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A Mouse Stromal Response to Tumor Invasion Predicts Prostate and Breast Cancer Patient Survival  [PDF]
Marina Bacac, Paolo Provero, Nathalie Mayran, Jean-Christophe Stehle, Carlo Fusco, Ivan Stamenkovic
PLOS ONE , 2006, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000032
Abstract: Primary and metastatic tumor growth induces host tissue responses that are believed to support tumor progression. Understanding the molecular changes within the tumor microenvironment during tumor progression may therefore be relevant not only for discovering potential therapeutic targets, but also for identifying putative molecular signatures that may improve tumor classification and predict clinical outcome. To selectively address stromal gene expression changes during cancer progression, we performed cDNA microarray analysis of laser-microdissected stromal cells derived from prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and invasive cancer in a multistage model of prostate carcinogenesis. Human orthologs of genes identified in the stromal reaction to tumor progression in this mouse model were observed to be expressed in several human cancers, and to cluster prostate and breast cancer patients into groups with statistically different clinical outcomes. Univariate Cox analysis showed that overexpression of these genes is associated with shorter survival and recurrence-free periods. Taken together, our observations provide evidence that the expression signature of the stromal response to tumor invasion in a mouse tumor model can be used to probe human cancer, and to provide a powerful prognostic indicator for some of the most frequent human malignancies.
Endobronchial ultrasound application for diagnosis of tracheobronchial tree invasion by esophageal cancer
Garrido, Teresa;Maluf-Filho, Fauze;Sallum, Rubens A.A.;Figueiredo, Viviane Rossi;Jacomelli, Márcia;Tedde, Miguel;
Clinics , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1807-59322009000600003
Abstract: introduction: esophageal cancer staging has been performed through bronchoscopy, computerized tomography (ct), positron emission tomography (pet), and endoscopic ultrasound (eus). whereas ct and pet scan provide assessments of distant metastasis, bronchoscopy importantly diagnoses tracheobronchial involvement, complementing chest ct findings. eus is the most accurate examination for t and n staging but is technically limited when tumoral stenoses cannot be traversed. endobronchial ultrasound (ebus) appears to present greater accuracy than eus, ct, and bronchoscopy for assessing tracheobronchial wall involvement. ebus has been recently associated with eus for esophageal cancer staging in our unit. objective: to compare ebus findings in esophageal cancer patients without evident signs of tracheobronchial invasion on conventional bronchoscopy with eus and ct. methods: fourteen patients with esophageal cancer underwent ct, conventional bronchoscopy, eus, and ebus for preoperative staging. all patients underwent ebus and eus with an olympus? mh-908 echoendoscope at 7.5 mhz. seven patients were eligible for the study according to the inclusion criteria. results: the echoendoscope could not traverse tumoral esophageal stenosis to perform eus in two patients, and invasion was effectively diagnosed by ebus. in 4 (57%) of 7 patients ebus revealed additional information to staging. in the remaining 3 cases the invasion findings were the same under both eus and ebus. conclusion: ebus showed signs of tracheobronchial invasion not observed by conventional bronchoscopy, adding information to staging in most of the cases when compared with ct and eus.
Endobronchial Epstein-Barr Virus Associated Post-transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorder in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
S. Feuillet,V. Meignin,P. Brice,V. Rocha
Clinical Medicine : Case Reports , 2009,
Abstract: The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated Post-Transplant Lymphoproliferative Disorders (PTLD) are increasingly recognized as a fatal complication of hematological stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Thoracic involvement, that may be isolated or part of a disseminated disease, usually encompasses pulmonary nodules or masses and mediastinal lymph node enlargement. The current case study presents 2 patients who underwent HSCT, one allogenic and the other autologous, who developed an exceptional endobronchial EBV related PTLD. The first patient had a fleshy white endobronchial mass resulting in a right upper lobe atelectasis and the second had an extensive necrotising mucosa from trachea to both basal bronchi without any significant change of lung parenchyma on the CT scan. In both cases, the diagnosis was made by bronchial biopsies. Physicians should be aware of an endobronchial pattern of EBV associated PTLD after HSCT to permit quick diagnosis and therapeutic intervention.
Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Facilitates Invasion of Staphylococcus aureus into the Nasal Mucosa and Nasal Polyp Tissue  [PDF]
XiangDong Wang, Nan Zhang, Sarah Glorieux, Gabriele Holtappels, Mario Vaneechoutte, Olga Krysko, Luo Zhang, Demin Han, Hans J. Nauwynck, Claus Bachert
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0039875
Abstract: Background Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of severe chronic airway disease, such as nasal polyps. However the mechanisms underlying the initiation of damage and/or invasion of the nasal mucosa by S. aureus are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between S. aureus and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) in the invasion of the nasal mucosa and nasal polyp tissue. Methodology/Principal Findings Inferior turbinate and nasal polyp samples were cultured and infected with either HSV1 alone, S. aureus alone or a combination of both. Both in turbinate mucosa and nasal polyp tissue, HSV1, with or without S. aureus incubation, led to focal infection of outer epithelial cells within 48 h, and loss or damage of the epithelium and invasion of HSV1 into the lamina propria within 72 h. After pre-infection with HSV1 for 24 h or 48 h, S. aureus was able to pass the basement membrane and invade the mucosa. Epithelial damage scores were significantly higher for HSV1 and S. aureus co-infected explants compared with control explants or S. aureus only-infected explants, and significantly correlated with HSV1-invasion scores. The epithelial damage scores of nasal polyp tissues were significantly higher than those of inferior turbinate tissues upon HSV1 infection. Consequently, invasion scores of HSV1 of nasal polyp tissues were significantly higher than those of inferior turbinate mucosa in the HSV1 and co-infection groups, and invasion scores of S. aureus of nasal polyp tissues were significantly higher than those of inferior turbinate tissues in the co-infection group. Conclusions/Significance HSV1 may lead to a significant damage of the nasal epithelium and consequently may facilitate invasion of S. aureus into the nasal mucosa. Nasal polyp tissue is more susceptible to the invasion of HSV1 and epithelial damage by HSV1 compared with inferior turbinate mucosa.
Immunohistochemistry for Myc Predicts Survival in Colorectal Cancer  [PDF]
Christopher W. Toon, Angela Chou, Adele Clarkson, Keshani DeSilva, Michelle Houang, Joseph C. Y. Chan, Loretta L. Sioson, Lucy Jankova, Anthony J. Gill
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087456
Abstract: MYC over-expression as determined by molecular means has been reported as a favorable prognostic biomarker in colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However MYC expression analysis is not available in the routine clinical setting. We investigated whether immunohistochemistry (IHC) for the myc protein using a novel commercially available rabbit monoclonal antibody [clone Y69] which is currently in widespread clinical use for lymphoma diagnosis could be used to predict outcome in resected CRC. Myc IHC was performed on a tissue microarray (TMA) comprising a retrospective cohort of 1421 CRC patients and scored blinded as to all clinical and pathological data. IHC was also performed on a subcohort of whole section CRCs to assess staining characteristics and concordance with TMA expression. MYC over-expression was found in 980 (69%) of CRCs and was associated with tumor stage and DNA mismatch repair/BRAF status. There was substantial agreement between TMA and whole section myc IHC (kappa = 0.742, p<0.01). CRCs with MYC over-expression demonstrated improved 5-year survival (93.2% vs. 57.3%), with the effect significantly modulated by the dominant effect of tumor stage, age at diagnosis and lymphovascular space invasion status on survival. We conclude that myc status as determined by IHC alone can be used to predict overall survival in patients with CRC undergoing surgical resection.
Interaction of Species Traits and Environmental Disturbance Predicts Invasion Success of Aquatic Microorganisms  [PDF]
Elvira M?chler, Florian Altermatt
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045400
Abstract: Factors such as increased mobility of humans, global trade and climate change are affecting the range of many species, and cause large-scale translocations of species beyond their native range. Many introduced species have a strong negative influence on the new local environment and lead to high economic costs. There is a strong interest to understand why some species are successful in invading new environments and others not. Most of our understanding and generalizations thereof, however, are based on studies of plants and animals, and little is known on invasion processes of microorganisms. We conducted a microcosm experiment to understand factors promoting the success of biological invasions of aquatic microorganisms. In a controlled lab experiment, protist and rotifer species originally isolated in North America invaded into a natural, field-collected community of microorganisms of European origin. To identify the importance of environmental disturbances on invasion success, we either repeatedly disturbed the local patches, or kept them as undisturbed controls. We measured both short-term establishment and long-term invasion success, and correlated it with species-specific life-history traits. We found that environmental disturbances significantly affected invasion success. Depending on the invading species’ identity, disturbances were either promoting or decreasing invasion success. The interaction between habitat disturbance and species identity was especially pronounced for long-term invasion success. Growth rate was the most important trait promoting invasion success, especially when the species invaded into a disturbed local community. We conclude that neither species traits nor environmental factors alone conclusively predict invasion success, but an integration of both of them is necessary.
Buccal mucosa carcinoma: surgical margin less than 3 mm, not 5 mm, predicts locoregional recurrence
Wen-Yen Chiou, Hon-Yi Lin, Feng-Chun Hsu, Moon-Sing Lee, Hsu-Chueh Ho, Yu-Chieh Su, Ching-Chih Lee, Chen-Hsi Hsieh, Yao-Ching Wang, Shih-Kai Hung
Radiation Oncology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1748-717x-5-79
Abstract: Between August 2000 and June 2008, a total of 110 patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma (25 with stage I, 31 with stage II, 11 with stage III, and 43 with Stage IV classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer 6th edition) were treated with surgery alone (n = 32), surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (n = 38) or surgery plus adjuvant concurrent chemoradiotherapy (n = 40).Main outcome measures: The primary endpoint was locoregional disease control.The median follow-up time at analysis was 25 months (range, 4-104 months). The 3-year locoregional control rates were significantly different when a 3-mm surgical margin (≤3 versus >3 mm, 71% versus 95%, p = 0.04) but not a 5-mm margin (75% versus 92%, p = 0.22) was used as the cut-off level. We also found a quantitative correlation between surgical margin and locoregional failure (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.14 - 4.11; p = 0.019). Multivariate analysis identified pN classification and surgical margin as independent factors affecting disease-free survival and locoregional control.Narrow surgical margin ≤3 mm, but not 5 mm, is associated with high risk for locoregional recurrence of buccal mucosa carcinoma. More aggressive treatment after surgery is suggested.The incidence of buccal mucosa carcinoma has rapidly increased in Taiwan in recent decades; major risk factors for this disease are smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing[1-3]. In patients with buccal mucosa carcinoma, locoregional recurrence (rate, 30-80%) is the main cause of treatment failure[4,5]. Several predictive factors for locoregional recurrence have been reported: bone erosion or invasion, positive surgical margin, perineural infiltration or invasion, vascular invasion, lymph node involvement, and extracapsular extension of tumor from the involved lymph node[6].To reduce the risk of locoregional recurrence, radical surgery plus postoperative radiotherapy (RT) has been recommended for locoreginally advanced dise
Endobronchial Involvement in Miliary Tuberculosis
Cuneyt Tetikkurt, MD,Seza Tetikkurt, MD,Nihal Bayar, MD,Imran Ozdemir, MD
Pneumon , 2010,
Abstract: SUMMARY. Endobronchial tuberculosis (EBTB) is the tuberculous infection of the tracheobronchial tree. It has been reported in patients with parenchymal infiltrations and cavities in the lung and intrathoracic tuberculous lymphadenopathy. The occurrence of bronchial lesions in miliary tuberculosis is most likely to be a result of hematogenous dissemination of tubercle bacilli. We report six patients with endobronchial involvement in miliary tuberculosis. Bronchoscopic examination with histopathological evidence is essential to exclude or confirm endobronchial involvement in miliary tuberculosis. Chest computed tomography (CT) may be a useful diagnostic adjunct for evaluating bronchial stenosis, but does not show the mucosal changes of endobronchial inflammation if the lesions are superficial or mild. Local steroid injection appears to be useful for the treatment of superficial mucosal lesions involving less than one quarter of the bronchial lumen, but for advanced inflammatory lesions local treatment is ineffective. Local steroid injection for the treatment of bronchial narrowing is contraindicated by the finding of significant bronchial or segmental stenosis on CT scan. The evolution of airway involvement in miliary tuberculosis indicates that hematogenous dissemination of the bacilli is the primary mechanism for endobronchial tuberculosis. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):135-140.
Laser resection of endobronchial hamartoma via fiberoptic bronchoscopy  [cached]
Rai Satya,Patil Ashok,Saxena Puneet,Kaur Amulyajit
Lung India , 2010,
Abstract: Endobronchial hamartoma is a rare benign tumor of lung that may present with symptoms of airway obstruction with wheezing, stridor, recurrent pneumonia or atelectasis. We report a case of a patient with endobronchial hamartoma, recurrent pneumonia, who presented to us with sputum smear and culture positive pulmonary tuberculosis. He was treated with antitubercular treatment and endobronchial hamartoma was resected completely by diode laser through fiberoptic bronchoscope.
Endobronchial chondroma: a rare benign bronchial neoplasm
Antonios Papagiannis,Kosmas Tsakiridis,Stamatis Arikas,Efstratios Tzamtzis
Pneumon , 2010,
Abstract: SUMMARY. Endobronchial chondroma is a rare benign endobronchial tumour that may lead to obstruction, infection and destruction of lung tissue. Radical resection is curative, except when the chondroma is associated with other malignant neoplasms (Carney’s triad). We describe a case of endobronchial chondroma in a young man which was successfully managed by segmentectomy. Pneumon 2010, 23(2):168-175.
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