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Robust Strategies for Option Contract Coordination in B2B E-markets
B2B 在线市场期权合同协调的鲁棒策略

YAN Ni-na,HUANG Xiao-yuan,

系统工程理论与实践 , 2006,
Abstract: Under the uncertain environment of B2B e-markets,the stability of long-term contract and the flexibility of online spot purchasing are considered together,and the robust strategies for coordination between e-markets and traditional markets based on option contract are designed.Under the worst demand scenarios of B2B e-markets,the strategies of stackelberg game in which seller is the leader and buyer is follower are studied.Applying the theories of robust optimization,the algorithms of solving the robust solutions of buyer's order quantity and seller's contract reservation costs and execution costs in B2B E-markets are brought forward.Finally,combining with the e-commerce practice of Shanghai Baosteel Yichang Corporation,the demonstration analysis is carried out,and the robust order quantity,contract reservation costs and execution costs are worked out through simulating calculation.
Stephen O. Ojo,Olabosipo I Fagbenle,Aderemi Y Adeyemi
Civil Engineering Dimension , 2006,
Abstract: The traditional contract procurement has been widely criticized as an ineffective procurement method because it often involves time and cost overrun on construction projects. Yet the method is still being widely used in Nigeria most especially for the procurement of housing projects. It is suspected that this procurement method may not be ineffective in all cost categories of housing projects. Therefore time and cost performances of the procurement method on 57 housing projects of varying cost categories initiated by the Nigerian government between 1993 and 1999 were studied. The category of one to five million naira (US$1.00 a 92 Nigerian Naira in 1999) showed the least time overrun of 18.98% while the highest time overrun of 99.64 % was shown in the five to ten million naira. The over ten million naira category had the least cost overrun of 9.13% while the highest cost overrun of 34.55 % was shown in the less than one million naira. The one to five million naira cost category exhibited weak correlation between time and cost overruns but the five million naira and above categories showed strong correlation. It was concluded that one to five million naira cost category is quite suitable for traditional contract procurement on housing projects in Nigeria.
The Role of Usability in Business-to-Business E-Commerce Systems: Predictors and Its Impact on User's Strain and Commercial Transactions  [PDF]
Udo Konradt,Lüder Lückel,Thomas Ellwart
Advances in Human-Computer Interaction , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/948693
Abstract: This study examines the impact of organizational antecedences (i.e., organizational support and information policy) and technical antecedences (i.e., subjective server response time and objective server response time) to perceived usability, perceived strain, and commercial transactions (i.e. purchases) in business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce. Data were gathered from a web-based study with 491 employees using e-procurement bookseller portals. Structural equation modeling results revealed positive relationships of organizational support and information policy, and negative relationships of subjective server response time to usability after controlling for users' age, gender, and computer experience. Perceived usability held negative relationships to perceived strain and fully mediated the relation between the three significant antecedences and perceived strain while purchases were not predicted. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical implications and consequences for successfully designing and implementing B2B e-commerce information systems. 1. Introduction Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce information systems which make use of the Internet and web technologies for interorganizational business transactions are widely used. Various scholars have discussed the importance of success factors in acceptance and adoption of B2B applications and supply chain management (e.g., [1]), and research has examined potential success factors. Results suggest that information quality, system quality, and trust among supplier and customer are potential critical success factors which facilitate e-commerce systems for B2B buying and selling (e.g., [1–4]). Notwithstanding the significance, very little research systematically examined the impact of usability of B2B e-commerce information systems to users’ strain, system adoption, and transactions. Usability refers to the “extent to which a product can be used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction in a specified context of use” [5]. Related research in web-based applications and in business-to-customer (B2C) e-commerce substantiates that usability of information systems predicts transaction intentions and consumer behavior (e.g., [6, 7]). The examination of usability and strain is important in the B2B sector for several reasons. Foremost, human computer interaction research has demonstrated that high usability reduces users’ strain and supports employees’ health behavior in a positive way [8, 9]. This is particular relevant in the B2B sectors where, compared
Optimal Procurement Strategy of Retailer Based on Option Contract with B2B E-Marketplaces


- , 2017,
Abstract: 摘要 针对B2B市场中期权合同在到期日前的可再次交易性,以资金约束的零售商为研究对象,分别构建无融资和有融资两种情形下零售商的收益模型,分析B2B市场中期权合同的可再次交易性对资金约束的零售商最优采购策略的影响。研究表明,期权合同的可再次交易性对两种情形下零售商的最优采购策略都会产生影响:在无融资的情形下,当市场波动水平较高时,随着自有资金的增加,零售商更倾向于使用期权合同采购;在有融资的情形下,随着自有资金的增加,银行贷款利率降低,长期价格合同最优的采购量降低,而期权合同最优的采购量上升。与无融资情形相比,零售商使用期权合同的采购量较低,使用长期价格合同的采购量相对较高
Joint Contract under Inequity Aversion  [PDF]
Guangxing WEI, Yanhong QIN
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2009.23018
Abstract: The standard contract theory adopts the traditional hypothesis of pure self-interest. However, a series of game experiments have proven that people are not any self-interest but also inequity averse. Then, how will the inequity aversion influence the optimal contract for multiple agents? This paper attempts to obtain new theoretical insights by incorporating inequity aversion into the standard frame of optimal contract design. The optimal contract under relatively weak inequity aversion is found to be the relative joint contract, by which payment to each independent agent increases with his own output and others’ and agents with higher output will be paid more, while what under strong, even very strong, inequity aversion is the egalitarian joint contract, by which payment to each independent agent is always equal and hence agents with lower output will not be paid less. Moreover, it is shown that the inequity aversion results in incen-tive efficiency losses as agents with inequity aversion will suffer disutility in face of unfair allocation. Consequently, the principal has to pay additional inequity rent and risk compensation for inequity aversion to the agents, which both are the incentive efficiency losses resulted from inequity aversion and have never been explored by the standard contract theory, besides information rent and risk compensation for asymmetric information, which both have been probed in the standard contract theory deeply. In this way, this paper designs the optimal contracts for multiple agents with more realistic assumptions and hence can explain real economic behaviors more properly.
Offloading in Software Defined Network at Edge with Information Asymmetry: A Contract Theoretical Approach  [PDF]
Yanru Zhang,Lanchao Liu,Yunan Gu,Dusit Niyato,Miao Pan,Zhu Han
Computer Science , 2015, DOI: 10.1007/s11265-015-1038-9
Abstract: The proliferation of highly capable mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets has significantly increased the demand for wireless access. Software defined network (SDN) at edge is viewed as one promising technology to simplify the traffic offloading process for current wireless networks. In this paper, we investigate the incentive problem in SDN-at-edge of how to motivate a third party access points (APs) such as WiFi and smallcells to offload traffic for the central base stations (BSs). The APs will only admit the traffic from the BS under the precondition that their own traffic demand is satisfied. Under the information asymmetry that the APs know more about own traffic demands, the BS needs to distribute the payment in accordance with the APs' idle capacity to maintain a compatible incentive. First, we apply a contract-theoretic approach to model and analyze the service trading between the BS and APs. Furthermore, other two incentive mechanisms: optimal discrimination contract and linear pricing contract are introduced to serve as the comparisons of the anti adverse selection contract. Finally, the simulation results show that the contract can effectively incentivize APs' participation and offload the cellular network traffic. Furthermore, the anti adverse selection contract achieves the optimal outcome under the information asymmetry scenario.
Possibilities for Functional Improvement of B2B Systems on Serbian Market
Zoran Jankovi , Zoran Budimac , Mirjana Ivanovi
Acta Electrotechnica et Informatica , 2011, DOI: 10.2478/v10198-011-0001-3
Abstract: B2B systems are still in a state of flux. There are numerous techniques for implementation and even more approaches for theoretical debut and classification. Most of existing solutions have certain functional limitations, depending on market and industry they serve. This paper focuses on the horizontal network marketplaces, as a specific type of B2B systems. The possibilities for improving functionalities of B2B systems and removing limitation factors in development and use are discussed. It further presents existing wide spread solutions and limitations of Serbian market, as an example of environment with a low level of IT readiness. We designed and implemented B2B Web portal "Market4Net" which offers and illustrates possible improvements in the domain. This portal is intended for Serbian market and aims to overcome described difficulties. Our research mainly concentrates on development aspect of B2B, but also touches some issues related to collaboration management and trust building mechanisms.
Relationships, Human Behaviour and Financial Transactions  [PDF]
Mehdi Chowdhury
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49108
Abstract: It is widely known that relationships and human behaviours such as trust, reciprocity and altruism that are observed in the human societies are capable of facilitating financial transactions. This paper proposes a theoretical model to argue that though these elements can facilitate financial transactions, they may not always ensure efficiency in the sense of creation of additional wealth. As financial resources are scarce, the paper argues that the financial transactions induced by relationships, trust, reciprocity and altruism may lead to inefficient allocations of resources.
XML Based Business-to-Business E-Commerce Frameworks

计算机科学 , 2002,
Abstract: The B2B (Business-to-Business)e-commerce framework solves the key problem-interoperability between enterprise during e-commerce transactions.Firstly,this paper presents several key factors of B2B e-commerce framework by analyzing the role of frameworks.Moreover,this paper analyzeds and compares several international popular B2B frameworks from from the point of view of these factors.Finally,this paper proposes the design principles,objectives and e-commerce transaction language of cnXML (Chiese e-Commerce XML)frameworks.
The relevance of traditional knowledge systems for ethnopharmacological research: theoretical and methodological contributions
Victoria Reyes-García
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4269-6-32
Abstract: I reviewed the literature on traditional knowledge systems highlighting its potential theoretical and methodological contributions to ethnopharmacology.I discuss three potential theoretical contributions of traditional knowledge systems to ethnopharmacological research. First, while many plants used in indigenous pharmacopoeias have active compounds, those compounds do not always act alone in indigenous healing systems. Research highlights the holistic nature of traditional knowledge systems and helps understand plant's efficacy in its cultural context. Second, research on traditional knowledge systems can improve our understanding of how ethnopharmacological knowledge is distributed in a society, and who benefits from it. Third, research on traditional knowledge systems can enhance the study of the social relations that enable the generation, maintenance, spread, and devolution of cultural traits and innovations, including ethnopharmacological knowledge.At a methodological level, some ethnopharmacologists have used anthropological tools to understand the context of plant use and local meanings of health and disease.I discuss two more potential methodological contributions of research on traditional knowledge systems to ethnopharmacological research. First, traditional knowledge systems research has developed methods that would help ethnopharmacologists understand how people classify illnesses and remedies, a fundamental aspect of folk medicinal plant selection criteria. Second, ethnopharmacologists could also borrow methods derived from cultural consensus theory to have a broader look at intracultural variation and at the analysis of transmission and loss of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge.Ethical considerations in the ethnopharmacology of the 21st century should go beyond the recognition of the Intellectual Property Rights or the acquisition of research permits, to include considerations on the healthcare of the original holders of ethnopharmacological
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