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Newborn cord care practices amongst mothers in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
PI Opara, T Jaja, TG Okari
Jos Journal of Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Background:Cord care is an important community based intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality in newborns. Poor cord care practices promote neonatal infections which account for a large proportion of the annual global neonatal deaths most of which are in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study explored cord care practices amongst mothers in Port Harcourt. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out amongst mothers presenting with children 0-6 months old to the Paediatric Outpatient and Infant Welfare Clinics of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital. Data were collected using a simple structured questionnaire. Information obtained included biodata, age and sex of last baby, social class, place of antenatal care and delivery, and cord care practices. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16.0 Results: Two hundred and ten mothers participated in the study. 71.9% were of high social class. Over 80% received antenatal care in recognized Government hospitals, while 24 (11.5%) had traditional birth attendant (TBA)/home deliveries. Mothers' level of education was significantly associated with place of antenatal care and place of delivery (p= 0.000). 36.2% of mothers did not know what was used to cut baby's cord. 200 (95.3%) used methylated spirit to clean the cord but 69 (32.4%) applied potentially dangerous substances after cleaning with methylated spirit. 2.9% of mothers reported cord problems. Conclusion: Although most mothers had antenatal care in Government hospitals, there was a high rate of use of potentially dangerous substances for cord care. There is need for continued education of mothers on correct cord care practices.
Economic Analysis of Horticultural Enterprises in Yenagoa Metropolis of Bayelsa State, Nigeria
PE Kainga, OG Johnson
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2012,
Abstract: The study was on Economic analysis of horticultural enterprises in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State, Nigeria. A total of 8 horticultural enterprises were chosen through a pilot survey to form the sample size. Results show that horticultural farming is an activity for both males and females. A greater number of the horticultural farmers, who were married with an average household size of 5, fall within the age range of 31 – 40 years, which inferred that horticultural farming is not an activity of the teenage and also not for the aged. Majority of the horticultural farmers acquired formal education in order to meet the technical demands of the business. Results also show that majority of the horticultural farmers engage in full time farming with 1-5 years experience. They do not have access to extension services and formal borrowing of capital in spite of the existing commercial banks in the study area. Most of them do not belong to farmers co-operative or association. They acquired land by lease and employ both hired and family labour. They engage in nursing and pinning propagation methods and involve mainly floriculture and ornamental plant practices. The result shows that horticultural enterprises incurred fixed cost of 34,012.50, variable cost of 74,297.56, with a total cost of 108,310.06, and realised a total revenue of 366,813.00 and an estimated Net Farm Income of 258,502.94, which implies that horticultural farming in Yenagoa metropolis of Bayelsa State is a profitable venture.
Economics of Plantain Production in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State
PE Kainga, IT Seiyabo
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2012,
Abstract: The study examines the economics of plantain production in Yenagoa Local Government Area of Bayelsa State. To do this, 63 structured questionnaire were administered among randomly selected plantain farmers in Yenagoa Local Government Area of the State. Results show that greater number of the plantain producers surveyed fall within the age bracket of 36-50 years. The result also showed an estimated average farm size of 0.7 hectares for plantain production. Output per hectare was estimated at 500 bunches per year, and sold at an average cost of 600.00 per bunch. The total cost of production per hectare was estimated at 76,580.00, with total annual revenue of 300,000.00. Net income was estimated at 223, 420.00. The result shows that plantain production in the study area is profitable. The double log production function had the best fit to the set of data employed in the analysis of input –output relationship in plantain production. The value of the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) obtained and its statistical test at 5% and 1% indicate that farm size, labour, number of suckers, fertilizer, amount of capital, age of farmer and farmer’s experience explain about 89.2% of the variation in quantity of plantain produced. The result further showed that fertilizer application had no significant relationship at both 1% and 5% level. Majority of the plantain farmers complained of inadequate capital investment, inadequate land and poor extension service among others in the study area.
SOME HEAVY METAL INVESTIGATIONS IN GROUNDWATER SOURCES IN YENAGOA, BAYELSA STATE, NIGERIA  [PDF]
H.O. NWANKWOALA,G.J. UDOM,S.A. UGWU
Journal of Applied Technology in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: This study deals with the determination of heavy metals, namely Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg and Cu in the groundwater sources in parts of Yenagoa Town, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. Numerous activities carried out in the area have direct or indirect impact on the groundwater. Large scale concentrated source of pollutants such as industrial discharge and subsurface injection of chemicals are obvious source of groundwater pollutants. Groundwater samples were collected from twelve (12) locations in the study area and the concentrations were determined with Atomic Absorption Spec-trophotometer (AAS). The analytical results of the study reveals that heavy metal con-centrations in the groundwater sources in the area is high in majority of the locations, with iron (Fe) values ranging from 0.06mgL-1 to 43.09mgL-1 while manganese (Mn) ranges between 0.12mgL-1 to 2.34mgL-1. Zinc (Zn) ranges between 0.15mgL-1 to 10.09mgL-1 with Nickel (Ni) concentration ranging from Below Detectable Limit (BDL) to 0.02mgL-1. Chromium (Cr) concentration ranges from 0.01mgL-1 to 0.18mgL-1, with Lead (Pb) ranging from 0.21mgL-1 to 0.42mgL-1. Arsenic (As) levels ranges from BDL to 0.01mgL-1. Cadmium (Cd) concentrations also ranges from BDL to 0.03mgL-1, with Mercury (Hg) ranging between 0.07mgL-1 to 0.78mgL-1. Copper (Cu) also ranges from 0.01mgL-1 to 1.31mgL-1. To remediate the effects of the polluted water in some parts of the area, it is recommended that a systematic study of the heavy metals concentrations in groundwater sources should be carried out regularly. This is very imperative as the inhabitants of the area depend on groundwater for drinking purposes. More importantly, mass awareness should be generated about the effects of heavy metals on water quali-ty and human health.
Investigation into the physico-chemical properties and hydrochemical processes of groundwater from commercial boreholes In Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
OE Agbalagba, OH Agbalagba, CP Ononugbo, AA Alao
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: The physico-chemical and hydrochemical study of commercial borehole waters in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State have been carried out. Eight commercial borehole water samples were analyze for various physico-chemical parameters using standard methods. The results obtained shows that the water samples quality examined compared favourably with WHO (1998) standard for drinking water. Although the values for pH (5.20±0.14, 6.10±0.10, 6.20±0.10, 6.20±0.20 in well 2, 5, 6, and 7 respectively), electrical conductivity (EC) of 520.00±5.50 mS/cm in well 7, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of 9.55±0.26 mg/L in well 3, Ca (9.25±0.10, 8.25±0.03 and 7.90±0.10 mg/L in well 2, 3, and 7 respectively) and all values obtained for Fe exceeded the WHO permissible limits for safe drinking water. The concentration of heavy metals; lead, copper, chromium, cadmium and arsenic (major sources of ground water pollution) were below detectable limit except at well 5, 6, and 7 where lead values of 0.03±0.001, 0.008±0.00, 0.04±0.00 mg/L respectively were obtained. The hydrochemical analysis shows that ion exchange and silicate weathering are the major prevailing hydrochemical processes in the groundwater. All the results obtained were however not significantly different from other reported values within the Niger Delta region. The higher concentrations of some of the parameters (pH, Ec, BOD, Fe, Ca2+) and the present of lead in some samples is an indication of some levels of pollution in the boreholes/ground water. This therefore calls for appropriate treatment measures before the consumption of these waters by the populace to avoid long term accumulative health problems of these pollutants. Recommendations on the strategies to reduce/eliminate some of these pollutants were made.
Effects of Urbanization and Agricultural Expansion on the Upsurge of Wild Rats (Rattus rattus) in Yenagoa Metropolis of Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [cached]
A. Ebenezer,W. Burubai
Research Journal of Applied Sciences, Engineering and Technology , 2012,
Abstract: In this study, the impact of habitat characteristics on the abundance and relative distribution of wild black rats (Rattus rattus) as influenced by human activities was investigated in Yenagoa and its environs in Bayelsa state of Nigeria. Consequently three ecological zones namely: 1.zone of stable urban centre, 2.zone of rapid urban transformation, and 3.zone of undisturbed rural centre were mapped out with three ecological subsets from each zone. These subsets include; site A-undisturbed landscape area, site B-stable human settlement area and site C-refuse dump site area. Standard trapping procedures were then adopted using bread and raw cassava as baits. A total of 1411 black rats were caught in 1002 trap nights representing a mean trap success of 46.9%. The relative abundance of rats caught were highest in zone 2 with 46.4% and lowest in zone 1 with 11.9%. An analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference in the abundance of rats in the various study zones (|Fcal| = 1.626, MSE = 21168.11, p<0.05). A Post Hoc analysis also shows a significant difference on the influence of site structure on black rat population. It is therefore worthwhile to conclude that black rat can be used as bioindicator to monitor the ecosystem health in an environment of growing human population.
Refractive error blindness in Yenagoa, Bayelsa state, Nigeria: a hospital based study
IR Azonobi
Benin Journal of Postgraduate Medicine , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Despite the priority attention giving to refractive error in vision 2020 programme, blindness due to uncorrected refractive error is relatively unexplored. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence and causes of refractive error blindness in Yenagoa. Method: All consecutive patients presenting to our eye clinic that were diagnosed to have refractive error over a one year period was studied. They underwent a full ocular examination including anterior and posterior segment examination, objective and subjective refraction. Objective refraction was done using a Carl Zeiss 599R autorefractometer. Information obtained included their age, sex, occupation, presenting visual acuity, history of couching and that of cataract surgery without an implant. Statistical analysis was done manually using a scientific calculator. Results: 1168 patients was seen during the study period and 135 persons had refractive error. Of the number with refractive error, 63 were males while 72 were females (M:F=1:1.4). Their age ranged from 6 to 83 years with a mean of 35.7 years (SD±4.102). The prevalence of refractive error blindness was 0.68 %. High myopia accounted for 75% of the blindness while high hyperopia and aphakia accounted for 12.5% each respectively. The prevalence of low vision due to refractive error was 2.5%. Myopia was responsible for half of the cases of low vision while hyperopia and astigmatism accounted for 30% and 16% respectively. Aphakia was responsible for 3.3% of low vision seen. Conclusion: Uncorrected refractive error is potentially blinding with a prevalence of 0.68% in this population, myopia being responsible for majority of cases. Health education is needed to create awareness on the availability of refractive error services in this population in order to stem the tide of needless blindness.
Public-Private Partnership Arrangement in In-Situ Housing for Slum Rehabilitation in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
A. F. Ebakpa, A. E. Gobo, S. A. Ngah, T. K. S. Abam
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2017.812094
Abstract: The provision of decent accommodation is a major challenge to government in the developing nations. It is a common phenomenon in the urban centres of the developing nations where most houses are in deplorable conditions. The houses are overcrowded with little or no air space between them. There is no basic sanitation in the urban centres as they lack flush toilet, some of the few available flush toilets are piped into seasonal streams, most houses lack defined kitchen areas and healthy sewage disposal method. The cities lack good access roads and functional drainage system with a common practice of environmentally-unfriendly solid waste management methods that create various health challenges to urban dwellers. The aim of the study is to show how in-situ Housing method of slum rehabilitation can be applied through Public/Private Partnership to upgrade houses within a major slum area in Yenagoa. This shall be done with an agreement between the property owners, Real Estate investors and the state government. Basic Research Methodology was applied using questionnaire, direct observation and personal interview techniques to collect data. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were applied to analyse data through the use of tables and charts. The findings in the study showed that poor housing condition seriously degrade the environmental quality of the study area. The standard of living in the area is very poor as the people lack access to decent accommodation, basic sanitation and social amenities.
Cost Reduction Technique in Infrastructural Improvement Method for Slum Rehabilitation in Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria  [PDF]
Andrew Feyaikebena Ebakpa, Akuro Ephraim Gobo, Sabastine Amauche Ngah
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.54028
Abstract:
The poor state of sanitary services is a major environmental challenge in urban centres of Nigeria. The situation has reached a crisis proportion in the absence of basic sanitary services like modern toilet, good sewage management method, functional drainage system, good roads, environmentally- friendly solid waste disposal method, potable water, electricity and social amenities. The aim of the study is to show how infrastructural improvement method of slum rehabilitation can be applied to reduce costs for improving environmental quality of a major slum area in Yenagoa. Basic Research Methodology was applied using questionnaire, direct observation and personal interview techniques to collect data. Both qualitative and quantitative techniques were applied to analyse data through the use of tables and charts. The findings in the study showed that poor condition of sanitary services seriously degrades the environmental quality of the study area. The standard of living in the area is very poor as the people lack access to basic sanitation and social amenities. It showed that only 2% of the households exclusively use water closet (wc) toilet; 4% have well-maintained septic tanks; none of the houses are on road with functional drainage system; 10% of the houses are on tarred roads of 10 or more metres right-of-way and none of the households use environmentally-friendly solid waste management method.
Factors Affecting Newborn Care Practices Among Tharu Mothers in Selected Vilalge Development Committees of Chitwan Distract  [PDF]
J Chaudhary,GP Dhungana,Harish Chandra Ghimire
Journal of Chitwan Medical College , 2013, DOI: 10.3126/jcmc.v3i1.8465
Abstract: Although under five and infant mortality has been reducing in Nepal, neonatal mortality remains largely unchanged. New-born care practices in the family and in the community acts as contributing factors which could be improved by adopting simple interventions at community level. The objective of the study was to identify newborn care practices (cord care, breastfeeding, and bathing) and factors affecting it. The study is crosssectional descriptive and analytical conducted at Bachauli and Khairahani VDCs of Chitwan district from July to December 2012. A total 181 Tharu mothers were inter-viewed using semi structured interview schedule. Data processing and analysis was done using SPSS. The study revealed that 99.4% newborns had cord care (cutting, tying and applying nothing or using antiseptic). All newborns were breastfed and given colostrums as first feed but initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery was only 52.5 %. Ninety seven per cent were bathed after 24 hours of delivery. Mothers who knew about newborn care were more likely to practice cord care (OR=0.10, 95% CI=0.02-0.41) in comparison to mothers who do not know about it. Compared to mothers with second-ary and primary education, mothers having higher education were breastfeeding within one hour of delivery (OR= 2.06, 95% CI=1.12-3.81). Delaying in bathing was more practiced in institutional deliveries compared to home deliveries (OR= 12.11, 95% CI=1.65-88.64). Overall newborn care practices were acceptable as per the findings of this study. Awareness programs regarding initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of delivery should be strengthening. Journal of Chitwan Medical College 2013; 3(1): 42-45 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmc.v3i1.8465
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