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"The Needs of Consumers Oblige": Daily Problems and Criticism of the System in Public Letters in the 1960s and 1980s  [cached]
Reet Ruusmann
Journal of Ethnology and Folkloristics , 2010,
Abstract: This article examines public letters as an expression of everyday household problems and practices. The sources used are those letters from among the archival materials of the Tartu Retail Trade Association and the Tallinn Markets Administration that have survived from the 1960s and 1980s. Using qualitative thematic analysis, I examine the points of criticism that have arisen in connection with retail trade and the (deficit) reality behind it, along with specific behavioural practices. In addition, my aim is to show the relations between individuals and the state, and their dynamics, by presenting criticism with the help of discourse analysis.
Diferencial de mortalidade em homens e mulheres em localidade da regi?o Sudeste, Brasil: 1960, 1970 e 1980
Chor,Dóra; Duchiade,Milena Piraccini; Jourdan,Angela Maria Fernandes;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1992, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89101992000400006
Abstract: male and female mortality rates in the city of rio de janeiro in 1960, 1970 and 1980 are studied with a view to analysing the different risks to which men and women are subject by age group. mortality differentials by sex and cause were studied by means of male/female mortality ratios, relative and absolute differences among rates, and standardized rates. an analysis of differentials by selected groups of cause for 1980 was undertaken. male mortality rates were higher than the female rates in all age groups in the three years studied, with an increase of the male/female mortality ratio for the 15-34 age group over this period. the excess of male death was mainly due to the increase of deaths from violent causes among young men, a dramatic circunstance that can hardly be changed by "technical" procedures. as regards deaths from other causes, biological determinants and the different risks for men and women should be considered in order better to understand this situation.
Diferencial de mortalidade em homens e mulheres em localidade da regi o Sudeste, Brasil: 1960, 1970 e 1980  [cached]
Chor Dóra,Duchiade Milena Piraccini,Jourdan Angela Maria Fernandes
Revista de Saúde Pública , 1992,
Abstract: Foram comparadas as taxas de mortalidade masculinas e femininas no Município do Rio de Janeiro (Brasil), em 1960, 1970 e 1980, buscando analisar os diferentes riscos a que homens e mulheres s o submetidos, em cada grupo etário. Os diferenciais de mortalidade por sexo e causa foram estudados através da Raz o de Sobremortalidade Masculina, das diferen as relativas e absolutas entre taxas e de taxas padronizadas. Além disso, foi desenvolvida uma análise dos diferenciais por grupos selecionados de causas para o ano de 1980. As taxas de mortalidade masculinas foram maiores do que as femininas em todas as faixas etárias, nos três anos estudados, com aumento da Raz o de Sobremortalidade Masculina entre 15 e 34 anos , no período considerado. O excesso de mortes masculinas foi causado sobretudo pela eleva o dos óbitos por causas violentas em homens jovens, o que retrata uma realidade dramática, cuja possibilidade de transforma o através de medidas "técnicas" é escassa. Em rela o aos óbitos por outras causas, os determinantes biológicos e os diferentes riscos a que s o submetidos homens e mulheres devem ser considerados, buscando-se melhor compreens o da realidade.
Maculopatía por cloroquina Maculopathy from use of chloroquine  [cached]
Odalys González Pe?a,Eddy Mesa Hernández,Rafael González Díaz,Caridad Monteagudo Morejón
Revista Cubana de Oftalmolog?-a , 2010,
Abstract: La toxicidad de la cloroquina está relacionada con la dosis. Una dosis acumulativa de -100 g de cloroquina o una duración del tratamiento de menos de 1 a o raramente se asocia con lesión retiniana. El riesgo de toxicidad aumenta significativamente cuando la dosis acumulativa excede los 300 g (250/día por 3 a os). Se presenta un paciente del sexo femenino, con antecedentes de lupus eritematoso sistémico, hace 17 a os, para lo cual se le indicó un tratamiento con cloroquina, (1 tableta 250 mg/diaria) durante 15 a os. Como síntoma capital presentaba disminución lenta y progresiva de la agudeza visual de 2 a os de evolución; se le realizó un examen oftalmológico y otros exámenes complementarios que condujeron al diagnóstico de la enfermedad, y se estableció su tratamiento y su pronóstico. Se realizan recomendaciones. Chloroquine toxicity depends on the dose. A cumulative dose of under 100 g of chloroquine or a length of treatment for less than one year is rarely associated to any retinal lesion. The toxicity risk significantly increases with the cumulative dose over 300 g (250 g/day for three years). The case of a female patient with a history of lupus erythematosus for 17 years was presented. She was treated with chloroquine (one 250 mg every day) for 15 years. The main symptom was slow and progressive reduction of visual acuity experienced for 2 years; a complete ophthalmologic exam and other supplementary tests were indicated, which led to a diagnosis of maculopathy, and treatment and prognosis were then presented. Recommendations were made.
Toxicidad retiniana secundaria a tratamiento con cloroquina Retinal toxicity following chloroquine therapy
A. Ferreras,I. Pinilla,E. Abecia,A.B. Pajarín
Archivos de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Oftalmología , 2007,
Abstract: Caso clínico: Se describen dos casos de retinopatía tóxica bilateral en dos mujeres tratadas con cloroquina durante varios a os por un lupus eritematoso sistémico. Discusión: La retinopatía tóxica por cloroquina es una enfermedad infrecuente, iatrogénica y dosis dependiente, pero a pesar de ser conocida desde hace a os y de realizarse revisiones oftalmológicas periódicas, siguen apareciendo nuevos casos. Case report: Two cases of bilateral ocular toxicity following chloroquine therapy in two women with systemic lupus erythematosus are presented. Discussion: Retinal toxicity due to chloroquine is an uncommon iatrogenic disease. It is dose-dependent. New cases are still being described despite the application of ophthalmic screening techniques.
Territorialidades da moderniza o da Agricultura em Vicente Dutra-RS entre os anos de 1960 e 1980
Gilberto Spier
Revista IDeAS : Interfaces em Desenvolvimento, Agricultura e Sociedade , 2011,
Abstract: During the last decades Brazilian agriculture has been undergoing deep transformations which were subjected to a process of modernization. Such process aimed at integrating, systematically, industry and agricultural activities through modern technologies. The main to implement modern agricultural technology was to reduce the famine in the planet. Therefore, thousands of Brazilian peasants were affected by such transformations. Many of them gave up agriculture; some of them were sent away from the rural area, while others still resist to the agricultural modernization process. In Vicente Dutra, small municipality situated at northwest region of Rio Grande do Sul State, started having agricultural modernization around 1960s. The rural territory of Vicente Dutra-RS shows, substantially, the faces of agricultural modernization. Even though, it is possible to identify some forms of reaction regarding agricultural modernization. Such transformations are: the growing of traditional subsistence, cooperativism, and initiatives of transformation of production which would sell it directly to the consumer. Therefore, the agricultural modernization installed in Vicente Dutra-RS is partial, and the peasants keep, even with certain difficulty, their traditional agricultural customs.
Efecto hemolítico de la cloroquina en estudiantes deficientes de glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa  [cached]
Tatiana Acosta,Mayelin Suárez,Vladimir Nú?ez,Lilia C. Marín
Revista Cubana de Investigaciones Biom??dicas , 2003,
Abstract: Se estudió la presencia de estudiantes portadores de la deficiencia en la enzima glucosa-6-fosfato deshidrogenasa eritrocitaria en el Instituto de Ciencias Básicas y Preclínicas "Victoria de Girón" mediante el del azul de metileno, la actividad enzimática y la electroforesis en geles de almidón. Luego se estudió el efecto hemolítico de la administración profiláctica de fosfato de cloroquina en estos sujetos, estudiando las variaciones con significación clínica en la concentración de hemoglobina y el hematócrito, antes y después del tratamiento con este fármaco. Se descartó la presencia de enfermedades asociadas a cuadros hemolíticos en sujetos portadores de esta deficiencia. De los 994 estudiantes latinoamericanos que arribaron al instituto en el a o 2001, 8 fueron confirmados como deficientes de G6PD y el tratamiento de cloroquina suministrado no provocó hemólisis. The presence of students carriers of the deficiency in the glucose-6-phosphate erytrocitary dehydrogenase enzyme was studied at the "Victoria de Girón" Institute of Basic and Preclinical Sciences by using the methylene blue method, the enzymatic activity and the starch gel electrophoresis. Later, it was studied the hemolytic effect of the prophylactic administration of chloroquine phosphate to these subjects and the variations in the concentration of hemoglobin and hematocrit with clinical significance before and after the treatment with this drug. The existance of diseases associated with hemolytic pictures among individuals carriers of this disease was discarded. Of the 994 Latin American students attended at the Institute in 2001, 8 were confirmed as G6PD deficient. The treatment with chloroquine did not cause hemolysis.
Os usos da Justi a na busca por direitos: estratégias de reivindica o operária na cidade-fábrica Rio Tinto (Paraíba, 1959-1964)
Eltern Campina Vale
Revista Mundos do Trabalho , 2010, DOI: 10.5007/1984-9222.2010v2n3p261
Abstract: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1984-9222.2010v2n3p261 Este artigo busca analisar as a es trabalhistas movidas pelos operários da cidade-fábrica de Rio Tinto (PB). Os processos tramitaram na Junta de Concilia o e Julgamento de Jo o Pessoa e no Fórum de Rio Tinto, constituindo um novo espa o de reivindica o e resistência dos operários nas décadas de 1950 e 1960. Estes, por sua vez, eram conhecedores de que a Legisla o Trabalhista amparava suas reivindica es e que, deste modo, seria uma outra via para a luta por seus direitos. Os processos analisados demonstram as formas como empregadores e empregados, diante da Consolida o das Leis do Trabalho - CLT, travaram a luta jurídica de redefini o de rela es, no período entre 1959 e 1964, quando as a es se avolumaram.
La vellosidad placentaria en caso de primigesta infectada por Plasmodium vivax y tratada con cloroquina
Olivar C Castejón S,María P Molinaro V,María G de Zamora
Gaceta Médica de Caracas , 2001,
Abstract: Se describen los cambios histológicos en una placenta obtenida de paciente primigesta infectada por P. Vivax y tratada con cloroquina antes del parto de un recién nacido de bajo peso. Técnicas de análisis macroscópico y microscópico se aplicaron a vellosidades cerca de la región materna de la placenta. Los hallazgos revelaron la presencia de extensas áreas del parénquima infartadas con bloqueo del flujo sanguíneo intervelloso, ausencia de eritrocitos infectados y de infiltración inflamatoria mononuclear. Presencia de nódulos sinciciales, pérdida de la estructura estromal vellositaria, congestión y vasodilatación de capilares estromales, presencia de eritrocitos nucleados en la luz de estos últimos. Además se notaron cambios degenerativos del trofoblasto, deposición de fibrina o fibrinoide perivelloso y calcificación distrófica. Ellos indican una disfunción placentaria que pronostica retardo del crecimiento intrauterino. The aim of this work is to determine the histological changes from a placenta obtained of a primigravidae infected by P. Vivax and furtherly treated with chloroquine who presented malaric crisis before delivey with newborn of low weight. Macroscopic and microscopic stains were applied near to maternal region of the placenta. The findings revealed large areas of parenchimal infarcted tissue, with blockade of the blood flow in the intervillous space, lack of infected erythrocytes and of mononuclear inflammatory infiltration. Presence of syncytial knots, loss of villous stromal structure, congestion ad dilatation of stromal capillars and nucleated erythocytes. Besides, degenerative changes in the trophoblast, fibrinoid or fibrin deposition surrounding the villi ad dystrophic calcification. These results indicate a placental dysfunction that predicts intrauterine growth retardation.
Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba, Bolivia Respuesta terapéutica del Plasmodium vivax a la cloroquina, en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia  [cached]
Arletta A?ez,Dennis Navarro-Costa,Omar Yucra,Cecilia Garnica
Biomédica , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction. The knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. Objective. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Riberalta, Guayaramerin and Yacuiba, Bolivia. Materials and methods. An In vivo efficacy study of chloroquine (25mg/Kg/three days) was carried out in patients aged over 5 years old who were followed up for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and, desethylchloroquine were measured on day two and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan & Meier survival analysis. Results. We studied 223 patients (Riberalta, 84; Guayaramerín, 80; Yacuiba, 59). The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were in Riberalta 6,147, Guayaramerín 4,251 and Yacuiba 5,214 parasites/ul of blood. In the same order, the average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817 and 815 ng/ml. No treatment failures were observed In Yacuiba, while in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Conclusion. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in the three studied regions of Bolivia. Further studies are required for blood concentration levels of chloroquine. Introducción. Determinar la eficacia de la cloroquina contra el Plasmodium vivax permite mejorar la capacidad de vigilancia de la resistencia a los antipalúdicos. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia terapéutica de la cloroquina como tratamiento de malaria no complicada por Plasmodium vivax en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia. Materiales y métodos. Estudio de eficacia in vivo con pacientes mayores de 5 a os, se suministró cloroquina (25mg/Kg/ en tres días), y se realizó seguimiento por 28 días, midiendo los niveles de cloroquina en sangre y desetilcloroquina, el día dos y el día de registro de reaparición de parasitemia. Para la evaluación de la incidencia acumulada de falla del tratamiento, se usó el análisis de sobrevida de Kaplan & Meier. Resultados. Se estudiaron 223 pacientes (Riberalta 84; Guayaramerín 80; Yacuiba 59). Las medias de densidad parasitaria (formas asexuadas) del día 0 en Riberalta fueron de 6.147, en Guayaramerín 4.251 y en Yacuiba 5.214 parásitos/μl de sangre. En el mismo orden, los
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