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Export Mode Heterogenicity and Enterprise Productivity—A Test about Learning by Exporting  [PDF]
Xiaolong Zhang
Modern Economy (ME) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/me.2016.71010
Abstract: Based on the theory of heterogeneous enterprise trade and enterprise micro-data, this paper investigates the influence of direct export and indirect export on enterprise productivity, and explains the knowledge spillovers of the hypothesis of “learning by exporting” from the perspective of the relationship between export and enterprise productivity. Empirical results show that: direct export improves enterprise productivity which increased with the rising of direct export intensity. By contrast, indirect export exerts little influence on enterprise productivity. We conclude that direct export is an important channel for “learning by exporting” which is of great significance to improvement of enterprise productivity.
PRODUCTIVITY ENANCEMENT AND MEASUREMENT IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY  [cached]
Rajkumar P. Patil
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development , 2011,
Abstract: The objective of this study is to explore the understanding of Productivity Concept, Factors Affecting Productivity, Techniques of Increasing Productivity, Pursuit of Productivity and Measurement in Pharmaceutical Industry. Pharmaceutical Manufacturing is evolving from an art form to one that is now science and engineering based. Effectively using this knowledge in evaluating manufacturing processes can substantially improve the efficiency and productivity of manufacturing processes. Productivity is an ability to do better today than yesterday and continuously.
Orientación Exportadora y Productividad en la Industria Manufacturera Chilena
Alvarez,Roberto; López,Ricardo A.;
Cuadernos de economía , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-68212004012400001
Abstract: in this paper, we study empirically the relationship between export orientation and firm productivity in chilean manufacturing industry. similar to findings for other countries and consistent with recent theoretical models, our results show that exporters are significantly more productive than non-exporters. moreover, we found evidence of a clear association between firm productivity and entry and exit from international markets: (i) firms start exporting are more productive than non-exporters, and (ii) firms stop exporting are less productive than those remain exporting. in general, our findings are consistent with a self-selection phenomenon rather than learning-by-exporting
Efficiency and Productivity of Chinese Property Insurance Industry  [cached]
Mingliang Yang
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009,
Abstract: This paper reviewed the development of Chinese insurance market and used DEA approach to explore the efficiency and productivity of major property companies and whole industry. We have found Chinese property insurance experiencing an efficiency decreasing during 2000 to 2002. The productivity of this industry runs counter to rapid increasing of total premium and GDP. In order to improve efficiency and productivity, four policy options are suggested.
Development of a productivity measurement model for tea industry
R. Gupta,S. K. Dey
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: India is the largest tea producing country in the world and tea contributes 1% of the GDP of the country, apart from providing a direct livelihood to a large number of workers. However, in the recent past the productivity performance of Indian tea industry has not been very satisfactory. India’s predominance in the tea production is on decline and this has already started showing its bad effect on all the stakeholders. The tea industry in India must search for a comprehensive productivity improvement strategy to overcome the challenge of high competition from other emerging tea producing countries like Srilanka, Kenya, China, Bangladesh and Indonesia in the global level. As a pre-requisite, the quest for a productivity improvement programme follows productivity measurement. But, meticulous literature survey reveals that no study has been undertaken so far on the productivity measurement of a tea industry. Also, the productivity measurement methods presented in the literature are usually too intricate and difficult to apply. The competency and expertise needed for their implementation is scarce in context of Indian tea industry. With this backdrop this paper attempts to propose a relatively simple productivity measurement model suited to tea industry. For this, productivity accounting model is used and suitably given the form so as to fit to a tea industry. A case study, conducted in a tea industry in Assam, India, to analyze the performance of the model is presented. The study reveals that the model is comprehensive and satisfies the six criteria of measurement theory such as validity, comparability, completeness, timeliness, inclusiveness and cost-effectiveness. Further, the study reveals that the proposed model identifies the areas of poor resource utilization responsible for measured total productivity decline in the tea industry. These resources are labour, material and energy and a number of suggestions have been put forward as a mitigating measure.
The productivity effect of informal employees: The Tshwane tyre-fitting industry as a case study
Gerhardus van Zyl
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v9i1.354
Abstract: Orientation: The article investigated the application of a suitable estimation model to measure the productivity spill over effects of informal employees. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate the sign and magnitude of productivity spill over effects of informal employees when employee and firm characteristics as well as external factors were considered. Motivation for the study: The researcher thought that empirical research was appropriate because of the belief that, because of low productivity levels in the South African workplace, firms are resorting to greater numbers of informal employees in order to generate positive productivity spill over effects that would improve their levels of competitiveness. Research design, approach and methodology: The researcher constructed real data series on the applicable variables from weekly data that he collected from firms in the sample group over the sample period. He then applied the Nelen, de Grip and Fourage estimation model to determine the sign and magnitude of the spill over effects for the different employee segments. Main findings: The informal employee segment created greater positive productivity spill over effects. This was especially true for older informal employees with longer tenures and lower levels of absenteeism. External factors, like variations in market demand, improved the positive spill over effects that informal employees generated. Practical/managerial implications: Firms might reconsider the composition of their workforce if the informal employee segment consistently generated higher positive productivity spill over effects. Contribution/value-add: The researcher has introduced an estimation procedure that firms can apply to measure the productivity spill over effects of formal and informal employee segments at firm and industry level. How to cite this article: Van Zyl, G. (2011). The productivity effect of informal employees: The Tshwane tyre-fitting industry as a case study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 9(1), Art. #354, 6 pages. doi:10.4102/sajhrm.v9i1.354
Quantitative Analysis of the Structured Productivity of Tourism Industry: Taking Sichuan Province as an Example  [cached]
Tao Liao
International Journal of Business and Management , 2009, DOI: 10.5539/ijbm.v5n1p104
Abstract: Reasonable structure of the tourism industry is very important for the long-term development of the tourism industry for one country (region). By the quantitative method to analyze the structure of productivity in the development economics, the computation methods of the structure proportion of the tourism industry, the structure change index and the structure productivity coefficient are proposed in the theory, and based on the empirical study taking Sichuan Province as the example, the idea to improve the productivity structure of the tourism industry is proposed in the article.
A review of productivity analysis of the New Zealand construction industry  [cached]
Chris Carson,Malcolm Abbott
Australasian Journal of Construction Economics and Building , 2012,
Abstract: In recent years there has been a rising interest in the level of productivity and efficiency of the New Zealand construction industry. This interest has meant that there has been an increased use of statistical techniques to determine the productivity and efficiency of the overall industry. The purpose of this paper is to review the various measures that have been used to gauge the levels of productivity and efficiency in the New Zealand construction industry; as well as analyse some of the results to date. Finally, it considers potential areas for future research.
Does employee remuneration dispersion in the South African economy enhance labour productivity? The Gauteng manufacturing industry as a case study
Gerhardus van Zyl
South African Journal of Human Resource Management , 2010, DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.286
Abstract: Orientation: The paper dealt with the application of a suitable econometric estimation model or procedure to measure the relation between employee-remuneration gaps and labour productivity in the Gauteng manufacturing industry. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate the sign and magnitude of the relation between employee-remuneration gaps and labour productivity econometrically. The Gauteng manufacturing sector was used as a case study. Motivation for the study: The empirical research was deemed necessary given the current important debate on the perceived impact and fairness of expanding employee-remuneration gaps in the South African workplace. International studies have been conducted on this particular topic but very limited empirical research has been published regarding the South African situation. Research design, approach and method: A log-linear two-step OLS estimation was used to estimate the sign and magnitude of the relation between employee-remuneration gaps and labour productivity. Employee remuneration gap-labour productivity (ERGLP) indicator coefficients were estimated, taking into consideration employee characteristics, skill levels and business or economic uncertainty. Main findings: The signs of the ERGLP indicator coefficients were positive in terms of all the categories, indicating a positive relation between employment-remuneration gaps and labour productivity (at varying magnitudes). The squared ERGLP indicator coefficients confirmed the existence of diminishing marginal productivity characteristics after an optimal employee- remuneration gap level. Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that, given the unionised nature of the lower-skilled employee segment in South Africa, greater labour-productivity gains for organisations would stem from a more dispersed employee-remuneration regime for the higher-skilled employee segment (albeit in a less uncertain business or economic environment). Contribution/value-add: An econometric estimation procedure that can be applied to the measurement of the productivity gains of employee-remuneration gaps for different industries in the South African economy was established. How to cite this article: Van Zyl, G. (2010). Does employee remuneration dispersion in the South African economy enhances labour productivity? The Gauteng manufacturing industry as a case study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management/SA Tydskrif vir Menslikehulpbronbestuur, 8(1), Art. #286, 5 pages. DOI: 10.4102/sajhrm.v8i1.286
Innovation Barriers and Enablers that Affect Productivity in Uganda Building Industry
Henry Mwanaki Alinaitwe, , and,Kristian Widén,Jackson Mwakali,Bengt Hansson
Journal of Construction in Developing Countries , 2007,
Abstract: The construction industry has of recent been blamed for lack of innovation. Lack of innovation in the industry is believed to be responsible for the decreasing or stagnant levels of productivity in comparison with other industries. This paper reviews the major barriers and enablers to innovation in general. Propositions were made about the factors that affect innovation in the construction industry which were then formulated into a questionnaire. A survey was made on building contractors in Uganda, a developing country, targeting those with financial strength, large in size, and with high capacity to carry out big projects. The identified factors were then ranked and correlated. The level of training in science, engineering and technical education, and the level of research and development at the industry level are looked at as the greatest innovation enablers in building that will drive forward labour productivity. The size of the domestic market and the level of security are the worst innovation barriers that lead to low productivity in the building industry in Uganda. Contractors, policy makers and the government should address the identified factors in order to improve productivity.
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