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Determination of the antibacterial activity of crude extracts and compounds isolated from Hortia oreadica (Rutaceae) against oral pathogens
Severino, Vanessa Gisele Pasqualotto;Silva, Maria Fátima das Gra?as Fernandes da;Lucarini, Rodrigo;Montanari, Lilian Bueno;Cunha, Wilson Roberto;Vinholis, Adriana Helena Chicharo;Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes;
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-83822009000300015
Abstract: extracts from hortia oreadica afforded four dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives, isolated from the n-hexane extract, as well as limonoid guyanin and the furoquinoline alkaloid dictamnine, both isolated from the dichloromethane extract. the extracts and the isolated compounds were tested against some oral pathogens, so as to investigate their antibacterial activity. the results showed that the n-hexane extract and the compound dictamnine are the most active against the selected microorganisms.
Prenylated Coumarins, Chalcone and New Cinnamic Acid and Dihydrocinnamic Acid Derivatives from Brosimum gaudichaudii
Monteiro, Ver?nica de F. F.;Mathias, Leda;Vieira, Ivo J. C.;Schripsema, Jan;Braz-Filho, Raimundo;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532002000200023
Abstract: three new natural cinnamic acid and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from the roots of brosimum gaudichaudii, in addition to fourteen known substances (ten coumarins, one chalcone, b-sitosterol, 3b-o-b-d-glucopyranosylsitosterol and b-amyrin). the structures were established by spectral data, including analysis of 2d-nmr experiments and mass spectra. all aromatic compounds have 4-hydroxy-3-prenylcinnamic acid as a common precursor. the new substances are derived from a precursor of the coumarins, which through an o-methylation lost its ability to form the lactone ring.
Prenylated Coumarins, Chalcone and New Cinnamic Acid and Dihydrocinnamic Acid Derivatives from Brosimum gaudichaudii  [cached]
Monteiro Ver?nica de F. F.,Mathias Leda,Vieira Ivo J. C.,Schripsema Jan
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2002,
Abstract: Three new natural cinnamic acid and dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives were isolated from the roots of Brosimum gaudichaudii, in addition to fourteen known substances (ten coumarins, one chalcone, beta-sitosterol, 3beta-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylsitosterol and beta-amyrin). The structures were established by spectral data, including analysis of 2D-NMR experiments and mass spectra. All aromatic compounds have 4-hydroxy-3-prenylcinnamic acid as a common precursor. The new substances are derived from a precursor of the coumarins, which through an O-methylation lost its ability to form the lactone ring.
Pollen morphology of species of Hortia (Rutaceae)
Groppo, Milton;Cruz-Barros, Maria Amélia Vitorino da;Correa, Angela Maria da Silva;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042010000100003
Abstract: a palinological study covering all 10 species of the neotropical genus hortia vand. (rutaceae) was conducted. pollen grains were collected from herbarium exsiccates, acetolysed and mounted in glycerine jelly on glass slides. the grains were studied under light and scanning electron microscopy, including measurements of polar and equatorial diameters, shape of the grains, number and shape of apertures, and thickness of the exine. the results demonstrated that the genus is stenopalynous, with pollen grains in monads, subprolate to prolate, 3-colporate, with very thick exine and a psilate-perforate pattern of ornamentation. pollen grains of all species revealed a great similarity, with few variations in the pattern of ornamentation of exine, number and form of apertures and measurements. although well-characterized palinologycally, pollen features did not furnish relevant information on the position of hortia into an intrafamilial phylogeny.
Hortia brasiliana Vand. (Rutaceae): poliniza??o por aves Passeriformes no cerrado do sudeste brasileiro
BARBOSA, ANA ANGéLICA ALMEIDA;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84041999000100013
Abstract: hortia brasiliana vand. (rutaceae) is a common shrub found in cerrado areas of uberlandia, mg, brazil. individuals are 0.5 to 2.0 m high, with rose-coloured and coriaceous flowers, displayed in dense inflorescences. the anthesis occurs along the day or night and can take from 25 min. to 3 hours to complete, according to the temperature. the flower is protandrous and produces an average of 60 μl of nectar, with sugar concentrations ranging from 24 to 32%. the species is self-compatible. flowers are visited by six passeriform birds belonging to the fringillidae, thraupidae and mimidae families, considered effective pollinators. this pollination type is new for cerrado vegetation. birds were observed visiting the flowers to obtain nectar from 4:30 a.m. to 8:30 a.m., when they were sent away by trigona spinipes bees (apidae). in order to visit the plant, the birds use the inflorescence as a landing platform, probing 15 to 25 flowers per visit without flight incursion. the permanence period of a bird in a particular plant depended on the arrival of other individuals, and all bird species showed agonistic behaviour when other birds landed on the same plant. pollination was carried out when the stigma got in contact with body parts in which sticky pollen was adhered to. among the bees, trigona spinipes was the most regular visitor, its activity taking place from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. bees remained in the same inflorescense for a long time performing selfing and geitonogamous pollination. xylocopa aff. hirsutissima was less common than trigona spinipes, but due to its behaviour on inflorescences, contacting the stigma and the anther, and its larger size as compared to trigona, it was considered an additional pollinator. other visitors (wasps, butterflies, flies, and ants) were considered nectar robbers, occasionally able to perform pollination.
Hortia brasiliana Vand. (Rutaceae): poliniza o por aves Passeriformes no cerrado do sudeste brasileiro
BARBOSA ANA ANGéLICA ALMEIDA
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 1999,
Abstract: Hortia brasiliana Vand. (Rutaceae) é um arbusto comum em áreas de cerrado na regi o de Uberlandia, MG. Os indivíduos atingem de 0,5 a 2,0 m de altura e possuem flores de cor rósea e consistência coriácea, reunidas em densas inflorescências umbeliformes, terminais, com eixos resistentes. A antese ocorre ao longo do dia ou da noite e pode durar de 25 minutos a 3 horas, dependendo da temperatura. A flor é protandrica e produz ca. de 60 μl de néctar, cuja concentra o de a úcares varia de 24 a 32%. A espécie é autocompatível. As flores s o visitadas por seis espécies de aves Passeriformes das famílias Fringillidae, Thraupidae e Mimidae, que foram consideradas polinizadores efetivos. Este tipo de poliniza o por pássaros pousadores é inédita para o cerrado. Os pássaros visitavam as flores receptivas de 04:30h até 08:30 h, em busca de néctar, e após este horário eram expulsos pelas abelhas Trigona spinipes (Apidae). Os pássaros utilizavam a inflorescência como plataforma de pouso, visitando de 15 a 25 flores sem incursionar v o, sendo que o tempo de permanência em dada planta dependia da chegada de outros indivíduos. Todas as espécies de aves apresentaram comportamento agonístico quando outros pássaros pousavam na mesma planta. Efetuavam a poliniza o ao contactarem o estigma com as partes do corpo em que estava aderido o pólen pegajoso. Entre as abelhas, Trigona spinipes, a mais freqüente, iniciava suas visitas às 08:30 h, permanecendo até 17:00 h. Estas abelhas permaneciam muito tempo numa inflorescência possibilitando, principalmente geitonogamia. Xylocopa aff. hirsutissima foi menos freqüente que Trigona spinipes, mas em raz o do seu comportamento ao visitar a flor, contactando o estigma e a antera, e ao seu maior tamanho em rela o a Trigona, foi considerada como polinizador adicional. Os demais grupos de visitantes (vespas, borboletas, moscas e formigas) foram considerados como pilhadores de néctar ou pólen, podendo ocasionalmente efetuar poliniza es.
Bibliografía Colombiana  [cached]
Urbina F.,Botero Restrepo Saúl
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura , 1965,
Abstract: Prehistoria Vol. 1: "Historia Extensa de Colombia". Duque Gómez, L. / Lenguas y dialectos indígenas en Colombia. Ortiz; Sergio Elías. / Descubrimiento y conquista del Nuevo Reino de Granada, introducción. Friede, Juan. / Nuevo reino de Granada, Real Audiencia y presidentes, presidentes de capa y espada (1605-1628). Lucena Salmoral, Manuel. / La reconquista espa ola, invasión pacificadora, régimen del terror, mártires, conspiradores y guerrilleros. Díaz Díaz, Oswaldo. / Demarcación de las fronteras de Colombia. Andrade S., Francisco. / La legislación y el Derecho en Colombia. Aguilera, Miguel. / Economía y hacienda publica. Cruz Santos, Abel. / Raíz y desarrollo de la literatura colombiana. Arango Ferrer, Javier. / Morfología de la nación colombiana: aproximación a su antropología cultural. Naranjo Villegas, Abel. / Broadbent, Sylvia M. / Excavaciones arqueológicas en Puerto Hormiga (Departamento de Bolívar). Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. / Problemas y necesidades de la investigación etnológica en Colombia. Dussan de Reichel, Alicia. / Segundo centenario del nacimiento de don Antonio Nari o. [s,n.]. / Colección de documentos para la Historia de Colombia. Ortiz, Sergio Elías. / Diccionario de artistas en Colombia. Ortega Ricaurte, Carmen. / La ornamentación arquitectónica en la Nueva Granada. Sebastián, Santiago.
The Dupire derivatives and Fréchet derivatives on continuous pathes  [PDF]
Shaolin Ji,Shuzhen Yang
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: In this paper, we study the relation between Fr\'echet derivatives and Dupire derivatives, in which the latter are recently introduced by Dupire [4]. After introducing the definition of Fr\'echet derivatives for non-anticipative functionals, we prove that the Dupire derivatives and the extended Fr\'echet derivatives are coherent on continuous pathes.
Bibliografía colombiana  [cached]
Melo Jorge Orlando,Jaramillo Jaime
Anuario Colombiano de Historia Social y de la Cultura , 1970,
Abstract: ANTONIA SANTOS PLATA. GENEALOGíA Y BIOGRAFíA, Biblioteca de His- toria Nacional, volumen CX, 261 páginas, Ed. Kelly, Bogotá, 1969. GUILLERMO HERNáNDEZ DE ALBA, Epistolario de Rufino José Cuervo con Luis María Lleras y otros amigos y familiares, Instituto Caro y Cuervo, Bogotá, 1969, 398 páginas. J. LEóN HELGUERA y ROBERT H. DAVIS, Archivo epistolar del General Mos- quera. Correspondencia con el General Ramón Espina. 1835-1866, Bogotá, 1966, 487 páginas. GERMáN COLMENARES, MARGARITA DE MELó y DIEGO FAJARDO, Fuen- tes para la historia del trabajo en Colombia, Bogotá, 1968, 527 páginas. SEGUNDO BERNAL VILLA, Guía bibliográfica de Colombia de interés para el antropólogo, Bogotá, 1970, 782 páginas. HORACIO RODRíGUEZ PLATA, La inmigración alemana al Estado Soberano de Santander en el siglo XIX. Repercusiones socioeconómicas de un proceso de transculturación, Bogotá, 1968, 273 páginas. FELIPE OSORIO RACINES, Decretos de! General Santander 1819-1831, Bogo- tá, 1969, 217 páginas. ANDRéS SORIANO LLERAS, Itinerario de la Comisión Corográfica, Bogotá, Uni- versidad Nacional de Colombia, 1868. FRANCISCO SILVESTRE, Descripción del Reino de Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, 1968. MANUEL LUCENA SALMORAL, Presidentes de capa y espada, 1638-1654, vol. 3, tomo 2 de la Historia extensa de Colombia, Bogotá, Editorial Leraer, 1967. SERGIO ELIAS ORTIZ, Presidentes de capa y espada, 1654-1719, val. 3 tomo 4, de la Historia extensa de Colombia, Bogotá, Editorial Lerner, 1966. JOHN D. MARTZ, Colombia, un estudio de política contemporánea, Bogotá, Uni- versidad Nacional, 1969, 454 páginas. LUIS EDUARDO NIETO ARTETA, Ensayos sobre economía colombiana, Mede- llín, Editorial La Oveja Negra, 1969, 108 páginas. LUIS EDUARDO NIETO ARTETA, Economía y cultura en la historia de Colom- bia, Medellín, Editorial La Oveja Negra, 1970, 2 volúmenes, 504 páginas. ALVARO LóPEZ TORO, Migración y cambio social en Antíoquia en el siglo XIX, Bogotá, Universidad de los Andes, 1970, 101 páginas. GERMáN COLMENARES, Historia económica y social de la Provincia de Tunja, Bogotá, Universidad de los Andes, 1970, Multitud. GERMáN COLMENARES, Encomienda y población en la Provincia de Pamplona, 1549-1560, Bogotá, Universidad de los Andes, 1969, 113 páginas. Multitud. DARíO FAJARDO M., El régimen de la encomienda en la Provincia de Vélez. Po- blación indígena y economía, Bogotá, Universidad de los Andes, 1969, 99 pá- ginas. Multilith.
Covariant Derivatives of Extensor Fields  [PDF]
V. V. Fernandez,A. M. Moya,E. Notte-Cuello,W. A. Rodrigues Jr
Physics , 2007,
Abstract: A simple theory of the covariant derivatives, deformed derivatives and relative covariant derivatives of extensor fields is present using algebraic and analytical tools developed in previous papers. Several important formulas are derived.
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