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Collaborative Engagement Approaches For Delivering Sustainable Infrastructure Projects In The AEC Sector  [PDF]
Adetola, Alaba,Goulding, Jack,Liyanage, Champika
International Journal of Construction Supply Chain Management , 2011,
Abstract: The public sector has traditionally financed and operated infrastructure projects using resources from taxes and various levies (e.g. fuel taxes, road user charges). However, the rapid increase in human population growth coupled with extended globalisation complexities and associated social/political/economic challenges have placed new demands on the purveyors and operators of infrastructure projects. The importance of delivering quality infrastructure has been underlined by the United Nations declaration of the Millennium Development Goals; as has the provision of ‘adequate’ basic structures and facilities necessary for the well-being of urban populations in developing countries. Thus, in an effort to finance developing countries’ infrastructure needs, most countries have adopted some form of public-private collaboration strategy. This paper critically reviews these collaborative engagement approaches, identifies and highlights 10 critical themes that need to be appropriately captured and aligned to existing business models in order to successfully deliver sustainable infrastructure projects. Research findings show that infrastructure services can be delivered in many ways, and through various routes. For example, a purely public approach can cause problems such as slow and ineffective decision-making, inefficient organisational and institutional augmentation, and lack of competition and inefficiency (collectively known as government failure). On the other hand, adopting a purely private approach can cause problems such as inequalities in the distribution of infrastructure services (known as market failure). Thus, to overcome both government and market failures, a collaborative approach is advocated which incorporates the strengths of both of these polarised positions.
Urban Heritage in Baghdad: Toward a Comprehensive Sustainable Framework  [cached]
Akram J. M. Al-Akkam
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2013, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v6n2p39
Abstract: Architectural heritage is the most important legacy of civilisation and through it we can readily grasp the history of nations. Architects, urban planners and policymakers are now aware that historic cities require regulatory mechanisms if they are to maintain and enhance the fabric upon which their historicity and economic vitality is based. The historic areas in Baghdad, like those in Iraq, are suffering from declining infrastructure, a deteriorating environment, a lack of modern facilities, high unemployment rates, collapsing social impact and weakness in its urban institutions. Such pressures have brought into focus the extent to which sustainable development policies can contribute to the management of change in historic areas. A central objective of this investigation is to explore how the conservation-led regeneration of historic areas in Baghdad may be carried out in a way that promotes social, economic and environmental sustainability, and the full participation of all stakeholders. To achieve the research objective, the main theme, a hypothetical comprehensive model, and a plan and action plan are proposed. The conclusions reached demonstrate that to achieve the strategy of immediate sustainable conservation-led regeneration, the government should contribute to such conservation projects and support the formation of an institutional framework.
Evaluation of Drinking Water Pollution and Health Effects in Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Allaa M. Aenab, S. K. Singh
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.36064
Abstract: Contamination of water reserves by biological, chemical, and radiologic agents may affect the health of millions of residents in the Iraq as well as many others throughout the world. Fatal outbreaks of cholera struck several provinces of the country, including Baghdad. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) also says air pollution, resulting from burning oil and aggravated by war, is cause for concern. The study area Baghdad has been divided into two parts: Central Baghdad and Outskirts of Baghdad (included in Baghdad but near the boundaries of Baghdad). The outskirts of Baghdad comprises of 4 cities: Al-Hussaniya located in northern part of Baghdad, Abu-Gurabe located in the western side of Baghdad, Jissr Diyala located in the eastern side of Baghdad and finally Al-Mahmodiya located in the southern side of Baghdad. These cities are in very poor situation in terms of water supply. The quality of water supplied is bad as no attention is given to WTP's in these places, which is also because of the fact that given the insecure war conditions, these areas are inaccessible. The sewage is thrown directly into the river because these areas do not have sewage treatment plants. In case of central Baghdad the water supply and sewerage network are broken in some places. Due to this there is mixing of water between the two networks. For this study we taking water supply samples and collect all the samples from WTPs and water supply network (houses, shops and different places). We made the analysis to parts first bacteriologies, second chlorine and after analysis these samples in lab we will give in our study numbers of fail samples, type of diseases and how many case during year 2007 in Baghdad City. Also in this study we will give Estimated Deaths from Water-Related Diseases 2010 to 2035.
Outcome of Haemodialysis Arteriovenous Fistula in Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Abdulsalam Y. Taha, Omer Ahmed Diab, Sabah N. Jaber
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.51003

Background: Vascular access (VA) is the life line for end stage renal disease (ESRD). Though there are many methods of VA, native arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is the oldest and the best. AVFs are prone to develop some complications. The aim of this combined prospective and retrospective clinical study was to assess the outcome of native haemodialysis AVF in Baghdad Medical City Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. Materials and Methods: Sixty-seven patients (43 males and 24 females) with ESRD were studied over 6 months, from April 1 to September 30, 2013. Demographic and clinical features as well as co-morbidities were checked. Allen’s test and examination of upper limb superficial veins were performed. Radio-cephalic or brachio-cephalic AVFs were created mostly under local anaesthesia using artery-side to vein-end anastamoses. Complications were noted during a follow-up period of 2 weeks to 6 months. Results: The mean age was 51.2 ± 14.4 years. Fistulas (n = 81) were mostly brachio-cephalic (n = 74, 91.4%). One fifth of patients were diabetics and 58.2% were hypertensive. End of the vein to side of the artery was used in 92.5%. All fistulae functioned primarily. Significant complications were thrombosis (n = 18, 22.2%), aneurysms (n = 3, 4.5%) and steal syndrome (n = 3, 13.6%). Distal oedema, venous congestion, wound infection and seroma were managed conservatively. Three surgical revisions were required, one for a large aneurysmal dilation (aneurysmectomy and vessel ligation) and two for an evacuation of seroma. Conclusion: AVF initial success was good. Late complications such as aneurysms and steal syndrome were almost within the reported rates whilst thrombosis was high.

Evaluation of Dredging Operations for Tigris River within Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Ammar Ali, Qusay Al-Suhail, Nadhir Al-Ansari, Sven Knutsson
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2014.64026

River Tigris divides Baghdad, capital of Iraq, in two parts. The reach of the river within Baghdad is about 60 km long. Many islands and bars are obstructing the flow of the river within Baghdad. To overcome this problem, dredging operations started along most of Tigris River inside Baghdad City to remove many islands and side bars, which reduced the flooding capacity and the efficiency of water intakes. An examination for the dredging plan under process and two proposed additional plans was performed using the Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System software (HEC-RAS) for a 50 km long river reach to investigate whether they can recover the designed flooding capacity of the river or just improving it. Calibration and verification processes were implemented in the model using observed water levels at Sarai Baghdad gauging station and along the last 15 km of the river reach. Comparisons of computed water levels were conducted with those of previous studies and historical data. Some improvement of flood capacity was achieved based on the recorded data of the last three decades. Cautions about the water intakes should be considered to maintain their function with the expected drop in water level due to dredging operations.

Evaluation of quality of drinking water from Baghdad, Iraq
M.M Barbooti, G Bolzoni, I.A Mirza, M Pelosi, I Barilli, R Kadhum, G Peterlongo
Science World Journal , 2010,
Abstract: This is a joint work between the Italian Red Cross and the Environmental Laboratories, Baghdad. The drinking water (DW) samples from 16 residential districts in Baghdad were chemically evaluated with reference to the raw water samples and water directly taken from the purification plants. In addition to the routinely measured parameters, 17 metals and 11 trihalomathane (THM) were measured. Generally, the samples of water analysed can be considered of good quality. The relatively high sulphate and aluminium contents results from the use of aluminium sulphate as flocculent. The ammonia and Nitrite concentrations were lower than the detectable limit, because ammonia is converted into chloramines and nitrite is converted into Nitrate during chlorination. This indicates no sewage contamination of the drinking water. The high chloride contents can be referred to the use of partially degraded hypo for the disinfection. The presence of THM's in the samples analysed is indicative of good disinfection process. The presence of these compounds is preferred better than bacterial contamination. The relatively high levels of zinc and iron have no impact on the quality of DW. Iron, however, was efficiently removed during the treatment, together with Manganese. Reference was done to the EU specification of drinking water regarding total hardness, chloride contents, sulphate, iron and THM's. As for the iron content, the original pH of the river water (7.5 and 8.0) ensures that Iron should not be present in soluble form at a detectable level. Corrosion of the pipes could be one of the reasons for the presence of iron. Key Words: Drinking water quality, heavy metals, sulphate, Aluminium, Trihalomethans, hardness.
IRAQ 2003 (PART 2): THE ROAD TO BAGHDAD  [cached]
Leopold Scholtz
Scientia Militaria : South African Journal of Military Studies , 2012, DOI: 10.5787/32-2-136
Abstract: The operational plans The attack on Iraq, or Operation Iraqi Freedom as it was called, would be very different from its predecessor Operation Desert Storm, 12 years before. The main strategic difference was, of course, the fact that Desert Storm encompassed an enormous international military coalition, with ground, air and naval forces being supplied by America, Britain, France, Italy, Australia, Argentina, Saudi Arabia, Egypt and Syria. Iraqi Freedom was shouldered by only two countries, the US and the UK, with Australia supplying a small contingent of SAS troops, the Czech Republic a platoon of chemical warfare troops and Spain a hospital ship. To drive the Iraqi occupying forces out of Kuwait in 1991, an enormous force of 15 divisions had been amassed. These had been organised into 3 American corps (XVIII Airborne Corps, consisting of two airborne divisions, a mechanised infantry division, as well as a French light armoured division; VII Corps, consisting of three US and one UK armoured divisions and one US mechanised infantry division; and a US Marine corps, consisting of two Marine divisions), a Saudi Arabian corps of two divisions, an Egyptian corps of two divisions, and a Syrian division.3 For Iraqi Freedom, only a single army corps (V), consisting of two mechanised infantry divisions and an airborne division, together with a marine division, an understrength composite British armoured division, and some smaller independent units, was available. And because of political wrangling, one mechanised infantry division arrived far too late on the battlefield to participate in the fighting. So, compared to 15 divisions in 1991, the job would now have to be done by only four. Nevertheless, with the new American weapons of precision and the extremely able Abrams tank, a repeat of Gulf War I was not really necessary.
Carotid Body Tumour: The Second Case Series from Baghdad, Iraq  [PDF]
Waleed M. Hussen, Abdulsalam Y. Taha, Diar S. Hama-Kareem
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2015.63019
Background: Carotid body tumour (CBT) is a rare neoplasm, yet it is the commonest head and neck paraganglioma. In Iraq, relevant literature is sparse. Herein, we present our second case series. Methodology: Patients with CBTs that were operated upon in the Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Baghdad Medical City from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled. History and examination were followed by a workup of duplex ultrasonography, CT scan, magnetic resonance imaging, CT or conventional carotid angiography. Surgical exploration via a standard anterolateral cervical incision and subadventitial dissection was used to resect the tumours with preservation of carotid arteries. Intra-luminal carotid shunts and vein grafts were prepared to be used if necessary. Results: There were 5 males and 2 females aging 17 - 46 with a mean of 32.9 ± 9.8 year. All patients had slowly growing painless pulsatile swelling below mandiblular angle for long durations (1 - 25 years) and a positive Fontaine’s sign. All tumours were benign, unilateral (right n = 4, left n = 3) and ranging in size from 3 × 3 cm to 6.4 × 3.2 cm. Beside US neck exam, carotid angiography was done in 5 patients. According to Shamblin classification, 4 were class II, 2 class I and 1 class III. All tumours were successfully resected with preservation of ICA. However, the ECA was safely ligated twice due to severe involvement. Tongue deviation occurred once (14.3%) but no patient died and none had stroke or recurrence. Conclusions: Our results of surgery for CBT compare very well with the international standards.
Managing Assets in The Infrastructure Sector
T.P. van Houten,Linda L. Zhang
International Journal of Engineering Business Management , 2010,
Abstract: In view of the importance of managing assets and the lack of research in managing assets in the infrastructure sector, we develop an asset management model in this study. This model is developed in line with the unique characteristics of the infrastructure assets and asset management principles and criteria. In the proposed model, we consider activities at three levels, namely the strategical, tactical and operational levels. The interviews with experts in asset management and officials in several Dutch organizations have proven the potential of our asset management model.
Project Finance and Projects in the Energy Sector in Developing Countries  [PDF]
European Academic Research , 2013,
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to show the importance of using project finance in infrastructure investments in developing countries. The paper will be focused only on one infrastructure sector, which is energy. Structurally, power project finance has involved largely buildown-transfer (BOT) project structures and long-term contracts. The projects largely reflect a rational allocation of risks among public and private participants. Private sponsors and lenders generally assume risks for completion and performance. Governments assume substantial risks in nearly all projects, mostly in areas in which they have control, such as utility performance, currency convertibility, fuel costs, inflation, and political event. The aim of this research is to empirically examine a financing and governance structure called Project Finance that typically funds large scale, capital intensive, infrastructure investments in risky countries. The methodology used in this paper is literature review of the main theories for project finance. I will empirically test the propensity of the firms to use project finance, using data of some projects in South –East countries. For this purpose the study compares project financed and corporate financed transactions in the energy sector. I find that the propensity of firms to use project finance is high and statistically significant when large sunk investments have state owned primary buyer firms in risky countries.
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