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Antibacterial effect of root canal preparation and calcium hydroxide paste (Calen) intracanal dressing in primary teeth with apical periodontitis
Faria, Gisele;Nelson-Filho, Paulo;Freitas, Aldevina Campos de;Assed, Sada;Ito, Izabel Yoko;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572005000400007
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial action of root canal mechanical preparation using 2.5% sodium hypochlorite as the irrigating solution and a calcium hydroxide paste as the antibacterial intracanal dressing in human primary teeth root canals with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis by means of microbial culture. a total of 26 root canals of human primary teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis were used. samples were collected before, 72h after biomechanical treatment and 72h after removal of the intracanal dressing. comparison by wilcoxon test showed that root canal mechanical preparation effectively eliminated all microorganisms in 20% of the root canals, and the intracanal dressing in 62.5%; however, the cumulative action of biomechanical treatment and intracanal dressing eliminated the microorganisms of 70% of the root canals (p<0.001). isolated root canal mechanical preparation presented poorer microbiological results that those obtained with root canal mechanical preparation and the use of an intracanal dressing indicating the necessity of topical application of an intracanal medication between sessions in primary teeth with pulp necrosis and apical periodontitis.
Morphologic and morphometric analysis of the root canal apical third cleaning after biomechanical preparation using 3.3% Ricinus communis detergent and 1% NaOCl as irrigating solutions
Meneghin, Marcos Pozzetti;Nomelini, Sylvia Maria Bin;Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.;Marchesan, Melissa Andreia;Fran?a, Suzelei Castro;Santos, Heid Sueli Leme dos;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572006000300006
Abstract: this study evaluated, by morphologic and morphometric analyses, the cleaning of apical third of root canals instrumented with nickel-titanium rotary files using different irrigating solutions. twenty-seven single-rooted mandibular premolars were assigned to three groups (n=9), according to the irrigating solution used: group i, distilled and deionized water; group ii, 1% naocl; and group iii, 3.3% ricinus communis detergent. biomechanical preparation was performed with protaper plusa nickel-titanium files as follows: s1, sx and s2 at the cervical and middle thirds, and 25/02, 25/04, 25/06, 30/02, 30/04 and 30/06 to complete the instrumentation, operating at 1 mm from the root apex. irrigation was done at each file change with 2 ml of irrigating solution, totalizing 20 ml for each tooth. after biomechanical preparation, the apical thirds were serially sectioned and histologically processed. the cross-sections were examined by an optical microscope (x40) connected to a computer. the images were captured and analyzed using a computer software and submitted to morphometric analysis with aid of a grid. the percentage of debris remaining at the apical third was calculated. data were submitted to statistical analysis by anova and tukey test. the results showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.01) between the groups irrigated with 1% naocl and 3.3% ricinus communis detergent, which presented the lowest percentage of debris at the apical third, 8.49% and 10.11%, respectively. the group irrigated with distilled and deionized water had the highest percentage of debris (15.58%) and was statistically different from the other groups (p<0.01). it may be concluded that 3.3% ricinus communis detergent and 1% naocl had similar cleaning effectiveness on removal of debris from root canals.
Morphometrical analysis of cleaning capacity using nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation associated with irrigating solutions in mesio-distal flattened root canals
Marchesan, Melissa Andréia;Arruda, Marcos Porto de;Silva-Sousa, Yara T. Correa;Saquy, Paulo César;Pecora, Jesus Djalma;Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572003000100010
Abstract: variations in the internal anatomy of root canals may interfere with the success of root canal because tissue remnants may remain in the isthmus, re-entrances and ramifications of flattened root canals making instrumentation more difficult. successful root canal treatment depends fundamentally on shaping, cleaning, disinfection and obturation. this study verified the quality of cleaning of profile .04 rotary technique associated with different irrigating solutions: 0.5% sodium hypochlorite, calcium hydroxide + tergentol and 2% chlorhexidine in canals with mesio-distal flattening. twelve human mandibular central incisors were randomly divided into 3 groups and instrumented up to profile 0.4 #35 file after cervical preparation, and processed histologically. after optical microscopic evaluation, statistical analysis showed that the percentage of cleaning of the three irrigating solutions was statistically different. two-by-two comparisons classified the irrigating solutions in increasing order of cleaning: calcium hydroxide + tergentol < chlorhexidine < 0.5% sodium hypochlorite.
Microbiological evaluation of infected root canals and their correlation with pain
Nadine Luísa Soares de Lima Guimar?es,Hanna Machado Otoch,Larissa Cavalcante de Andrade,Cláudio Maniglia Ferreira
RSBO , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the endodontic microbiota of human teeth without pulp vitality presenting radiographically visible periapical lesions and its correlation with pre- and postoperative pain symptomatology. Material and methods: Sixteen young adult patients, both genders, aging from 18 to 45 years, presenting 21 single-rooted teeth with pulp necrosis and needing endodontic treatment were selected in the multidisciplinary clinic at the University of Fortaleza (UNIFOR). After crown surgical access, the root canals were embedded with 0.9% saline solution and the material from root canals was collected withhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhsterile paper point. The paper points were placed into Stuart transport medium and sent to the microbiology laboratory of the University of Fortaleza. Isolation and identification of bacteria were made by culture technique. The cleaning and shaping of root canals was performed by crown-down technique..............................Intra-canal medication comprised calcium hydroxide mixed with chlorhexidine and after 14 days the canals were filled. Patients were asked about the occurrence of pain before treatment and 24 hours after cleaning and shaping procedures. Results: The most prevalent microbial group was Streptococcus sp. followed by Fusobacterium nucleatum, although Gram-positive cocci, non-sporulating Gram-positive bacilli, Gram-negative bacilli, pigmented Gram-negative bacilli, Veillonella, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas sp. were also frequently isolated. Conclusion: According to the results, it can be concluded that Fusobacterium nucleatum and Gram-negative bacilli were more related to pre-operative pain. Regarding to postoperative pain, the most prevalent bacteria were Gram-positive cocci.
In vitro evaluation of the action of irrigating solutions associated with intracanal medications on Escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals
Maekawa, Lilian Eiko;Valera, Marcia Carneiro;Oliveira, Luciane Dias de;Carvalho, Cláudio Antonio Talge;Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi;Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572011000200005
Abstract: objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effcacy of auxiliary chemical substances and intracanal medications on escherichia coli and its endotoxin in root canals. material and methods: teeth were contaminated with a suspension of e. coli for 14 days and divided into 3 groups according to the auxiliary chemical substance used: g1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (naocl); g2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (clx); g3) pyrogenfree solution. after, these groups were subdivided according to the intracanal medication (icm): a) calcium hydroxide paste (calen?), b) polymyxin b, and c) calcium hydroxide paste+2% clx gel. for the control group (g4), pyrogen-free saline solution was used without application of intracanal medication. samples of the root canal content were collected immediately after biomechanical preparation (bmp), at 7 days after bmp, after 14 days of intracanal medication activity, and 7 days after removal of intracanal medication. the following aspects were evaluated for all collections: a) antimicrobial activity; b) quantifcation of endotoxin by the limulus amebocyte lysate test (lal). results were analyzed by the kruskal-wallis and dunn's tests at 5% signifcance level. results: the 2.5% naocl and clx were able to eliminate e. coli from root canal lumen and reduced the amount of endotoxin compared to saline. conclusions: it was concluded that 2.5% naocl and clx were effective in eliminating e. coli. only the studied intracanal medications were to reduce the amount of endotoxin present in the root canals, regardless of the irrigant used.
Cleaning of flattened root canals with different irrigating solutions and nickel-titanium rotary instrumentation
Arruda, Marcos P?rto de;Carvalho Junior, Jacy Ribeiro de;Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva;Paschoalato, Cristina;Silva, Silvio Rocha C.;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402009000400004
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning capacity of profile .04 files combined with different irrigating solutions in flattened root canals using histological, morphometrical and sem analyses. eighty human mandibular incisors were prepared with profile .04 instruments and randomly divided into 4 groups according to the irrigating solutions used (n=20): g1: distilled water (control); g2: 1% sodium hypochlorite (naocl); g3: 1% naocl alternated with 17% edta, and g4: 1% naocl with rcprep cream. ten teeth of each group were evaluated with an optical microscope to determine the percentage of root canal debris. the remaining teeth were evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (sem). data were analyzed statistically by anova and tukey's test (α=0.01).there was a significant difference (p<0.001) among the groups regarding the percentage of debris left in the canals (distilled water: 18.82 ± 5.55; 1% naocl: 6.29 ± 5.55; 1% naocl + 17% edta: 12.47 ± 6.92; 1% naocl + rcprep: 7.82 ± 1.91). the sem analysis showed the best results for 1% naocl + 17% edta on smear layer removal. it may be concluded that the combination of profile .04 rotary instrumentation and the tested solutions was not able to totally remove debris and smear layer from flattened root canals.
Effect of biomechanical preparation and calcium hydroxide pastes on the antisepsis of root canal systems in dogs
Soares, Janir Alves;Leonardo, Mario Roberto;Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da;Tanomaru Filho, Mário;Ito, Izabel Yoko;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572005000100019
Abstract: in the endodontic treatment of root canals with necrotic pulps associated with periapical radiolucent areas, one of the main objectives of treatment consists in eliminating the microorganisms spread throughout the ramifications of the root canal system. the scope of this study was to evaluate the antiseptic efficacy of biomechanical preparation and two calcium hydroxide-based pastes, in dogs' teeth with experimentally induced chronic periapical lesions. after initial microbiological sampling, instrumentation of the root canals was undertaken using the conventional technique, using k type files used in conjunction with a solution of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. after ninety-six hours, further microbiological sampling was undertaken and calen/cpmc or calasept pastes were applied for 15 and 30 days. ninety six hours after the removal of the medication, the third microbiological sampling was undertaken and finally histomicrobiological analysis followed using brown & brenn staining. the results were analyzed using the kruskall-wallis test, with a level of significance established at 5% (p<0.05). it was shown that the biomechanical preparation significantly reduced the number of colony forming units of microorganisms in root canals. in contrast, there was no significant difference between the antiseptic action of long-term dressings over two periods of action, although 30 days produced a greater reduction in the quantity of microorganisms and of positive microbiological cultures. in histological sections of the four experimental groups, similar microbiological patterns were shown (p>0.05), characterized by an elevated incidence of cocci, bacilli and filaments, predominantly gram-positive, in root canals, secondary canals and accessories, apical cementoplasts and dentinal tubules, but with a low incidence of microorganisms in areas of cementum resorption and the periapical lesion. the biomechanical preparation and intracanal dressing based on calcium hydroxide were important
Ex vivo analysis of the debris remaining in flattened root canals of vital and nonvital teeth after biomechanical preparation with Ni-Ti rotary instruments
Sasaki, Edi Wagner;Versiani, Marcos Aurélio;Perez, Danyel Elias da Cruz;Sousa-Neto, Manoel D.;Silva-Sousa, Yara T.;Silva, Ricardo Gariba;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402006000300011
Abstract: the purpose of this study was to assess the presence of apical debris remaining in the apical third of flattened root canals of vital and nonvital teeth after biomechanical preparation with ni-ti rotary instruments. fresh-extracted human mandibular incisors were used in this study. the teeth had clinical indication for extraction and were submitted to cold pulp vitality testing and radiographic examination. eighteen teeth were selected and randomly assigned to two groups (n=9), according to the clinical diagnosis, i.e., pulp vitality or pulp necrosis. the canals were instrumented with the protaper niti rotary system in the following sequence: s1 - up to the middle third; sx - at the cervical third; s2- up to the apical third; and s1, f1, f2, f3 - at the working length. the canals were irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite, dried and were submitted to the histological processing. sections from the apical third were analyzed by an optical microscope (x40) that was coupled to a computer where the images were captured and analyzed using specific softwares. a grid was placed over these images to assess the total canal area and the areas with debris. mann-whitney u-test showed no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the teeth with pulp vitality (6.49 ± 3.39) and those with pulp necrosis (5.95 ± 2.22). it may be concluded that the clinical condition of pulp tissue did not interfere with the amount of debris remaining in the apical third of flattened root canals prepared with ni-ti rotary instruments.
Assessment of canal walls after biomechanical preparation of root canals instrumented with protaper universalTM rotary system
Aguiar, Carlos Menezes;Mendes, Daniela de Andrade;Camara, Andréa Cruz;Figueiredo, Antonio Poli de;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572009000600010
Abstract: objective: the aim of this study was to examine the instrumented walls of root canals prepared with the protaper universaltm rotary system. material and methods: twenty mesiobuccal canals of human first mandibular molars were divided into 2 groups of 10 specimens each and embedded in a muffle system. the root canals were transversely sectioned 3 mm short of the apex before preparation and remounted in their molds. all root canals were prepared with protaper universaltm rotary system or with nitiflextm files. the pre and postoperative images of the apical thirds viewed with a stereoscopic magnifier (x45) were captured digitally for further analysis. data were analyzed statistically by fisher's exact test and chi-square test at 5% significance level. results: the differences observed between the instrumented and the noninstrumented walls were not statistically significant (p<0.05). conclusions: the nitiflextm files and the protaper universaltm rotary system failed to instrument all the root canal walls.
Apical and periapical repair of dogs' teeth with periapical lesions after endodontic treatment with different root canal sealers
Leonardo, Mário Roberto;Salgado, Ant?nio Alberto Medeiros;Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da;Tanomaru Filho, Mário;
Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S1517-74912003000100013
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the apical and periapical repair after root canal treatment of dogs' teeth with pulp necrosis and chronic periapical lesion using different root canal sealers. after periapical lesion induction, forty-four root canals of 3 dogs were submitted to biomechanical preparation using 5.25% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution. a calcium hydroxide dressing (calen pmcc) was applied for 15 days and the root canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique with gutta-percha points and sealapex, ah plus or sealer plus for sealing. after 180 days, the animals were sacrificed by anesthetic overdose and the obtained histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for optical microscopic analysis of the apical and periapical repair. the groups filled with sealapex and ah plus had better histological repair (p < 0.05) than the group filled with sealer plus, that had unsatisfactory results.
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