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Harnessing information and communication technologies to leverage scarce resources for cancer education, research and practice in developing countries
Valentine B Andela
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-4-1
Abstract: Developing countries currently bear fifty-percent of the global cancer burden and, are projected to bear sixty-percent by the year 2020 [1]. The rise in the cancer case-incidence is for the most part ascribed to social, lifestyle and environmental changes concurrent with economic development and globalization [2,3]. Primarily, the resources mobilized towards improving public health practices and health care delivery, have significantly improved the control capacity of acute life-threatening conditions, increased life expectancies and brought forth chronic conditions such as cancer. Contemporaneously, the HIV/AIDS burden of developing countries would go from a "plague-like" to a manageable chronic endemic condition with its associated malignant complications [4,5]. Secondarily, economic development is bringing about lifestyle changes that significantly increase the lifetime risk of developing cancer. Notable lifestyle changes include a significant uptake in tobacco and alcohol; increased consumption of processed foods low in fiber and high in refined sugars and saturated fat; increased sedentariness as a result of the mechanization of household chores, transportation and industrial activities [2,3]. Furthermore, increased industrial activity results in an increase in environmental pollutants and lifetime exposure to carcinogens [2].In the wake of an overwhelming cancer case-incidence, an already over-extended healthcare system gives way. Presently, because of low levels of awareness and the cost and organizational constraints on access to specialized care as much as 95% of cancer patients in developing countries are diagnosed at late or end stage disease [6-8]. Consequently, treatment outcome is dismally poor [9-11]. A vicious cycle sets in, with public mystification of cancer and the admonishment of cancer medicine as a futile effort, all to the further detriment of patient help-seeking behavior and treatment engagement. The situation spirals down, when the practice
RLA : Revista de Lingüística Teórica y Aplicada , 2009,
Abstract: Las Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunicación han irrumpido con la Web Social o Web 2.0 en el ámbito educativo cuando todavía estamos reflexionando e integrando modelos que incorporan la tecnología en el aula, y desarrollando los modelos de ense anza semipresencial y a distancia en el aprendizaje de lenguas. Desde el Instituto Cervantes se ha creado el Aula Virtual de Espa ol, una plataforma de ense anza-aprendizaje con cursos de espa ol general y cursos para la formación de profesores. En este artículo revisamos los planteamientos y cambios que implica la Web Social para proponer y justificar la evolución del AVE al AVE SOCIAL; repasamos la actual propuesta respecto al modelo de integración del MDD (Material Didáctico Digital) en el aula presencial promoviendo la autonomía del estudiante; y describimos la experiencia de formación de tutores del AVE a distancia siguiendo un enfoque socioconstructivista del aprendizaje en línea. The Information and Communication Technologies irrupted with the Social Web or Web 2.0 in the educational branch, when we were still thinking about the effective way to integrate the ICT in the classroom, and developing the models of blended-learning and e-learning for foreign languages. The Instituto Cervantes has conceived and design the Aula Virtual de Espa ol as a communication environment in which the student has access to the Spanish Courses and the teachers to the online tutor course. In this article, we review the Social Web paradigm, to justify the evolution from the AVE to the Social AVE. We propose five stages to use the e-resources in the classroom promoting the student’s autonomy and we describe the e-learning experience teaching future tutors of the AVE following the socioconstructivism paradigm.
Environmental Policy and Firm Investment Behaviour when Energy Saving Technologies are Available  [PDF]
Emanuela Giusi Gaeta
Technology and Investment (TI) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ti.2010.13020
Abstract: This paper investigates upon the effects of taxation on firm investment behaviour in presence of alternative energy (oil) saving technologies and scarce resources in competitive markets. Socially optimal policies are compared to a decentralized regulatory framework: the paper shows that taxation affects the adoption of different energy saving technologies hence the aggregate amount of energy saving. To our knowledge, there are few works that underline the relationship between environmental policies and firms’ incentives to adopt oil saving technologies. For this reason, we follow the theoretical literature focusing on the effects of environmental policy applied to pollution and climate change by adapting it to the energy saving perspective. We perform a static comparison of environmental policies to show that different levels of the same instrument lead to different results in terms of the number of firms adopting energy saving technologies; multiple equilibrium are possible but there is only one which is socially optimal.
Communication Interface for Mexican Spanish Dysarthric Speakers
Gladys Bonilla-Enriquez,Santiago-Omar Caballero-Morales
Acta Universitaria , 2012,
Abstract: La disartria es una discapacidad motora del habla caracterizada por debilidad o poca coordinación de los músculos del habla. Esta condición puede ser causada por un infarto, parálisis cerebral, o por una lesión severa en el cerebro. Para mexicanos con esta condición hay muy pocas, si es que hay alguna, tecnologías de asistencia para mejorar sus habilidades sociales de interacción. En este artículo presentamos nuestros avances hacia el desarrollo de una interfazde comunicación para hablantes con disartria cuya lengua materna sea el espa ol mexicano. La metodología propuesta depende de (1) dise o especial de un corpus de entrenamiento con voz normal y recursos limitados, (2) adaptación de usuario estándar, y (3) control de la perplejidad del modelo de lenguaje para lograr alta precisión en el Reconocimiento Automático del Habla (RAH). La interfaz permite al usuario y terapéuta el realizar actividades como adaptación dinámica de usuario, adaptación de vocabulario, y síntesis de texto a voz. Pruebas en vivo fueron realizadas con un usuario con disartria leve, logrando precisiones de 93%-95% para habla espontánea. Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speechmuscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, cerebral palsy, or by a traumatic braininjury. For Mexican people with this condition there are few, if any, assistive technologies to improve their social interaction skills. In this paper we present our advances towards the development of a communication interface for dysarthric speakers whose native language is Mexican Spanish. We propose a methodology that relies on (1) special design of a training normal-speech corpus with limited resources, (2) standard speaker adaptation, and (3) control of language model perplexity, to achieve high Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) accuracy. The interface allows the user and therapist to perform tasks such as dynamic speaker adaptation, vocabulary adaptation, and text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis. Live tests were performed with a mildly dysarthric speaker, achieving accuracies of 93%-95% for spontaneous speech.
Smart Grid Communication Technologies  [PDF]
Dmitry Baimel, Saad Tapuchi, Nina Baimel
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2016.48001
Abstract: The smart grid is a new generation of standard power distribution grid. The communication infrastructure is critical for the successful operation of the modern smart grids. The use of communication technologies ensures the reduction of energy consumption, optimal operation of the smart grid and coordination between all smart grids’ components from generation to the end users. This paper presents an overview of existing communication technologies such as ZigBee, WLAN, cellular communication, WiMAX, Power Line Communication (PLC), their implementation in smart grids, advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, the paper shows comparison of communication infrastructure between the legacy grid and the smart grid and smart grid communication standards. The paper also presents research challenges and future trends in communication systems for smart grid application.
Communication Systems for Grid Integration of Renewable Energy Resources  [PDF]
F. Richard Yu,Peng Zhang,Weidong Xiao,Paul Choudhury
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: There is growing interest in renewable energy around the world. Since most renewable sources are intermittent in nature, it is a challenging task to integrate renewable energy resources into the power grid infrastructure. In this grid integration, communication systems are crucial technologies, which enable the accommodation of distributed renewable energy generation and play extremely important role in monitoring, operating, and protecting both renewable energy generators and power systems. In this paper, we review some communication technologies available for grid integration of renewable energy resources. Then, we present the communication systems used in a real renewable energy project, Bear Mountain Wind Farm (BMW) in British Columbia, Canada. In addition, we present the communication systems used in Photovoltaic Power Systems (PPS). Finally, we outline some research challenges and possible solutions about the communication systems for grid integration of renewable energy resources.
WDM in Courses of Communication Technologies
Miloslav Filka,Miroslav Bernkopf
Advances in Electrical and Electronic Engineering , 2008,
Abstract: This conference paper shows and demonstrates how modern technologies (such as WDM – Wavelength Division Multiplex) were introduced to students of Optical Networks lectured at Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Communication, Dept. of Telecommunications.
Information & Communication Technologies in ELT
AbdulMahmoud Idrees Ibrahim
Journal of Language Teaching and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.4304/jltr.1.3.211-214
Abstract: This paper will address modern technology as an Information and Communication Technologies, which has become possible in our communities since the availability of computers. Moreover, to what extend we can exploit it in education in general and English Language teaching / learning (ELT) in particular, according to our conditions and needs. Information Communication Technologies should be exploited effectively to shift from teacher-centered approach to the student-centered approach in teaching or learning English. As technology has created change in all aspects of society, it is also changing our expectations of what students must learn in order to function in the new world. Students will have to learn programmed materials and to steer through large amounts of information via computer into the web, to master new knowledge with these innovative technologies.
Business acceptance of information and communication technologies: an study of the service sector  [cached]
Blanca Hernández Ortega,Julio Jiménez Martínez,Maria José Martín De Hoyos
JISTEM - Journal of Information Systems and Technology Management , 2007,
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse the level of development reached by some Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) such as web pages, e-mail, EDI, and business management software in the business world. To this end, we have concentrated on the business behaviour of the service sector. Nevertheless, the technological development demanded changes depending on the activity of the firm, so the mediator effect of the industry has been tested in the process of acceptance of innovations. Our results show the technology acceptance process is influenced by the perception of both the usefulness and the ease of use of such innovation. Moreover, the industry effect mediates the technological behaviour of the firm; meanwhile, if the firms performs a “traditional activity”, there are less incentives to implement the innovation.
The internationalization of the Spanish Manufacturing Firm: Effect of the specific and generic human capital  [cached]
Cuadernos de Gestión , 2006,
Abstract: The efficiency and competitive capacity of firms depend —besides other factors— on the quality of the human capital which they have. Thus, the objective of this work is to analyze the effect of the firm’s human capital in the decision to enter into the international markets like in the intensity of sales made in these markets using logit and tobit regression models. The empirical analysis is carried out on a sample of Spanish manufacturing firms. The quality of firm’s human capital is evaluated in two ways, on the one side we consider the generic human capital of the employees and on the other side we consider the specific human capital of the employees. The results show that the generic and specific firm’s human capital have a positive and significant effect on both the decision to enter in the international markets and the intensity of sales made in these markets.
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