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Growth analysis of sweet pepper cultivated in coconut fiber in a greenhouse
Charlo, Hamilton César de O;Oliveira, Sueyde F de;Castoldi, Renata;Vargas, Pablo F;Braz, Leila T;Barbosa, José Carlos;
Horticultura Brasileira , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-05362011000300010
Abstract: knowledge about the growth of crops allows the planning of rational cultivation methods which contribute to achieve greater potential of plant species, besides supplying information for the construction of descriptive mathematical models of growth. the growth curve of sweet pepper (eppo hybrid), cultivated in coconut fiber in a greenhouse with fertirrigation, was determined. the experiment consisted initially of 160 plants divided into four blocks. two plants were analyzed per block every 21 days after transplanting, ending at 189 days after transplant. the cultivation was carried out in plastics pots of 13 l containing coconut fiber, which were arranged in double rows, spaced 0.5 x 0.8 m between simple rows and 1.1 m between double rows. in each harvest the plant growth, production and quality of mature fruits were evaluated. the dry mass of the shoot increased with time, following the experimental model exponential of first order, reaching a maximum of 451.5 g/plant, 189 days after transplanting (dat). the production of dry mass of leaves, stem, root and fruit also increased over time reaching maximum values of 68.7, 65.8, 11.5 and 302.9 g/plant, respectively, at 189 dat. the same occurred with the leaf area per plant, plant height and the absolute rate of growth, whose maximum values were 6.183,5 cm2, 136.9 cm and 4.4 g/plant/day, respectively. the growth of the plant was continuous throughout the cycle, and the highest amount of dry mass was accumulated in fruits, reaching a marketable production of 97.3 t ha-1. all fruits were classified as extra.
Effect of Different Blanching Methods and Period of Frozen Storage on Enzyme Activities and Some Quality Criterias of Hot and Sweet Red Peppers (Capsicum annuum L.)  [PDF]
H.H. Orak,M. Demirci
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: In this research, sweet Kesan peppers and hot Urfa peppers were blanched in different conditions which were used microwave and water. This application was carried out at different temperatures and time intervals. The samples were frozen at -40 ° C and then stored at -20 ± 2 ° C for 10 months. During this period, storage stability of red peppers with no enzyme activity and different levels of enzyme activity were investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to discuss which pre-treatment gives the best result for high quality, usefulness of blanching and differences between varieties. It was found that sweet peppers had a higher peroxidase and lipoxygenase activity than hot peppers. In Urfa peppers which contain a high level of capsaicin having an antioxidant effect, losses of colour compounds for both varieties were found to be lower then that of the sweet peppers. The losses of capsantin in the treatments decreased by decreasing lipoxygenase enzyme activity. Before storage of sweet peppers, vitamin C content (170.20 mg/100 g) decreased to 79.05 mg/100 g (53.52%) in the tenth month. This reduction in Urfa peppers was from 201.62 mg/100 g to 111.75 mg/100 g, which is 44.78%. In samples of non-blanched Urfa peppers, capsaicin content was found to be 56.34 mg/100 g. Before the storage loss of capsaicin was up to 16.08% with blanching at 85 ° C for 4 min. At the end of the storage period, capsaicin content of non-blanched peppers was lower then that of microwave and water-blanched peppers. Higher temperatures and longer time lengths will cause a decreasing in capsantin and vitamin C content, It could be concluded that using lipoxygenase enzyme as an indicator instead of peroxidase enzyme used in 5 min blanching at 85 ° C as a commercial application would help to decrease losses in quality are related compounds in some red peppers.
Biological and Chemical Control of Fruit Rot in Greenhouse Sweet Peppers (Capsicum annum L.) Caused by Fusarium subglutinans
R.S. Utkhede,S. Mathur
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2005,
Abstract: Experiments were conducted for two years to evaluate biologicals and chemicals for control of internal fruit rot of peppers caused by Fusarium subglutinans under greenhouse conditions. Fusarium subglutinans inoculum was pipetted on flowers of sweet peppers cv. Sympathy one day after applications of chemical and biological treatments. Pepper fruits were assessed for disease incidence and fruit weight sixty days after inoculation of flowers. Pepper fruits in PreStop , Rovral , BASF-516 and Quadra-137 treatments were significantly less infected than those observed in inoculated control treatment for 3 inoculations dates in both years. Treatments with Mycostop and PlantShield showed significantly less infected fruits compared with the control on 2 inoculations dates in both years. Flowers treated with Rovral had significantly higher fruit weight compared with the control on 4 inoculation dates in 2003 and for 3 inoculation dates in 2004. Treatments with PreStop and Quadra-137 produced heavier fruit than the control treatment for 3 inoculation dates in both years. These results suggest that these chemical and biological treatments have the potential to prevent internal fruit rot caused by F. subglutinans on peppers under greenhouse conditions.
Growth and nutrients tenor in soursop seedlings cultivated
Rosiane de Lourdes Silva de Lima,Olmar Baller Weber,Walter Esfrain Pereira,Diva Correia
Engenharia Ambiental : Pesquisa e Tecnologia , 2009,
Abstract: Although it is being recommended small containers, such as plastic tubes for seedling production of fruit trees, it is still necessary to study a suitable substrate for use in nursery. This experiment aimed to evaluate the effects of six organic components of the substrate on the growth and mineral composition of soursop seedlings in plastic tubes. For this purpose were evaluated six substrates: 1) Earthworm humus (HM) + carbonized rice husk (CAC), 2) HM + powder coconut husk (PCCS), 3) HM + carnauba straw (BC) , 4) CAC + PCCS, 5) CAC + BC and 6) PCCS + BC, being the treatments distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. Four months after sowing were evaluated the seedling growth and determined the nutrient concentration in leaves. The seedlings presented suitable vigor in substrates formed by the mixture of soil, earthworm humus, rice husk, powdered coconut husk or carnauba straw, in the volume ratio of 2:1:1. Substrates composed only by mixing soil, carbonized rice husk, powder coconut husk or carnauba straw do not allow adequate growth and nutrition in the formation of soursop seedlings.
Disentangling the Origins of Cultivated Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.)  [PDF]
Caroline Roullier, Anne Duputié, Paul Wennekes, Laure Benoit, Víctor Manuel Fernández Bringas, Genoveva Rossel, David Tay, Doyle McKey, Vincent Lebot
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062707
Abstract: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam., Convolvulaceae) counts among the most widely cultivated staple crops worldwide, yet the origins of its domestication remain unclear. This hexaploid species could have had either an autopolyploid origin, from the diploid I. trifida, or an allopolyploid origin, involving genomes of I. trifida and I. triloba. We generated molecular genetic data for a broad sample of cultivated sweet potatoes and its diploid and polyploid wild relatives, for noncoding chloroplast and nuclear ITS sequences, and nuclear SSRs. Our data did not support an allopolyploid origin for I. batatas, nor any contribution of I. triloba in the genome of domesticated sweet potato. I. trifida and I. batatas are closely related although they do not share haplotypes. Our data support an autopolyploid origin of sweet potato from the ancestor it shares with I. trifida, which might be similar to currently observed tetraploid wild Ipomoea accessions. Two I. batatas chloroplast lineages were identified. They show more divergence with each other than either does with I. trifida. We thus propose that cultivated I. batatas have multiple origins, and evolved from at least two distinct autopolyploidization events in polymorphic wild populations of a single progenitor species. Secondary contact between sweet potatoes domesticated in Central America and in South America, from differentiated wild I. batatas populations, would have led to the introgression of chloroplast haplotypes of each lineage into nuclear backgrounds of the other, and to a reduced divergence between nuclear gene pools as compared with chloroplast haplotypes.
Independent Origins of Cultivated Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) in the Old World Tropics  [PDF]
Bee F. Gunn, Luc Baudouin, Kenneth M. Olsen
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0021143
Abstract: As a portable source of food, water, fuel, and construction materials, the coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) played a fundamental role in human migrations and the development of civilization across the humid tropics. Here we investigated the coconut's domestication history and its population genetic structure as it relates to human dispersal patterns. A sample of 1,322 coconut accessions, representing the geographical and phenotypic diversity of the species, was examined using ten microsatellite loci. Bayesian analyses reveal two highly genetically differentiated subpopulations that correspond to the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic oceanic basins. This pattern suggests independent origins of coconut cultivation in these two world regions, with persistent population structure on a global scale despite long-term human cultivation and dispersal. Pacific coconuts show additional genetic substructure corresponding to phenotypic and geographical subgroups; moreover, the traits that are most clearly associated with selection under human cultivation (dwarf habit, self-pollination, and “niu vai” fruit morphology) arose only in the Pacific. Coconuts that show evidence of genetic admixture between the Pacific and Indo-Atlantic groups occur primarily in the southwestern Indian Ocean. This pattern is consistent with human introductions of Pacific coconuts along the ancient Austronesian trade route connecting Madagascar to Southeast Asia. Admixture in coastal east Africa may also reflect later historic Arab trading along the Indian Ocean coastline. We propose two geographical origins of coconut cultivation: island Southeast Asia and southern margins of the Indian subcontinent.
Chlorophyll a fluorescence of sweet potato plants cultivated in vitro and during ex vitro acclimatization
Cassana, Francine F.;Falqueto, Antelmo R.;Braga, Eugenia J. B.;Peters, Jose A.;Bacarin, Marcos A.;
Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1677-04202010000300003
Abstract: sweet potato (ipomoea batatas l.) plants were cultivated in vitro in murashige and skoog (ms) medium with 20 and 40 g l-1 of sucrose under two different photon flux densities (21 and 60 μmol m-2 s-1). leaves developed in vitro mostly showed high variable to maximum fluorescence ratio (fv/fm) , indicating good development of photosynthetic apparatus. this ratio decreased during leaf aging, especially in the plants cultivated in vitro on medium with higher sucrose concentration and higher photon flux. leaves developed ex vitro showed high fv/fm ratio during whole experiment. the effective photochemical efficiency (fv'/fm') was maximum at 15th day after emergence of leaves. photosynthetic potential rate was higher in leaves developed in vitro than in leaves originated ex vitro.
Utilization of Virgin Coconut Meal (VCM) in the Production of Ready-to-Eat Indian Traditional Sweet Meat Using Response Surface Methodology  [PDF]
Yashi Srivastava, Anil Dutt Semwal, Gopal Kumar Sharma, Amarinder Singh Bawa
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.23029
Abstract: Virgin coconut meal (VCM) was used for the development of ready-to-eat Indian traditional sweet meat commonly known as “ladoo” both with and without sorbic acid (0.3%). The different ingredients were optimized following re-sponse surface methodology with three independent variables i.e. sugar, water and VCM and sensory attributes as responses. The changes in the quality of VCM ladoo packed in polypropylene (PP, 75 µ) and laminates of metalized polyester (MP, 75 µ) were monitored during storage to establish the shelf life under ambient temperature conditions (15?C - 34?C). Samples without added potassium sorbate spoiled within three weeks of storage due to mold growth and fermented odour. VCM ladoo containing sorbic acid did not support any microbial growth during storage up to 4 months, however, during storage samples packed in PP lost moisture and became hard and brittle, while those packed in MP remained soft. Peroxide and thiobarbituric acid values were higher in PP packed samples as compared to those packed in MP. Sorbic acid degraded during storage of ladoo and the rate of degradation was higher in PP packed ladoos than that in MP packed ones.
SUSCEPTIBILIDAD A DA O POR ENFRIAMIENTO EN POSCOSECHA DE PIMIENTO Y TRATAMIENTOS PARA DISMINUIR SU EFECTO Susceptibility to post-harvest chilling damage in sweet peppers, and treatments to minimize its effect  [cached]
Elizabeth Kehr M.
Agricultura Técnica , 2002,
Abstract: Se verificó la susceptibilidad a da o por enfriamiento (DPE) en frutos de pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) del cultivar tolerante El Paso, y del cultivar sensible King Arthur. Se evaluó el efecto de diversos tratamientos de poscosecha en la disminución de DPE en frutos de pimiento. En diciembre de 2000, en la Estación Experimental Julio Ortúzar P. ubicada cerca de Santiago, de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile se realizó el trasplante, con una densidad de 31.250 plantas ha-1, 0,4 m y 0,8 m sobre y entre hileras, respectivamente, con riego por surcos. La fertilización se definió en base a análisis de suelos, y el control de plagas y enfermedades según calendario de aplicaciones definido previamente. Los experimentos se realizaron en el Laboratorio de Poscosecha del Departamento de Cultivos de la Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Forestales. Los resultados verificaron el grado de susceptibilidad varietal, con 18,6% de la superficie del fruto da ada en King Arthur y 7,7% en El Paso. La inmersión en agua caliente a 60oC por 1 min significó una reducción de 58% del DPE y 91% con la cobertura con lámina de polietileno, con almacenaje posterior de 15 días a 0oC y 90% de humedad relativa, manteniendo una buena apariencia del producto en la prolongación de almacenaje por 3 días a 20oC y 50% de humedad relativa. Los productos químicos cloruro de calcio, metilciclopropeno (MCP) y metil jasmonato no manifestaron efecto en la reducción del DPE. The susceptibility to chilling damage (DPE) with sweet peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) was evaluated in the tolerant cultivar El Paso, and in the susceptible cultivar ‘King Arthur’. The effect of different post-harvest treatments on the reduction of chilling injury was evaluated. Transplanting was carried out in December 2000, at the Julio Ortúzar P. Experimental Station located close to Santiago, of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, with a density of 31 250 plants ha-1, 0.4 m on the row and 0.8 m between rows, with furrow irrigation. The fertilization dose was calculated according to soil analysis, and pest and disease control according to a previously defined application timetable. The experiments were carried out at the Post-harvest Laboratory of the Crop Department. The results verified the degree of susceptibility of cultivars, with 18.6% damaged in King Arthur fruit and 7.7% damaged in El Paso. The immersion in hot water at 60oC for one minute diminished chilling damage by 58%, and plastic film coverage by 91%, with 15 days storage at 0oC and 90% relative humidity, maintaining good product appearance
Nutrients and antinutrients composition of raw, cooked and sun-dried sweet potato leaves
AW Mwanri, W Kogi-Makau, HS Laswai
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2011,
Abstract: Traditional indigenous vegetables are the most economically efficient source of micronutrients in terms of both land required and production costs per unit. Promotion of production and consumption of such micronutrient-rich foods will improve intakes, the overall diet, and health status. This study aimed to determine nutrient (iron, calcium, vitamin A and ascorbic acid) and anti-nutrient (oxalates and polyphenols) contents in raw, cooked and dried sweet potato leaves Two varieties of sweet potatoes, which were identified as commonly grown for leaves consumption were analyzed at Department of Food Technology, Sokoine University of Agriculture and at the Government Chief Chemist Laboratory Tanzania. The analysis included proximate, nutrient (ascorbic acid, carotenoids, iron and calcium) and anti-nutrient (oxalate and polyphenols) composition. The purple midrib sweet potato leaves were further analyzed for nutrient and anti-nutrient retention after cooking (with and without lemon) and open sun-drying (with and without salting). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between the two varieties in crude protein, crude lipid and moisture content. The purple midrib sweet potato leaves had significantly (P<0.05) higher ash, crude fibre, carotenoids, calcium and iron contents while the green midrib sweet potato leaves had significantly (P<0.05) higher ascorbic acid content. The polyphenols were about 4 times higher in the purple midrib sweet potato leaves (22.16%) as compared to that of the green ones (5.28%), which had significantly higher oxalate levels (3730 mg/100g). Drying with salt and cooking with lemon reduced polyphenols significantly (p<0.05), with retention of 42% and 56% respectively; while cooking with lemon lowered significantly the oxalate levels. The traditional methods of cooking SPL with addition of lemon is advantageous because it reduces polyphenols while retaining higher levels of minerals, β carotene and vitamin C. Drying with salt results in a nutritionally and organoleptically good product, hence, drying with salt and cooking with addition of lemon is encouraged. Since the sweet potato leaves are harvested more than once before the plant is uprooted, further studies are recommended to assess whether there is variation in nutrient and anti-nutrient contents in consecutive harvests.
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