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Isolation, X-ray crystal structure and theoretical calculations of the new compound 8-Eepicordatin and identification of others terpenes and steroids from the bark and leaves of Croton palanostigma Klotzsch
Brasil, Davi S. B.;Müller, Adolfo H.;Guilhon, Gisele M. S. P.;Alves, Cláudio N.;Peris, Gabriel;Llusar, Rosa;Moliner, Vicent;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532010000400021
Abstract: phytochemical studies of the bark and leaves of croton palanostigma klotzsch (euphorbiaceae) led to the isolation of a new clerodane diterpene, 8-epicordatin (2), in addition to 12-oxohardwickiic acid methyl ester (3), aparisthman, cordatin (1), ent-trachyloban-18-oic acid, ent-13-epimanoyl oxide, ent-3-oxo-13-epimanoyl oxide, ent-3β-hydroxy-13-epimanoyl oxide, sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmastan-3-one, 6β-hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-one, 6β-hydroxystigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one, stigmast-4-en-3-one, stigmasta-4,22-dien-3-one, 3-o-acetylaleuritolic acid, 11α-hydroxyurs-12-en-3-one, α-amyrenone, 24-methylenecycloartenone and lupenone. these compounds were isolated using typical phytochemical procedures and the structures were deduced from spectroscopic studies, including 2d nmr experiments. in addition, the crystalline structure of 8-epicordatin (2) was determined by x-ray diffraction. nmr theoretical calculations at the b3pw91/dgdzvp level were used to confirm the assignment of the chemical shifts of the h-7α and h-7β hydrogens of 8-epicordatin.
Novidades taxon?micas em Croton sect. Argyroglossum Baill. e C. sect. Lasiogyne Klotzsch (Crotonoideae-Euphorbiaceae)
Gomes, Ana Paula de Souza;Sales, Margareth Ferreira de;Melo, André Laurênio de;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062010000400004
Abstract: ninenew synonyms, one neotype and three lectotypifications in croton are proposed. croton schomburgkianus a. p. s. gomes & m. f. sales is assigned as a new name for c. nervosus klotzsch. in section argyroglossum baill., croton argyroglossus baill. and c. micans var. argyroglossus baill. are synonymized under c. argyrophyllus kunth, c. alagoensis müll. arg. and c. floribundus var. piauhiensis rizzini are synonymized under c. blanchetianus, c. micans var. pubescens müll. arg., croton argyrophyllus var. pubescens (klotzsch) müll. arg., and c. argyrophyllus var. villosus müll. arg. are synonymized under c. schomburgkianus and, c. argyrophylloides müll. arg. is synonymized under c. tricolor klotzsch ex baill. finally, c. sonderianus müll. arg. is synonymized under c. jacobinensis baill. in section lasiogyne klotzsch.
Antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri in mice
Oliveira, A.C.;Leal-Cardoso, J.H.;Santos, C.F.;Morais, S.M.;Coelho-de-Souza, A.N.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2001001100016
Abstract: croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to northeastern brazil, where it is often used in folk medicine. in the present study the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of croton zehntneri (eocz) were evaluated in mice. eocz administered orally at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg reduced paw licking time in the second phase of the formalin test from the control value of 41.61 ± 8.62 to 12.01 ± 7.97 and 6.57 ± 3.42 s, respectively. during the first phase of the formalin test only 300 mg/kg induced a significant alteration (from 58.2 ± 7.02, control, to 28.7 ± 4.73 s). the number of contortions in response to intraperitoneal injections of acetic acid did not differ significantly between controls (80.6 ± 9.01) and experimental (300 mg/kg body weight) animals (89.1 ± 9.53% of the control numbers; p30.05, student t-test). in the hot-plate test, eocz at doses 3100 mg/kg significantly increased the latency time with respect to controls (11.2 ± 0.80). at 100 and 300 mg/kg this increase persisted for 180 and 240 min, respectively. the data show that eocz is effective as an antinociceptive agent.
Antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri in mice  [cached]
Oliveira A.C.,Leal-Cardoso J.H.,Santos C.F.,Morais S.M.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2001,
Abstract: Croton zehntneri is an aromatic plant native to Northeastern Brazil, where it is often used in folk medicine. In the present study the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCz) were evaluated in mice. EOCz administered orally at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg reduced paw licking time in the second phase of the formalin test from the control value of 41.61 ± 8.62 to 12.01 ± 7.97 and 6.57 ± 3.42 s, respectively. During the first phase of the formalin test only 300 mg/kg induced a significant alteration (from 58.2 ± 7.02, control, to 28.7 ± 4.73 s). The number of contortions in response to intraperitoneal injections of acetic acid did not differ significantly between controls (80.6 ± 9.01) and experimental (300 mg/kg body weight) animals (89.1 ± 9.53% of the control numbers; P > or = 0.05, Student t-test). In the hot-plate test, EOCz at doses > or = 100 mg/kg significantly increased the latency time with respect to controls (11.2 ± 0.80). At 100 and 300 mg/kg this increase persisted for 180 and 240 min, respectively. The data show that EOCz is effective as an antinociceptive agent.
Antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius on mice
Abdon, A.P.V.;Leal-Cardoso, J.H.;Coelho-de-Souza, A.N.;Morais, S.M.;Santos, C.F.;
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-879X2002001000015
Abstract: croton nepetaefolius baill., is an aromatic plant native to the northeast of brazil where it is extensively used in folk medicine as a sedative, orexigen and antispasmodic agent. in the present study the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of c. nepetaefolius (eocn), administered orally, were evaluated in male swiss mice (20-25 g). in the acetic acid-induced writhing test, eocn (100 and 300 mg/kg; n = 14 and n = 12, respectively) was effective at the highest dose. in the hot-plate test, eocn at 30 and 300 mg/kg, but not at 3 mg/kg, significantly increased the latency at all observation times up to the 180th min (n = 12 for each dose). in the formalin test, eocn significantly reduced paw licking in the second phase of the test at 100 mg/kg (n = 12), but decreased it in both phases at 300 mg/kg (n = 12). at 30 mg/kg, the effect of eocn did not differ from control values in either phase of the formalin test (n = 6). pretreatment with naloxone (5 mg/kg, ip) significantly reversed the analgesic effect of morphine (5 mg/kg, sc) on both phases, but not that of eocn at 300 mg/kg (n = 6) on both phases of the formalin test. the data show that orally administered eocn promotes a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect whose mechanisms remain to be elucidated.
Antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of Croton nepetaefolius on mice  [cached]
Abdon A.P.V.,Leal-Cardoso J.H.,Coelho-de-Souza A.N.,Morais S.M.
Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research , 2002,
Abstract: Croton nepetaefolius Baill., is an aromatic plant native to the northeast of Brazil where it is extensively used in folk medicine as a sedative, orexigen and antispasmodic agent. In the present study the antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of C. nepetaefolius (EOCn), administered orally, were evaluated in male Swiss mice (20-25 g). In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, EOCn (100 and 300 mg/kg; N = 14 and N = 12, respectively) was effective at the highest dose. In the hot-plate test, EOCn at 30 and 300 mg/kg, but not at 3 mg/kg, significantly increased the latency at all observation times up to the 180th min (N = 12 for each dose). In the formalin test, EOCn significantly reduced paw licking in the second phase of the test at 100 mg/kg (N = 12), but decreased it in both phases at 300 mg/kg (N = 12). At 30 mg/kg, the effect of EOCn did not differ from control values in either phase of the formalin test (N = 6). Pretreatment with naloxone (5 mg/kg, ip) significantly reversed the analgesic effect of morphine (5 mg/kg, sc) on both phases, but not that of EOCn at 300 mg/kg (N = 6) on both phases of the formalin test. The data show that orally administered EOCn promotes a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect whose mechanisms remain to be elucidated.
Relaxant effect of the essential oil of Croton nepetifolius on ovine cervix
Pereira, Alexsandra F.;Melo, Luciana M.;Morais, Selene M.;Leal-Cardoso, José H.;Freitas, Vicente J. F.;
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-695X2012005000011
Abstract: we investigated the in vitro effect of the essential oil of croton nepetifolius baill., euphorbiaceae (eocn), on spontaneous or induced contractions of circular and longitudinal muscles from the ovine cervix during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. the relaxant effect of eocn was expressed as a percentage of the contraction recorded before the addition of the oil and calculated relative to the preparations exposed only to the vehicle. the ic50 (concentration of oil required to produce a 50% maximal reduction in muscle contraction) for relaxation of spontaneous contractions in circular and longitudinal muscles was significantly lower than the ic50 for blockade of k+-induced contraction (27.19 μg ml-1 versus 262.72 μg ml-1 and 40.92 μg ml-1 versus 222.47 μg ml-1, respectively). interestingly, there was a high degree of selectivity in the action of eocn on cervix layers concerning the inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction in circular (ic50 277.10 μg ml-1) and longitudinal (ic50 52.56 μg ml-1) muscles. in conclusion, eocn is able to relax ovine cervix during the luteal phase. this work opens the perspective of applying eocn in ovine embryo transfer.
Relaxant effect of the essential oil of Croton nepetifolius on ovine cervix  [cached]
Alexsandra F. Pereira,Luciana M. Melo,Selene M. Morais,José H. Leal-Cardoso
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2012,
Abstract: We investigated the in vitro effect of the essential oil of Croton nepetifolius Baill., Euphorbiaceae (EOCN), on spontaneous or induced contractions of circular and longitudinal muscles from the ovine cervix during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. The relaxant effect of EOCN was expressed as a percentage of the contraction recorded before the addition of the oil and calculated relative to the preparations exposed only to the vehicle. The IC50 (concentration of oil required to produce a 50% maximal reduction in muscle contraction) for relaxation of spontaneous contractions in circular and longitudinal muscles was significantly lower than the IC50 for blockade of K+-induced contraction (27.19 μg mL-1 versus 262.72 μg mL-1 and 40.92 μg mL-1 versus 222.47 μg mL-1, respectively). Interestingly, there was a high degree of selectivity in the action of EOCN on cervix layers concerning the inhibition of acetylcholine-induced contraction in circular (IC50 277.10 μg mL-1) and longitudinal (IC50 52.56 μg mL-1) muscles. In conclusion, EOCN is able to relax ovine cervix during the luteal phase. This work opens the perspective of applying EOCN in ovine embryo transfer.
Croton zehntneri Essential oil prevents acetaminophen-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice  [PDF]
Felipe C. Lima,Daniel F. Sousa,Jamile M. Ferreira,Roberto C. P. Lima Jr.
Records of Natural Products , 2008,
Abstract: Hepatoprotective activity of Croton zehntneri Pax & Hoffman (Euphorbiaceae) leaf essential oil (EOCz) was evaluated against single dose of acetaminophen-induced (500 mg/kg, p.o.) acute hepatotoxicity in mice. EOCz significantly protected the hepatotoxicity as evident from the activities of serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) activities, that were significantly (p<0.01) elevated in the acetaminophen alone treated animals. Histopathological examinations of liver tissue corroborated well with the biochemical changes. Hepatic steatosis, hydropic degeneration and necrosis were observed in the acetaminophen treated group, while these were completely absent in the standard and EOCz treated groups. In conclusion, these data suggest that the Croton zehntneri essential oil can prevent hepatic injuries from acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
Chemical constituents and potential anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oil from the leaves of Croton argyrophyllus
José Mirabeau O. Ramos,Cliomar A. Santos,Danielle G. Santana,Darlisson A. Santos
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia , 2013,
Abstract: Many species from Croton genus have been used in traditional medicine and its pharmacological activities demonstrated. Croton argyrophyllus Kunth, Euphorbiaceae, is a shrub that grows in the flora of Northeastern Brazilian. The essential oil of C. argyrophyllus leaves was tested in rodents (10-100 mg/kg, p.o.) in classical models of inflammation (carrageenan-induced paw oedema and peritonitis) and its chemical constituents were determined by GC-MS/FID analysis. Nitric oxide radical-scavenging activity and lipidic peroxidation were determined to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the essential oil (0.001-100 μg/mL). Forty-two components were identified, among them, bicyclogermacrene (14.60%) and spathulenol (8.27%) were the most abundant ones. C. argyrophyllus essential oil reduced significantly the oedema (30 and 100 mg/kg, p<0.05) and, besides, reduced the carrageenan increase in mieloperoxidase activity (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, p<0.001). The carrageenan-induced peritonitis was significantly reduced (p<0.001) by the essential oil (10, 30, and 100 mg/kg). The essential oil (100 mg/kg) reduces the total peritoneal lavage NOx- concentration (p<0.01). Nitric oxide radical generated from sodium nitroprusside was found to be inhibited by the essential oil (p<0.001). C. argyrophyllus essential oil was able to prevent Fe2+- or Fe2+ plus H2O2-induced lipid peroxidation (p<0.001). This study suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect of the essential oil of C. argyrophyllus observed in the present study can be related, at least in part, its antioxidant capacity.
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