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Accumulation of nutrients in sweet peppers cultivated in coconut fiber
Charlo, Hamilton César de O;Oliveira, Sueyde F de;Vargas, Pablo F;Castoldi, Renata;Barbosa, José Carlos;Braz, Leila T;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362012000100021
Abstract: the production of sweet peppers in greenhouse has been severely affected by soil pathogens. with this, producers are adopting new cultivation techniques, such as cultivation in substrates, but information about this type of cultivation are still scarce. the aim of the present work was to evaluate nutrient accumulation in sweet peppers cultivated in coconut fiber with fertirrigation in greenhouse. initially, 160 plants (eppo cultivar) were divided into four blocks, where two plants per block were analyzed every 21 days after transplanting. the sweet peppers were cultivated in plastic pots of 13 l, containing coconut fiber, and placed in double rows with spacing of 0.5 x 0.8 m between single rows and 1.10 m between double rows. the commercial production of the mature fruits was estimated to be 97.3 t ha -1, where all the production was classified as extra (maximum quality). the accumulation of the various determined nutrients were: 8.22 g plant -1 of n, 1.14 g plant -1 of p, 7.84 g plant -1 of k, 3.25 g plant -1 of ca, 1.34 g plant -1 of mg, 2.24 g plant -1 of s, 16.65 mg plant -1 of b, 3.36 mg plant -1 of cu, 45.98 mg plant -1 of fe, 34.78 mg plant -1 of mn and 22.28 mg plant -1 of zn.
Pollination efficiency of the stingless bee Melipona subnitida on greenhouse sweet pepper
Cruz, Darci de Oliveira;Freitas, Breno Magalh?es;Silva, Luis Ant?nio da;Silva, Eva M?nica Sarmento da;Bomfim, Isac Gabriel Abrah?o;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2005001200006
Abstract: the present study was carried out in northeastern region of brazil, in order to investigate the use of stingless bee melipona subnitida ducke in the pollination of greenhouse sweet pepper (capsicum annuum l.). treatments of hand cross-pollination, hand self-pollination, pollination by bees and restricted pollination were performed. results showed that despite sweet pepper flowers are considered autogamous, this crop benefits from pollination by m. subnitida, producing fruits significantly heavier and wider, containing a greater number of seeds and of better quality (lower percentage of malformed fruits) than self-pollinated sweet pepper. thus, m. subnitida can be considered an efficient pollinator of greenhouse sweet pepper.
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling to Improve Natural Flow Rate and Sweet Pepper Productivity in Greenhouse  [PDF]
W. Limtrakarn,P. Boonmongkol,A. Chompupoung,K. Rungprateepthaworn,J. Kruenate,P. Dechaumphai
Advances in Mechanical Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/158563
Abstract: Natural flow rate and sweet peppers productivity in tropical greenhouse are improved by CFD simulation is the main objective of this research work. Most of the greenhouse types today are in the arch shape. To develop an improved greenhouse structure for the region, the arch type was built and used as the control model. Mae Sar Mai agriculture research station under the royal project foundation was selected as the field test site. Temperature sensors with data logger were installed to monitor variation of temperature inside the greenhouse. The measured temperature data were used as the boundary conditions for the CFD analysis. A new greenhouse model with two-step roof shape was designed and the air flow behavior was simulated by using CFD. Regarding CFD results the air flow rate of the new model is about 39% higher than that of old model. The maximum temperature of the new model is lower than that of the old one. The sweet paper growths in both greenhouse models were measured and compared. Results show that the new model obtains 4°C lower maximum temperature in day time, 97% in number and 90% in weight higher the first grade pepper productivity than the old one. 1. Introduction During the past decades, several types of greenhouses with different shapes have been used for crop growing in Thailand. These are the Ridge and Furrow, Saw-tooth, Venlo, Quonset, Gothic arch, and Tunnel shapes. Most of them were originally designed and used in the European countries. These models are introduced and constructed in the northern region of Thailand. In the past, most greenhouses can not yield good production as they do in the cool climate countries. Structure configurations have been modified so that they are suitable for the high-land area. Plant production and growth in tropical countries strongly depend on the greenhouse shapes and their dimensions. They also depend on the temperature, humidity, ventilation, solar heat transmission, covering materials, CO2, and so forth [1, 2]. Many research works have been performed to improve their performance by studying natural ventilation inside [3–11]. Few of them studied the temperature, pressure and flow patterns by using the CFD analysis [12–14] and effect from the insect-proof screen installation [7, 15]. Plastic greenhouse is mostly used in the northern region of Thailand because of its low cost, ease of installation, and maintenance. There are some research works that study the plant production in plastic greenhouses [2, 16, 17]. Recently, some works have investigated the micro-climate effect for increasing plant
Simulation model on the formation of greenhouse sweet pepper leaf area index.

DIAO Ming,DAI Jian-feng,LUO Wei-hong,YUAN Chang-mei,BU Chong-xing,XIAN Kai-mei,ZHANG Sheng-fei,XU Rui,

应用生态学报 , 2008,
Abstract: Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important crop parameters in photosynthesis- driving crop growth simulation model and canopy evapotranspiration simulation model, while air temperature and radiation are the important climate factors affecting crop leaf growth. In this paper, experiments with different sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars and sowing dates were conducted in greenhouse to quantitatively analyze the relationships of the number of unfolding leaves per plant, the number of old leaves removed per plant, and the length of each leaf with air temperature and radiation. Based on these quantitative relationships, a leaf area simulation model for greenhouse sweet pepper was developed, and the independent experimental data were used to validate the model. The results showed that the number of unfolding leaves per plant was a positive exponential function of the product of thermal effectiveness and PAR (TEP) accumulated after emergence, and the length of each leaf was a negative exponential function of the TEP accumulated after emergence. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the root mean squared error (RMSE) between simulated and measured leaf number, leaf length, and LAI were 0.94, 0.89, and 0.93, and 3.4, 2.15, and 0.15, respectively. The model could use air temperature, radiation, planting density, and emergence date to satisfactorily predict the LAI of greenhouse sweet pepper, and supply required LAI information for the sweet pepper growth and canopy evapotranspiration simulation models.
Study on the effect of photosynthetic bacteria liquid on the growth of sweet pepper

XIA Qing,XIA Hong,ZHANG Jin-Feng,
夏 青
,夏 宏,张晋风

中国生态农业学报 , 2006,
Abstract: The effect of photosynthetic bacteria liquid on the growth and output of sweet pepper was tested in the greenhouse.It shows that the photosynthetic rate of sweet pepper,peroxidase activities and the content of chlorophll have been increased considerably.Therefore,the yield of sweet pepper is increased.
Sweet pepper production in substrate in response to salinity, nutrient solution management and training system
Rubio, José S;Pereira, Walter E;Garcia-Sanchez, Francisco;Murillo, Luis;García, Antonio L;Martínez, Vicente;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362011000300003
Abstract: the objective of the present study was to evaluate the marketable fruit yield of sweet pepper plants (capsicum annuum cv. orlando) in function of the management of nutrient solution with training system. plants were grown on coconut coir dust under greenhouse conditions in the southeast of spain. a randomized block design in split-split plot with four blocks was used to test the effect of the nutrient solution strength (full or half-strength hoagland nutrient solution), training system (two and three stems per plant) and water salinity (saline and non-saline) on total and marketable yield, fruit quality, and fruit mineral concentration. salt treatment decreased fruit yield by decreasing the fruit fresh weight but not the number of fruits per plant. under saline and non-saline conditions, the higher yield of fruits was obtained in plants watered with half-strength hoagland solution, and grown with three stems per plant. blossom end rot incidence increased under saline conditions or using full-strength hoagland solution, but decreased with the combination of half-strength hoagland solution and three-stem training system. salt treatment also decreased fruit quality in all the treatments due to a decrease in po2-, so42-, fe2+;3+, cu1+;2+ and mn2+ concentrations, and fruit shape index. likewise, plants exposed to salinity and watered with half-strength hoagland solution and trained with three stems showed a reduction in juice glucose and fructose concentration. based on these results, an increase of the marketable fruit yield could be obtained under non or moderate saline conditions with the implementation of suitable culture practices.
The dynamics of the carbohydrates accumulation in Solanacee leaves cultivated in different technological systems  [cached]
Ligia Acatrinei
Analele ?tiin?ifice Ale Universit??ii Alexandru Ioan Cuza din Ia?i,Sectiunea II A : Genetica si Biologie Moleculara , 2010,
Abstract: Our research about cultivated plants from protected spaces(greenhouse and solariums) observed the variation of the carbohydrates parameters in different technological systems(ecologic and conventional). It were studied species from the Solanaceae Family such as: Lycopersicon esculentum Mill (tomato), Capsicum annum L.(sweet pepper) and Solanum melongena L. (eggplant). Sugars metabolism was evaluated through analysis of the mono-, di and polysaccharides at the different phenophases: flowering, ripening and maturity. It was made a comparison between the sugars accumulation in leaves depending of the fertilizing technology (chemical or organic). The sugar parameters have a more accelerated dynamics in conventional culture systems than in ecologic one. In this technological system (classic), carbohydrates have a decreasing dynamics from flowering until ripening, meanwhile the accumulation of the carbohydrates in leaves of plant from ecologic systems have an increasing curve. Disaccharides were well represented in studied plant, in all phenophases, indifferent of type of the protected spaces (solarium or greenhouse).
Estado nutricional do piment o cultivado em solo tratado com diferentes tipos de biofertilizantes = Nutritional status of sweet pepper cultivated in soils treated with different types of biofertilizer
Gibran Silva Alves,Djail Santos,Jandiê Araújo Silva,José Adeilson Medeiros Nascimento
Acta Scientiarum : Agronomy , 2009,
Abstract: O uso de biofertilizantes líquidos é umas das práticas da agricultura organica com finalidade de obter nutri o balanceada das plantas. Como resultado, espera-se níveis mais elevados de produtividade sem aumentos significativos nos custos. Objetivou-se com este trabalho verificar o estado nutricional do piment o (Capsicum annuum L.), em resposta à aplica o de diferentes fontes e doses de biofertilizantes. O experimento foi realizado no Sítio Macaquinhos, em Remígio, estado da Paraíba. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em esquema fatorial 2 × 5, referente a duas fontes de biofertilizante e cinco doses de cálcio (0; 0,65; 1,30; 1,95 e 2,60 g cova-1 de cálcio). As covas foram abertas em espa amento de 1 × 0,50 m e preenchidas com 2 L de esterco bovino e 1 L de cinza vegetal. Os biofertilizantes puro e agrobio foram preparados 30 e 60 dias antes do plantio, respectivamente. No início da flora o, as plantas depiment o encontravam-se nutricionalmente deficientes em nitrogênio, cálcio e magnésio, mas equilibradas em fósforo, potássio e enxofre. Apesar do acréscimo de macro e micronutrientes no agrobio, ao final do experimento, constatou-se que os resultados foram semelhantes quanto ao estado nutricional das plantas. Use of liquid biofertilizers is one of the practices of organic agriculture that aims to achieve balanced plant nutrition. As a result, higher yield levels are expected, with no significant cost increases. The aim of this work is to verify the nutritional status of sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) in response to the application ofdifferent rates and sources of biofertilizer. The experiment was carried out at Sítio Macaquinhos, in the municipality of Remigio, Paraíba State, Brazil. Treatments were distributed in a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement, representing the two biofertilizer sources andfive calcium rates (0; 0.65; 1.30; 1.95 and 2.60 g pit-1 of calcium). Pits were spaced 1 × 0.50 m apart, filled to the top with 2 L of cattle manure and 1 L of vegetable ash. The pure form and agrobio biofertilizers were prepared 30 and 60 days before the sowing date, respectively. In the beginning of the flowering stage, sweet pepper plants were nutritionally deficient in nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, but were balanced in phosphorous, sulfur and potassium. In spite of higher levels of macro and micronutrients in agrobio, it was established at the end of the experiment that the results on plant mineral composition were similar.
Respuesta del pimiento morrón al secado parcial de la raíz en hidroponia e invernadero Response of sweet pepper to partial root drying in hydroponic and greenhouse  [cached]
Juan Antonio Chamú-Baranda,Anselmo López-Ordaz,Carlos Ramírez-Ayala,Carlos Trejo-López
Revista mexicana de ciencias agrícolas , 2011,
Abstract: La presente investigación, se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto de dos niveles de humedad residual en el sustrato, bajo la técnica de secado parcial de la raíz sobre el crecimiento, rendimiento, relaciones hídricas e intercambio de gases de plantas de pimiento morrón (Capsicum annuum L.) Cannon F1. El experimento se estableció en 2009, en el Campus Montecillo del Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas, México. Los tratamientos se distribuyeron bajo un dise o completamente al azar con cuatro repeticiones y fueron: 1) SPR80-80, con raíz dividida, y humedad residual del sustrato en ambos recipientes ≥80%; 2) SPR80-30, con raíz dividida, y humedad residual del sustrato en uno de los recipientes ≥80% y el otro ≥30% con ciclos de alternancia; y 3) testigo, con sistema radical completo, y humedad residual del sustrato ≥80%. La fertilización se realizó a través del sistema de riego por goteo, con solución nutritiva de Steiner (1984) a un potencial osmótico de -0.046 MPa. Durante el periodo experimental, se midieron variables relacionadas con el crecimiento, rendimiento, relaciones hídricas, intercambio de gases y calidad del fruto sometiéndose al análisis de varianza y prueba de Tukey al 5% de probabilidad. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que las plantas bajo SPR80-30, tuvieron una eficiencia en el uso del agua y fertilizantes 24% mayor, que el tratamiento testigo, además de aumentar los sólidos solubles totales sin alterar significativamente el crecimiento y rendimiento de las plantas. This study was carried out with the purpose of evaluating the effect of two levels of residual humidity on the substrate, using the technique of partially drying the root, on growth, yield, water relations and gas exchange for sweet pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) Cannon F1. The experiment was carried out in 2009, in the Montecillo Campus of the Colegio de Postgraduados en Ciencias Agrícolas, Mexico. Treatments were distributed under a design completely at random, with four repetitions as follows: 1) SPR80-80, with a split root and residual humidity of the substrate in both containers ≥80%; 2) SPR80-30, with a split root and residual humidity of the substrate in one of the containers ≥80% and the other ≥30% with alternance cycles; and 3) control, with a complete root system, and a residual humidity of the substrate ≥80%. Fertilization was performed through drip irrigation, with Steiner solution (1984) at an osmotic potential of -0.046 MPa. During the experimental period, variables related to growth, yield, water relations, gas exchange and fruit quality w
Biomass allocation and water use efficiency in fertigated sweet pepper
Albuquerque, Francimar da S.;Silva, ênio F. de F. e;Nunes, Marcus F. F. N.;Souza, Amanda E. R. de;
Engenharia Agrícola , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-69162012000200011
Abstract: the use of productivity information and efficiency of water use is important for the economic analysis of production and irrigation management, and also helps the economy of water use, which is essential to plant life. the objective of this study was to evaluate the biomass allocation, the water use efficiency and water content in fruits of sweet pepper cropped under the influence of irrigation blades and potassium doses. the statistic design was a completely randomized factorial scheme (5 x 2) and four replications, with five irrigation blades (80; 90; 100; 110 and 120% of crop evapotranspiration) and two levels of potassium (80 and 120 kg k2o ha-1 ), applied according to phenological phase, through a system of drip irrigation with self-compensated drippers, installed in a battery of 40 drainage lysimeters cultivated with sweet pepper (maximos f1), at federal rural university of pernambuco (ufrpe), recife, state of pernambuco, brazil. the dry biomass production of sweet pepper was influenced by fertigation regimes; when it was set the lowest dose, estimates of the efficiency of water use and moisture in the fruit occurred with the use of irrigation depth of 97 and 95% of etc, respectively.
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