows some resemblance to that of the Late Jurassic in Solnhofen (Tithonian) by sharing members of the Pterodactylidae and Anurognathidae. The upper one shows more resemblance to that of the Early Cretaceous Santana Formation (Aptian/Albian) by comprising only pterodactyloids such as the Tapejaridae. The age of the Yixian Formation is younger than that of the Solnhofen lithographic limestone, and the age of the Jiufotang Forma-tion (Aptian) is slightly older than the Santana Formation.
Discovery of a pterodactylid pterosaur from the Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, China
Wang Xiaolin,Lü Junchang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF02900690
Abstract: A well-preserved pterosaur with nearly complete skull is described from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation at Sihetun in western Liaoning. It is characterized by a low and long crestless skull, slender and pointed teeth, long metacarpal, nearly equal length of metatarsals I–III and short pedal digit V. It is referred to a new genus and species of the family Pterodactylidae:Haopterus gracilis gen. et sp. nov. This is the first pterosaur with a nearly complete skull from the Jehol Biota; it also represents the first non-controversial fossil record of Pterodactylidae in Asia.Haopterus is more derived thanPterodactylus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen in Germany. This discovery extends the distribution of the family Pterodactylidae from Europe and Africa to Asia and its latest occurrence from the Late Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The discovery ofHaopterus gracilis provides further evidence for the study of the origin and radiation of the Jehol Biota; it also sheds new light on the evolution and distribution of pterosaurs in the late Mesozoic.
A New Small-Bodied Azhdarchoid Pterosaur from the Lower Cretaceous of England and Its Implications for Pterosaur Anatomy, Diversity and Phylogeny  [PDF]
Darren Naish, Martin Simpson, Gareth Dyke
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058451
Abstract: Background Pterosaurs have been known from the Cretaceous sediments of the Isle of Wight (southern England, United Kingdom) since 1870. We describe the three-dimensional pelvic girdle and associated vertebrae of a small near-adult pterodactyloid from the Atherfield Clay Formation (lower Aptian, Lower Cretaceous). Despite acknowledged variation in the pterosaur pelvis, previous studies have not adequately sampled or incorporated pelvic characters into phylogenetic analyses. Methodology/Principal Findings The new specimen represents the new taxon Vectidraco daisymorrisae gen. et sp. nov., diagnosed by the presence of a concavity posterodorsal to the acetabulum and the form of its postacetabular process on the ilium. Several characters suggest that Vectidraco belongs to Azhdarchoidea. We constructed a pelvis-only phylogenetic analysis to test whether the pterosaur pelvis carries a useful phylogenetic signal. Resolution in recovered trees was poor, but they approximately matched trees recovered from analyses of total evidence. We also added Vectidraco and our pelvic characters to an existing total-evidence matrix for pterosaurs. Both analyses recovered Vectidraco within Azhdarchoidea. Conclusions/Significance The Lower Cretaceous strata of western Europe have yielded members of several pterosaur lineages, but Aptian pterosaurs from western Europe are rare. With a pelvis length of 40 mm, the new animal would have had a total length of c. 350 mm, and a wingspan of c. 750 mm. Barremian and Aptian pterodactyloids from western Europe show that small-bodied azhdarchoids lived alongside ornithocheirids and istiodactylids. This assemblage is similar in terms of which lineages are represented to the coeval beds of Liaoning, China; however, the number of species and specimens present at Liaoning is much higher. While the general phylogenetic composition of western European and Chinese communities appear to have been approximately similar, the differences may be due to different palaeoenvironmental and depositional settings. The western Europe pterodactyloid record may therefore be artificially low in diversity due to preservational factors.
Two new ornithurine birds from the Early Cretaceous of western Liaoning, China
Zhonghe Zhou,Fucheng Zhang
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2001, DOI: 10.1007/BF03184320
Abstract: We describe two new ornithurine birds from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation of western Liaoning, northeast China:Yanornis martini gen. et sp. nov. andYixianornis grabaui gen. et sp. nov. They represent the best fossil record of ornithurine birds known from the Early Cretaceous. They are more advanced than the most primitive ornithurineLiaoningornis, and are more similar to the other two Chinese Early Cretaceous ornithurinesChaoyangia andSonglingornis. Compared withConfuciusornis, Liaoxiornis andEoenantiornis from the same age, the two new birds show remarkable advanced characteristics and suggest the presence of powerful flight capability like modern birds. Compared withYixianornis andChaoyangia, Yanornis is larger, with a more elongated skull and relatively long wings. The new discoveries indicate that by the Early Cretaceous both enantiornithine and ornithurine birds had already radiated significantly. The flight structures ofYanornis andYixianornis are hardly distinguishable from those of modern birds; however, both retain a few primitive traits such as teeth on the jaws, wing claws and pubic symphysis, which exclude them from being the most recent ancestor of all extant birds.
A New Scaphognathine Pterosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Western Liaoning, China
中国辽西中侏罗世地层发现船颌翼龙新属新种

吕君昌,富察晓蕙,陈金梅
地球学报 , 2010,
Abstract: A new scaphognathine pterosaur: Fenghuangopterus lii gen. et sp. nov. is erected based on an incomplete skeleton. It comes from the Middle Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of the western Liaoning. It is characterized by more than 11 pairs of the upper jaw teeth, and the last tooth is located far posteriorly in the jaw, under the postoventral corner of the antorbital opening, metacarpal IV length is about 55% that of the humerus. The discovery of Fenghuangopterus not only adds a new member of scaphognathine pterosaurs, but also provides much more information on the paleogeographical distribution. It represents the earliest scaphognathine pterosaur known. It plays a key role in understanding the origin and evolution of scaphognathine pterosaurs.
An unusual long-tailed pterosaur with elongated neck from western Liaoning of China
Wang, Xiaolin;Kellner, Alexander W.A.;Jiang, Shunxing;Meng, Xi;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652009000400016
Abstract: a new long-tailed pterosaur, wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov, is described based on an almost complete skeleton (ivpp v15113) representing an individual with an estimated wing span of 730 mm. the specimen was discovered in strata that possibly represent the daohugou bed (or daohugou formation) at linglongta, jianchang, liaoning province, china. wukongopterus lii is a non-pterodactyloid pterosaur diagnosed by the first two pairs of premaxillary teeth protruding beyond the dentary, elongated cervical vertebrae (convergent with pterodactyloidea), and a strongly curved second pedal phalanx of the fifth toe. the specimen further has a broken tibia that indicates an injury occurred while the individual was still alive. taphonomic aspects provide indirect evidence of an uropatagium, supporting the general hypothesis that at least all non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs show a membrane between the hind limbs. a phylogenetic analysis including most non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs shows that wukongopterus lii gen. et sp. nov. lies outside the novialoidea, being cladistically more primitive than the rhamphorhynchidae and capylognathoides. this analysis differs from previous studies and indicates that more work is needed before a stable picture of non-pterodactyloid pterosaur relationships is achieved.
Anurans from the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of Western Liaoning, China  [PDF]
Liping Dong, Zbyněk Ro?ek, Yuan Wang, Marc E H. Jones
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069723
Abstract: Background To date, the Lower Cretaceous Jehol Group of western Liaoning, China has yielded five monotypic genera of anurans, including Liaobatrachus grabaui, Callobatrachus sanyanensis, Mesophryne beipiaoensis, Dalianbatrachus mengi, and Yizhoubatrachus macilentus. However, the validity and distinctness of these taxa have been questioned. Methodology/Principal Finding We provide a comprehensive analysis of the Jehol frogs that includes a re-examination of the published taxa as well as an examination of a number of new specimens that have been collected over the past 10 years. The results show that the five previously named taxa can be referred to three species of one genus–Liaobatrachus grabaui, L. beipiaoensis comb. nov. and L. macilentus comb. nov.. The diagnosis of Liaobatrachus is revised, and a new diagnosis is provided for each species of this genus. We also establish Liaobatrachus zhaoi sp. nov., on the basis of a dozen well-preserved specimens from a new locality. This taxon is distinguished by a unique combination of characteristics, including relatively long hind limbs, a rounded rather than triangular acetabulum, and a gradually-tapering cultriform process of the parasphenoid. In addition, an unnamed frog from a higher horizon, which has narrow sacral diapophyses and particularly long legs, is different from Liaobatrachus and represents another form of anuran in the Jehol Biota. Conclusion/Significance Comparisons with other Mesozoic and extant anurans and the primary phylogenetic analysis both suggest that Liaobatrachus is a member of the anuran crown-group and forms a polytomy with leiopelmatids (Ascaphus and Leiopelma) and the remaining crown-group anurans (Lalagobatrachia).
Male spike strobiles with Gnetum affinity from the Early Cretaceous in western Liaoning, Northeast China
郭双兴,沙金庚,边立曾,仇寅龙
植物分类学报 , 2009,
Abstract: A fossil with Gnetum affinity was found in the Jianshangou Member (Barremian Age) of the Yixian Formation (Lower Cretaceous Epoch) of the Jehol Group in western Liaoning, northeastern China. The single fossil specimen is represented by both elongate-cylindrical male spike strobiles which borne within a nodal bract of cauliflorous branch. The spike strobiles have apparent nodes, invisible internodes, and numerous verticillate involucral collars. The microsporangiate units within involucral collars are not seen. The male spike strobiles with verticillate involucral collars occur exclusively in Gnetum; hence, the fossil strobiles are attributed to a new taxon, Khitania columnispicata gen. & sp. nov., being closely related to Gnetum. The general isotopic dating suggests an age of Barremian, ca. 125-122 million years (Myr) ago for the Jianshangou Member. The palaeoecological and palaeoclimatic inference based on the compositions of flora and fauna, and lithological characters of the fossil locality suggests that the fossil plants grew in a subtropical mesophytic forest and under a warmer climate. The remains of male spike strobiles are the first record of gnetalean macrofossil. It documents the evolution of the distinct gnetoid morphology and indicates a wider range of distribution of Gnetaceae in the Early Cretaceous than present day.
Short note on a Pteranodontoid pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea) from western Queensland, Australia
Kellner, Alexander W.A.;Rodrigues, Taissa;Costa, Fabiana R.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652011000100018
Abstract: flying reptiles from australia are very rare, represented mostly by isolated bones coming from the early cretaceous (albian) toolebuc formation, which crops out in western queensland. among the first pterosaur specimens discovered from this deposit is a mandibular symphysis that some authors thought to have a particular affinity to species found in the cambridge greensand (cenomanian) of england. it was further referred as a member of or closely related to one of the genera ornithocheirus, lonchodectes or anhanguera. here we redescribe this specimen, showing that it cannot be referred to the aforementioned genera, but represents a new species of pteranodontoid (sensu kellner 2003), here named aussiedraco molnari gen. et sp. nov. it is the second named pterosaur from australia and confirms that the toolebuc deposits are so far the most important for our understanding of the flying reptile fauna of this country.
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