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Scholarship or solidarity? The post-emancipation era in the Caribbean reconsidered
Pieter C. Emmer
New West Indian Guide , 1995,
Abstract: [First paragraph] From a reading of Michael Craton's (1994) recent contribution to this journal on slave emancipation in the Bahamas, one is struck by two things. First, we have come a long way in the historical study of slavery compared with the analysis of the post-emancipation period. Over the past thirty years we have amassed a mountain of materials covering virtually all aspects of the system of slavery. As a consequence we have been able to reach a large degree of consensus on slavery in the U.S. South, the Caribbean, and Brazil. Of course, certain differences of interpretation remain. For example, we still have not solved all the riddles on issues such as the demographic decline of the slave populations in the tropical regions of the New World or the survival of African norms and values in these parts.
Between the death penalty and decriminalization : new directions for drug control in the Commonwealth Caribbean
Axel Klein
New West Indian Guide , 2001,
Abstract: Traces the changes in public attitudes toward and political stances on drug control in the British Caribbean between 1980 and 2000. Author first discusses the origins of drug control, the role of US pressure, and the vulnerability of the Caribbean. He then looks at European involvement and the different plans and policies to control drugs in the region. Finally, he describes the consequences of these policy approaches on the justice system and legal reform, drug demand, and social structures in the region.
Nihilism as Emancipation  [cached]
Gianni Vattimo
Cosmos and History : the Journal of Natural and Social Philosophy , 2009,
Abstract: Is the philosophical idea of nihilism compatible with a project of emancipation based on concepts such as autonomy, equality and freedom? This is the question to which Vattimo’s contribution seeks to provide a response. For Vattimo, the notion of nihilism is inseparable from that of hermeneutics, understood as the historically situated character of universal claims. Rather than undermining emancipation, for Vattimo a nihilistic hermeneutics is precisely what frees us from foundations, and should thus be understood as an emancipatory force. The article tries to counter a purely tragic understanding of nihilism with the constructive political horizons opened up by a nihilistic hermeneutics, which allows us to think anew the ideas of freedom and equality.
On Truth and Emancipation  [cached]
Andreas Hjort Bundgaard
Nordicum-Mediterraneum , 2012,
Abstract: This article has two main currents. First, it argues that an affinity or similarity can be identified between the philosophy of Gianni Vattimo (the so-called “Weak Thinking”) and the “Discourse Theory” of Ernesto Laclau and Chantal Mouffe. The two theorizations are engaged with related problems, but have conceptualized them differently; they share central insights, but understand them with different vocabularies. The article furthermore illuminates as regards what this affinity consists in, and it discusses the differences and similarities between the two theoretical positions. The second current of the article takes the ‘postmodern’ philosophical problems of anti-foundationalism and nihilism as its point of departure. It raises the questions of: 1) how it is possible at the same time to take the critique of universality and objectivity seriously and still believe in the value of ethics and science; and, 2) how we are to understand emancipation if there is no necessary relationship between truth and freedom. The article investigates the status, meaning and interconnection of the categories of truth, knowledge, ethics, politics and emancipation in the light of the absence of metaphysical first principles. The article concludes that: A) faith can constitute a “weak foundation” of knowledge and ethics; and, B) nihilism can be combined with the political and ethical ambitions of universal human emancipation and radical democracy.
Inequality and Emancipation : An Educational Approach  [PDF]
Stefan Gross
Journal of Education and Research , 2010, DOI: 10.3126/jer.v2i0.7617
Abstract: Emancipation has lost its charisma. In the 1960s, the term had been one of the saviour-concepts in the educational debate on social inequality and the political function of pedagogy in Western countries. Nowadays, as the discussion is still ongoing, the word is rarely in use. Overloaded with political enmeshments and a plurality of meanings, emancipation seems to be nothing more than a nearly forgotten relict of an ancient time. How could this rise and fall happen? The present essay is tracing the colourful history of emancipation in various contexts, recapitulating its pedagogical importance in the 1960s and discovering how the pillars have kept their primary function, although the word is not in use any longer.
'Americanité' or 'Antillanité'? Changing perspectives on identity in post-négritude Francophone Caribbean poetry
Anthea Morrison
New West Indian Guide , 1993,
Abstract: Analysis of Francophone Caribbean poetry focusing on the notions of Antillanité and Américanité as they relate to the work of Sonny Rupaire and Alfred Melon-Degras. The author emphasizes the varying impulses and allegiances which may confront the Francophone Caribbean writer wrestling with his identity.
Formation of Structure in Snowfields: Penitentes, Suncups, and Dirt Cones  [PDF]
M. D. Betterton
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.63.056129
Abstract: Penitentes and suncups are structures formed as snow melts, typically high in the mountains. When the snow is dirty, dirt cones and other structures can form instead. Building on previous field observations and experiments, this work presents a theory of ablation morphologies, and the role of surface dirt in determining the structures formed. The glaciological literature indicates that sunlight, heating from air, and dirt all play a role in the formation of structure on an ablating snow surface. The present work formulates a mathematical model for the formation of ablation morphologies as a function of measurable parameters. The dependence of ablation morphologies on weather conditions and initial dirt thickness are studied, focusing on the initial growth of perturbations away from a flat surface. We derive a single-parameter expression for the melting rate as a function of dirt thickness, which agrees well with a set of measurements by Driedger. An interesting result is the prediction of a dirt-induced travelling instability for a range of parameters.
A Connection between Colony Biomass and Death in Caribbean Reef-Building Corals  [PDF]
Daniel J. Thornhill, Randi D. Rotjan, Brian D. Todd, Geoff C. Chilcoat, Roberto Iglesias-Prieto, Dustin W. Kemp, Todd C. LaJeunesse, Jennifer McCabe Reynolds, Gregory W. Schmidt, Thomas Shannon, Mark E. Warner, William K. Fitt
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0029535
Abstract: Increased sea-surface temperatures linked to warming climate threaten coral reef ecosystems globally. To better understand how corals and their endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) respond to environmental change, tissue biomass and Symbiodinium density of seven coral species were measured on various reefs approximately every four months for up to thirteen years in the Upper Florida Keys, United States (1994–2007), eleven years in the Exuma Cays, Bahamas (1995–2006), and four years in Puerto Morelos, Mexico (2003–2007). For six out of seven coral species, tissue biomass correlated with Symbiodinium density. Within a particular coral species, tissue biomasses and Symbiodinium densities varied regionally according to the following trends: Mexico≥Florida Keys≥Bahamas. Average tissue biomasses and symbiont cell densities were generally higher in shallow habitats (1–4 m) compared to deeper-dwelling conspecifics (12–15 m). Most colonies that were sampled displayed seasonal fluctuations in biomass and endosymbiont density related to annual temperature variations. During the bleaching episodes of 1998 and 2005, five out of seven species that were exposed to unusually high temperatures exhibited significant decreases in symbiotic algae that, in certain cases, preceded further decreases in tissue biomass. Following bleaching, Montastraea spp. colonies with low relative biomass levels died, whereas colonies with higher biomass levels survived. Bleaching- or disease-associated mortality was also observed in Acropora cervicornis colonies; compared to A. palmata, all A. cervicornis colonies experienced low biomass values. Such patterns suggest that Montastraea spp. and possibly other coral species with relatively low biomass experience increased susceptibility to death following bleaching or other stressors than do conspecifics with higher tissue biomass levels.
Post-death Transmission of Ebola: Challenges for Inference and Opportunities for Control  [PDF]
Joshua S. Weitz,Jonathan Dushoff
Quantitative Biology , 2014,
Abstract: Multiple epidemiological models have been proposed to predict the spread of Ebola in West Africa. These models include consideration of counter-measures meant to slow and, eventually, stop the spread of the disease. Here, we examine one component of Ebola dynamics that is of growing concern -- the transmission of Ebola from the dead to the living. We do so by applying the toolkit of mathematical epidemiology to analyze the consequences of post-death transmission. We show that underlying disease parameters cannot be inferred with confidence from early-stage incidence data (that is, they are not "identifiable") because different parameter combinations can produce virtually the same epidemic trajectory. Despite this identifiability problem, we find robustly that inferences that don't account for post-death transmission tend to underestimate the basic reproductive number -- thus, given the observed rate of epidemic growth, larger amounts of post-death transmission imply larger reproductive numbers. From a control perspective, we explain how improvements in reducing post-death transmission of Ebola may reduce the overall epidemic spread and scope substantially. Increased attention to the proportion of post-death transmission has the potential to aid both in projecting the course of the epidemic and in evaluating a portfolio of control strategies.
Eat dirt and avoid atopy: The hygiene hypothesis revisited  [cached]
Patki Anil
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2007,
Abstract: The explosive rise in the incidence of atopic diseases in the Western developed countries can be explained on the basis of the so-called "hygiene hypothesis". In short, it attributes the rising incidence of atopic dermatitis to reduced exposure to various childhood infections and bacterial endotoxins. Reduced exposure to dirt in the clean environment results in a skewed development of the immune system which results in an abnormal allergic response to various environmental allergens which are otherwise innocuous. This article reviews the historical aspects, epidemiological and immunological basis of the hygiene hypothesis and implications for Indian conditions.
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