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Essential oil composition of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch from north Brazil
Brasil, Davi do Socorro B.;Muller, Adolfo Henrique;Guilhon, Giselle Maria S. P.;Alves, Cláudio Nahum;Andrade, Eloísa Helena A.;Silva, Joyce Kelly R. da;Maia, José G. S.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532009000600026
Abstract: the essential oils of leaves, twigs, branches, trunk bark and fruits of croton palanostigma were analyzed by gc and gc-ms. the main compounds found in the oil of the leaves were linalool (25.4%), (e)-caryophyllene (21.0%), methyleugenol (17.2%) and β-elemene (6.0%); in the oil of the twigs were α-pinene (41.4%), limonene (29.0%), sabinene (11.5%) and β-pinene (5.7%); in the oil of the branches were methyleugenol (24.1%), (e)-methylisoeugenol (15.3%), α-pinene (11.2%) and (e)-caryophyllene (8.5%); in the oil of the trunk bark were a-pinene (31.6%), methyleugenol (25.6%) and (e)-methylisoeugenol (23.7%); and in the oil of the fruits were linalool (42.7%), methyleugenol (16.3%) and β-elemene (6.4%). statistical analysis showed that the leaves and fruit, and the branches and trunk bark, have significant similarities between them. in addition, the trunk bark oil has high brine shrimp larvicidal activity (lc50, 3.71 ± 0.01 mg ml-1).
Novidades taxon?micas em Croton sect. Argyroglossum Baill. e C. sect. Lasiogyne Klotzsch (Crotonoideae-Euphorbiaceae)
Gomes, Ana Paula de Souza;Sales, Margareth Ferreira de;Melo, André Laurênio de;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062010000400004
Abstract: ninenew synonyms, one neotype and three lectotypifications in croton are proposed. croton schomburgkianus a. p. s. gomes & m. f. sales is assigned as a new name for c. nervosus klotzsch. in section argyroglossum baill., croton argyroglossus baill. and c. micans var. argyroglossus baill. are synonymized under c. argyrophyllus kunth, c. alagoensis müll. arg. and c. floribundus var. piauhiensis rizzini are synonymized under c. blanchetianus, c. micans var. pubescens müll. arg., croton argyrophyllus var. pubescens (klotzsch) müll. arg., and c. argyrophyllus var. villosus müll. arg. are synonymized under c. schomburgkianus and, c. argyrophylloides müll. arg. is synonymized under c. tricolor klotzsch ex baill. finally, c. sonderianus müll. arg. is synonymized under c. jacobinensis baill. in section lasiogyne klotzsch.
As espécies de Croton L. sect. Cyclostigma Griseb. e Croton L. sect. Luntia (Raf.) G. L. Webster subsect. Matourenses G. L. Webster (Euphorbiaceae s.s.) ocorrentes na Amaz?nia brasileira
Guimar?es, Luiz Alberto Cavalcante;Secco, Ricardo de S.;
Acta Amazonica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672010000300006
Abstract: as part of a taxonomic revision of brazilian amazonia species of croton l., the following species of croton sect. cyclostigma griseb. and croton sect. luntia (raf.) g. l. webster subsect. matourenses g. l. webster were studied: croton urucurana baill., c. draconoides müll. arg., c. trombetensis r. secco, p. e. berry & n.a. rosa, c. sampatik müll. arg., c. palanostigma kl., c. pullei lanj. and c. matourensis aubl. this study was based on field work in the states of pará and maranh?o, and material deposited in herbaria ian, inpa, mg e rb, including the types. some of the species, such as c. urucurana, c. draconoides, c. palanostigma, and c. sampatik , are frequently found with misidentification in herbaria. the taxonomic position of the species within sections and their affinities are discussed, and a dychotomic key and illustrations were elaborated for a better understanding of the taxa.
Hepatics alterations and genotoxic effects of Croton cajucara Benth (SACACA) in diabetic rats
Rodrigues, Graziella;Marcolin, éder;Bona, Silvia;Porawski, Marilene;Lehmann, Mauricio;Marroni, Norma Possa;
Arquivos de Gastroenterologia , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-28032010000300017
Abstract: context: croton cajucara benth is a plant found in amazonia, brazil and the bark and leaf infusions of this plant have been popularly used to treat diabetes and hepatic disorders. objectives: this study investigated effects hepatics alterations and genotoxic and antidiabetic effect of croton cajucara benth bark extracts treatment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. methods: male wistar rats were divided into six groups: control rats; control rats treated with croton cajucara benth extract during 5 and 20 days; diabetic rats, and diabetic rats treated with croton cajucara benth during 5 and 20 days. diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (70 mg/kg). eight weeks later we measured glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol and hepatic transaminases on blood. the bone marrow micronucleus assay was used to assess the genotoxic activity of croton cajucara benth. results: treatment with aqueous extrat of croton cajucara was able to significantly reduce levels of triglycerides in diabetic animals, however, did not modify significantly the levels of glucose and cholesterol in these animals. there was no significant elevation in liver transaminases in the control group treated with croton cajucara benth, as there was no genotoxic effect of treatment in this model. our results did not show a significant effect on glucose and cholesterol reduction, the treatment was able to significantly reduce triclycerides plasmatic level. there was no significant alterations on hepatic transferase in the animals from the control group treated with croton cajucara benth. it was observed no genotoxic effect of the treatment in the model studied. conclusion: in this study croton cajucara bark extract showed absence of hepatotoxicity in this animal model and presented a hypolipidemic activity, and could be used to reverse dyslipidemia associated with diabetes and to prevent the cardiovascular complications that are very prevalent in diabetic patients.
Antiplatelet activity of Croton celditifolius
Neiva, Teresinha de Jesus Carvalho;Moraes, Ana Carolina Rabello de;Buchele, Carlos;Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo;D'Amico, Elbio Ant?nio;Fries, Diana Marli;Rocha, Tania Rubia Flores da;
Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-93322008000100014
Abstract: croton celtidifolius baill is a tree found in the atlantic forest south of brazil, mainly in santa catarina. the bark and leaf infusions of this medicinal plant have been popularly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. the anti-aggregant activity of c. celtidifolius crude extract (ce) and the column chromatography (cc) isolated compounds flavonoids, catechin and gallocatechin were evaluated in human blood platelets. the platelet-rich plasma (prp) was incubated with different concentrations of flavonóides (50 - 200 μg/ml) to be tested before platelet aggregation was induced by the agonists adenosine 5'diphosphate (adp) and collagen. at 200 μg/ml the ce, catechin and gallocatechin markedly inhibited platelet aggregation with the aggregant agents. using atp production as an index of platelet secretory capacity, we observed a decreased production of atp in platelets treated with flavonoids when stimulated by collagen. on the other hand, the flavonoids did not promote inhibitory effect on prothrombin time (pt), thromboplastin time (aptt) and thrombin time (tt). in conclusion, these observations suggest that c. celtidifolius is likely to exert an inhibitory action on platelets in vitro by suppressing secretion and platelet aggregation.
In vitro Antimicrobial Effect of three Terpenes, Isolated from the Bark of Zanthoxylum budrunga  [PDF]
Anwarul Islam,Abu Sayeed,M. Shah Alam Bhuiyan,M. Ashik Mosaddik G.
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2001,
Abstract: Three terpenes lup-20 (29)-en-3-one (ZB-1), 11 , 13-dihydro-1epireynosin (ZB-2) and tetracyclic diterpenol-15-cinnamate (ZB-3) were isolated from the bark of the plant Zanthoxylum budrunga and were screened against some pathogenic bacteria and fungi. They were found significant in vitro antibacterial and antifungal. The zones of inhibition produced by the pure compounds were laid between 9 mm to 23 mm. The MIC values of the three isolated compounds were also determined against four test organisms (107 cells/ml) and were found to be effective between 16 μg/ml to 128 μg/ml.
Terpenes from Marine-Derived Fungi  [PDF]
Rainer Ebel
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8082340
Abstract: Terpenes from marine-derived fungi show a pronounced degree of structural diversity, and due to their interesting biological and pharmacological properties many of them have aroused interest from synthetic chemists and the pharmaceutical industry alike. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the structural diversity of terpenes from marine-derived fungi, highlighting individual examples of chemical structures and placing them in a context of other terpenes of fungal origin. Wherever possible, information regarding the biological activity is presented.
Diterpenes and other constituents from Croton draco (Euphorbiaceae)
Murillo,R. M.; Jakupovic,J.; Rivera,J.; Castro,V. H.;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2001,
Abstract: croton draco (euphorbiaceae) from guadalupe, san josé, costa rica was collected in july 1992 and phytochemically studied (leaves, seeds, wood, bark, sap and flowers separately). commonly known compounds such as 1-hydroxyjunenol, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, p-methoxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamyl alcohol, the coumarin scopoletin, the nor-terpenoids 9-dehydrovomifoliol and 2,3-dihydrovomifoliol were obtained. taspine, two aporphinic alkaloids, the diterpenes 9(11)-dehydrokaurenic acid, hardwikiic acid, the corresponding new 12-oxo derivative as well as five clerodanes and a phorbol ester were also isolated. three clerodanes were not previously described and their nmr spectroscopical data and ms fragmentation patterns are reported.
Volatiles, A Glutarimide Alkaloid and Antimicrobial Effects of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae)  [PDF]
Rosana N. S. Peixoto,Giselle M. S. P. Guilhon,Maria das Gra?as B. Zoghbi,Isabella S. Araújo,Ana Paula T. Uetanabaro,Lourivaldo S. Santos,Davi do S. B. Brasil
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18033195
Abstract: Chemical investigation of Croton pullei (Euphorbiaceae) collected in the Brazilian Amazon region was revisited. The chemical composition of the essential oils of leaves and stems was analyzed by GC/MS. It was found that both the oils comprise mainly terpenes, among which linalool was the major one (24.90 and 39.72%, respectively). Phytochemical investigation of the stem methanol extract led to the isolation of a new natural product from the glutarimide alkaloid group named N-[2,6-dioxo-1-(2-phenylethyl)-3-piperidinyl]-acetamide, confirming that C. pullei is a rich source of this class of alkaloids. The hexane and methanol extracts of the stems of C. pullei showed moderate antibacterial and antifungal activity and the highest inhibition was observed when the methanol extract was tested against Staphylococcus aureus CCMB 262 and CCMB 263.
Beneficial health properties of iridoids terpenes.
López Carreras, N.,Miguel, M.;,Aleixandre, A.
Nutrición Clínica y Dietética Hospitalaria , 2012,
Abstract: Food components can have biological activity and healthy properties. Some of them, produced by plants, are named phytochemicals. The diversity of phytochemicals is amazing and this term refers in fact to a wide variety of compounds. Some of them, biosynthesized from isoprene, are named terpenes, and an important group of biciclic monoterpenes, derived fromgeraniol, are named iridoids.Iridoids can have open structures (secoiridoids) or closed structures (really iridoids) and they appear usua lly as heteroside compounds, in particular as glycosides. They have beneficial effects on liver and bi -liary function. Moreover, they have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, anti-carcinogenic and antiviral activity, and they can be used as antidote in mushroom intoxications, in particular, those caused byAmanita type. Iridoids are present in particular in plants such as olive, harpagophytum, the valerian plant, the gentian plant and the ash tree. All these plants have been reported to be used as traditional medicine inmany cultures. Nowadays, their leaves, tubercles, roots, seeds, and extracts are also considered important for pharmacology, and some of their active compounds have been identified. This review refers to the origin and biosynthetic pathways of iridoids. It describes the characteristics and properties of the plants mentioned above, and it also mentions the principal iridoids isolated from them.
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