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DYSFUNCTIONAL PERSONALITY PATTERNS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS: A FUNCTIONAL - CONTEXTUAL REVIEW
Dyanne Ruiz Casta?eda,Inmaculada Gómez- Becerra
Suma Psicológica , 2012,
Abstract: This paper aims to highlight the importance of the study of the dysfunctional patterns of personality from the beginning to the end of childhood and early ado-lescence. It will review the empirical evidence on the risk factors of future dys-functional styles of personality in adulthood and the possibility of these disorders as such from very early stages. It will present the vision of personality disorders from current diagnostic manuals and some peculiarities of the future DSM-V. It also, presents an analysis of the origin and development of these dysfunctional patterns of infant-juvenile personality from a functional-contextual view including the role of language or the verbal regulation and the self. Finally, there are some perspectives to be considered for future research.
Hospital admission patterns subsequent to diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children : a systematic review
Val C Angus, Norman Waugh
BMC Health Services Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-7-199
Abstract: In preparation for a study of hospital admissions, a systematic review was carried out on hospital admissions for children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes, whilst under the age of 15. The main thrust of this review was to ascertain where there were gaps in the literature for studies investigating post-diagnosis hospitalisations, rather than to try to draw conclusions from the disparate data sets.A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, Cochrane LibrarMEDLINE and EMBASE was conducted for the period 1986 to 2006, to identify publications relating to hospital admissions subsequent to the diagnosis of type 1 diabetes under the age of 15.Thirty-two publications met all inclusion criteria, 16 in Northern America, 11 in Europe and 5 in Australasia. Most of the studies selected were focussed on diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or diabetes-related hospital admissions and only four studies included data on all admissions. Admission rates with DKA as primary diagnosis varied widely between 0.01 to 0.18 per patient-year as did those for other diabetes-related co-morbidity ranging from 0.05 to 0.38 per patient year, making it difficult to interpret data from different study designs. However, people with Type 1 diabetes are three times more likely to be hospitalised than the non-diabetic populations and stay in hospital twice as long.Few studies report on all admissions to hospital in patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes whilst under the age of 15 years. Health care costs for type 1 patients are higher than those for the general population and information on associated patterns of hospitalisation might help to target interventions to reduce the cost of hospital admissions.Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-9 codes 250.0 to 250.9; ICD-10 codes E10 to E14), formerly known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), is an endocrine disorder that is associated with a wide range of co-morbidities such as heart disease, kidney
Breastfeeding patterns and exposure to suboptimal breastfeeding among children in developing countries: review and analysis of nationally representative surveys
Jeremy A Lauer, Ana Betrán, Cesar G Victora, Mercedes de Onís, Aluísio JD Barros
BMC Medicine , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-2-26
Abstract: We reviewed nationally representative surveys that collected data on breastfeeding rates in 94 developing countries. Surveys were categorized by completeness and comprehensiveness of data. Complete and comprehensive data were analysed with minimum chi-square regression. With a fitting procedure, estimated parameters were used to impute missing observations for incomplete or non-comprehensive surveys. Breastfeeding indicators were calculated and are reported for 135 developing countries by UN region.Amongst infants aged six months or younger in the developing world, the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding is 39% and the prevalence of no breastfeeding is 5.6%. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding is 86% and 68% for infants and children aged 6–11 and 12–23 months, respectively, in the developing world. Imputation expands population coverage of indicators, especially for infants. Breastfeeding trends are highly linear and estimated parameters defining the age-specific attrition hazard are robust. Survey-reported rates, particularly for exclusive breastfeeding, appear to have systematic upward bias, and exposure estimates must be considered conservative.Compliance with breastfeeding recommendations in developing countries is low, and more attention should be given to increasing breastfeeding – especially exclusive breastfeeding – and to monitoring trends. Although the introduction of more standardized and better validated survey instruments is desirable, since data coverage, completeness and comprehensiveness are extensive, global exposure assessment is relatively robust. Moreover, the regularity of breastfeeding patterns show existing survey data capture real biological and social phenomena. Our method for the analysis of breastfeeding rates provides a potent tool for summarizing trends, validating observations, translating and extrapolating indicators (as well as projecting and imputing estimates when necessary) and should support more effective child health mon
Pre-Surgical Evaluation of Intractable Epilepsy in Children  [cached]
Hadi Kazemi,Erwin-Josef Speckmann,Ali Gorji
Iranian Journal of Child Neurology , 2011,
Abstract: ObjectiveThis review summarizes some patterns of pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsyin children with medically refractory seizures. Epilepsy surgery is a valuabletherapeutic option for many children with intractable epilepsy. The most effectivetreatment for intractable partial epilepsy is a focal cortical resection with excisionof the area of ictal onset and initial seizure propagation (the epileptogenic zone).EEG monitoring continues to prove indispensable in pre-surgical planning ofrefractory epileptic patients by defining the epileptogenic zone. Technologicalprogresses in both structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have ledmany medical centers to consider surgical treatment of epilepsy. In childrenundergoing pre-surgical evaluation, the goals of neuroimaging studies includethe identification of structural abnormalities in the brain, eloquent regions of thebrain including language, memory, and sensorimotor functions, and the relationof these regions to the potential epileptogenic region. Neuropsychological testingplays a crucial role in assessing the potential impact of surgery on cognitivefunction of the patients and helps in lateralizing the cerebral hemispheredominant for verbal and nonverbal function in older children. The Wada testis an invasive procedure to determine language dominance and can be usedto assess the risk of postoperative memory deficits in children with temporallobe epilepsy. Some children scheduled for resection still need to undergofurther precise localization of the epileptogenic zone and functional mappingwith invasive EEG monitoring through intracranial subdural grid and/or depthelectrodes. Epilepsy surgery has the potential of changing the life quality ofchildren by improving or eliminating seizures in carefully selected patients.
Giant cell glioblastoma: review of the literature and illustrated case
Valle-Folgueral,J.M.; Mascarenhas,L.; Costa,J.A.; Vieira,F.; Soares-Fernandes,J.; Beleza,P.; Alegria,C.;
Neurocirugía , 2008, DOI: 10.4321/S1130-14732008000400005
Abstract: giant cell glioblastoma is an infrequent variety of glioblastoma (5% of the cases). it has deserved a separate category in the world health organization classification of grade iv tumors. the clinical, imaging, histological and immunohistochemical characteristics, and the genetic alterations are reviewed. treatment and prognosis are discussed and updated. the case of a patient that survived 19 months and died of spinal leptomeningeal metastases is illustrated.
The physical activity patterns of children with autism
Megan MacDonald, Phil Esposito, Dale Ulrich
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-422
Abstract: Results indicated significant differences between the mean time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and the mean time spent in sedentary activity. Older children with autism spectrum disorder are significantly more physically inactive, compared to younger children.Physical activity programs and interventions need to address this deficit, in physical activity. Children with autism have a similar trend in physical activity patterns compared to their peers without autism; associated benefits and future research will be discussed.Autism spectrum disorder (autism) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social skills, communication and repetitive or restricted interests [1]. Research has established that symptoms of movement disturbance are also present [2,3]. Although motor skill difficulties have started to receive more attention in autism literature, physical activity patterns have received less. Regrettably children with autism have not been spared from the obesity epidemic sweeping the United States [4,5]. Disturbing statistics suggest that children with autism are 40% more likely to be overweight and obese compared to their typically developed peers [4]. Increasing physical activity is a primary health objective in the United States [5]. Research has just started to explore the physical activity patterns of children with autism [6-8]. With that said the paucity of research in this area, combined with limitations to previous studies, makes it difficult to draw conclusions about physical activity patterns and associated health outcomes.Nevertheless, even amidst the lack of physical activity and autism literature, one clear result is the positive influence of physical activity [9]. Following bouts of physical activity, children with autism experienced decreases in negative behavior such as stereotypies and increased positive behaviors, such as time on task [10]. More vigorous bouts of physical activity have further amplified posi
CHILDREN MORTALITY AND FAMILY PATTERNS
MUGHEES ANJUM
The Professional Medical Journal , 2008,
Abstract: Introduction: Some of the mother’s risk factors associated with the infant and childhood death wereinvestigated in Bahawalpur. Objective: To have the knowledge of childhood mortality and family formation pattern inBahawalpur. Design: Cross sectional descriptive epidemiological study. Setting: Quaid-e-Azam Medical CollegeBahawalpur. Period: From January to May 2007. Material & Methods: 320 urban women were interviewed forpregnancy histories and their attitude towards family formation were sought. Results: Early marriage, low educationlevel, and high parity were associated with infant deaths. Thirty-seven percent of urban families and 28.5% of ruralfamilies had lost one or more children, usually all in infancy. Generally half of the deaths were caused by infectiousdiseases. Most women preferred a large family and majority of those who had lost children had replaced them. Nodifference were found between urban and rural women regarding attitudes towards child loss and family formationpatterns. Conclusions: Preventive measures should be adopted to control infectious diseases to reduce childrenmortality.
Periodic EEG patterns: importance of their recognition and clinical significance
Andraus, Maria Emilia Cosenza;Andraus, Cesar Fantezia;Alves-Leon, Soniza Vieira;
Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-282X2012000200014
Abstract: periodic electroencephalographic (eeg) patterns consist of discharges usually epileptiform in appearance, which occur at regular intervals, in critical patients. they are commonly classified as periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (pleds), bilateral independent pleds or bipleds, generalized epileptiform discharges (gpeds) and triphasic waves. stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic or ictal discharges (sirpids) are peculiar eeg patterns, which may be present as periodic discharges. the aim of this study is to make a review of the periodic eeg patterns, emphasizing the importance of their recognition and clinical significance. the clinical significance of the periodic eeg patterns is uncertain, it is related to a variety of etiologies, and many authors suggest that these patterns are unequivocally epileptogenic in some cases. their recognition and classification are important to establish an accurate correlation between clinical, neurological, laboratorial and neuroimaging data with the eeg results.
Physical activity patterns in children and adolescents: a brief summary of current knowledge
Ramon de Brito Costa Pinheiro Lima,Rogério César Fermino,André Seabra,Rui Garganta
Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria e Desempenho Humano , 2010,
Abstract: The main purpose of this review was to accost conceptual and operational issues associated with physical activity patterns (PAF) in children and adolescents. A systematic research was done in national and international data bases in order to select recent studies with information concerning PAF. There are different ways to describe and quantify PAF using univariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Most of studies identified that physical activity is characterized by extremely short periods of high intensity, with a predominance of moderate to low intensity activity.On weekends these periods are longer and boys have higher frequencies of episodes in different levels of intensity. “Physical activity pattern” is a usual expression, but there is no unanimous concept and interpretation. Using a multimode approach would certainly improve our understanding of PAF, considering its type, frequency, duration, and intensity.
Sensory Response Patterns in Nonverbal Children with ASD  [PDF]
Elena Patten,Karla K. Ausderau,Linda R. Watson,Grace T. Baranek
Autism Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/436286
Abstract: We sought to examine concurrent and longitudinal associations between sensory response patterns (i.e., hyperresponsiveness, hyporesponsiveness, and sensory seeking) and verbal status of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as a potential factor influencing the development of verbal communication. Seventy-nine children with ASD (verbal, ; nonverbal, ) were assessed using cross-sectional analyses (Study 1), and 14 children with ASD (verbal, ; nonverbal, ) were assessed using prospective longitudinal analyses (Study 2). Data were collected regarding sensory response patterns and verbal ability. Hyporesponsiveness and sensory seeking behaviors were associated with verbal status in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses; nonverbal children were more likely to demonstrate higher hyporesponsive and sensory seeking patterns. Hyperresponsiveness did not significantly differ between verbal and nonverbal groups in either design. Sensory hyporesponsiveness and seeking behaviors may be important factors hindering the development of functional verbal communication in children with ASD. Unusual sensory responsiveness can often be observed before the onset of speech and may yield important prognostic capabilities as well as inform early interventions targeting verbal communication or alternative communication options in young children with ASD. 1. Introduction Approximately 25–50% of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not develop functional verbal communication [1–3], and functional verbal communication rarely develops after age of five in children with ASD [4]. These nonverbal children have significantly poorer outcomes compared to children with ASD who do develop functional verbal communication; development of speech prior to this age predicts educational achievement, employment, the ability to live independently, and social relationships [5, 6]. Variability exists regarding terminology defining expressive communication in children with ASD, particularly regarding the term “functional verbal communication” [7]. For purposes of this paper, we conceptualize functional verbal communication based on discussions by Baghdadli et al. [1] and Tager-Flusberg et al. [7] as spoken language that is spontaneous and meaningful and includes multiword utterances. Although nonverbal children with ASD comprise a substantial portion of the population and outcomes are poor for them, limited research elucidating potential explanatory factors for the failure of some children with ASD to acquire meaningful expressive language or examining treatments that
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