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Fluoride concentrations in industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, Brazil
Lodi, Carolina Simonetti;Ramires, Irene;Pessan, Juliano Pelim;Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das;Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572007000300010
Abstract: the increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of bauru, sp, brazil. material and methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. fluoride concentrations were determined by hmds-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (orion 9409). results: fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 μg f/ml. it was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. there was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. conclusions: some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration.
Epidemiology of fluorosis and dental caries according to different types of water supplies
Franzolin,Solange de Oliveira Braga; Gon?alves,Aguinaldo; Padovani,Carlos Roberto; Francischone,Leda Aparecida; Marta,Sara Nader;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232010000700097
Abstract: the aim of this article is to investigate the relationship between fluorosis/dental caries in schools, according to the level of fluoride in public water supply. the sample comprised of twelve-year-old daytime students (360) of both genders, attending schools close to the region where they were born. the schools were classified into three groups according to the presence of fluoride in the water supply: 1) fluoridation in the water treatment station-wts; 2) direct fluoridation in wells-dfw; and 3) non fluoridated areas-nfa. the χ2 and goodman tests (significance=5%) were used to evaluate the association between the origin of water and degree of fluorosis; percentage of distribution and descriptive measures were used for investigation of the degree of fluorosis. the following outcomes were predominant: presence of dental caries in the entire sample (p<0.05); absence of fluorosis in both genders, for white individuals and subjects living in areas supplied by both dfw and nfa (p<0.05). there was no difference in the severity of fluorosis between the sources of water supply (p>0.05). dental caries is still an important problem in this population, despite the establishment of preventive measured. the observation of fluorosis in students living in non-fluoridated areas confirms the presence of other sources of fluoride.
Fluoridation of the public water supply and prevalence of dental fluorosis in a peripheral district of the municipality of Bauru, SP
Ramires, Irene;Olympio, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro;Maria, Andréa Gutierrez;Pessan, Juliano Pelim;Cardoso, Vanessa Eid Silva;Lodi, Carolina Simonetti;Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572006000200013
Abstract: objectives: the objectives of this study were to assess the fluoride concentration in the public water supply and the prevalence of dental fluorosis in schoolchildren between 7 and 15 years old, living in a peripheral district of the municipality of bauru. material and methods: for this, fifty two water samples were collected on three different days of one week. these samples were analyzed for fluoride by means of the ion-sensitive electrode method (orion 9609) coupled to a potentiometer (procyon, model 720). in this method, 1.0 ml of tisab ii (orion) was added to 1.0 ml of the sample. for the epidemiological survey of fluorosis, 52 schoolchildren of both genders, aged between 7 and 15 were assessed, with prior authorization from their caretakers. only one person examined the children, after supervised toothbrushing and drying with cotton wool rolls. the tf index was used. results: the fluoride concentrations in the water samples ranged from 0.62 to 1.20 mg/l, with a mean of 0.9 mg/l. the prevalence of dental fluorosis was 33%, with severity ranging from tf1 to tf4 (kappa of 0.73 and concordance of 83.33%). conclusions: the results from the analysis of water samples indicated a fluoride concentration greater than recommended for bauru. the fluorosis levels found were higher than expected for a peripheral district, in which water is one of the few sources of fluoride.
The Safety of Water Supplied at Njala University, Njala Campus  [PDF]
Abubakarr S. Mansaray, Josehpus F. Borsuah, Alhaji B. Gogra, Binty P. Fofana, Bashiru M. Koroma
Natural Resources (NR) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/nr.2017.82006
Abstract: The safety of water is usually determined by comparing its quality to recommended standards. The objective of this work was to determine whether the water supplied on Njala Campus is safe for drinking. The quality parameters investigated include coliform bacteria, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids and nitrates. Samples were stored in a cooler with ice and transported to the laboratory within 30 minutes of collection. A checklist of questions to know the perception of residents was administered. According to the physical and biological results, the water is not safe for consumption. The turbidity and microbial counts were too high in most samples both in the wet and dry seasons. Additionally, over 80% of the respondents did not trust the water supply system. Most of them treat the supplied water by either boiling or disinfection before use. Most respondents complained of water-borne diseases but were not clear whether it is related to the water supplied. The chemical parameters, however, were acceptable: nitrate levels were low. In conclusion, the water is not safe for consumption as far as the physical and biological parameters are concerned. The campus water supply system needs improvement in terms of conveying raw and finished water, filter optimization, and satisfying the chlorine demand.
Fluoride Content in Bottled Water in Fiji
Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20120205.10
Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of bottled drinking water commercially available in Fiji in March 2006; and to report on the labelling of fluoride concentrations. Methods and Materials: Commercially available bottled water in Fiji, in March 2006 was purchased from supermarkets. Three bottles of 11 brands were purchased. Ten millilitres of each water sample was mixed with 2 millilitres of spands reagent; these were then tested for fluoride concentrations using photo spectrometry at wavelength of 580 nanometres. The fluoride concentrations listed on the sample labels were also noted and compared with the results obtained from the spectrometry test. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) of fluoride was 0.09 (±0.05) ppm. None of the brands tested labelled the fluoride concentration in the bottled water. The range of fluoride concentration was between 0.02 to 0.34 ppm. There was also a vast variation of fluoride concentrations within the same brand of product. Conclusions: Commercially available bottled drinking waters in Fiji contain a wide range of concentrations of fluoride and none of the manufacturers labelled the content of fluoride on the bottle. It was also noted that none of the brands contained optimal levels of fluoride.
Fluoride content of UHT milks commercially available in Bauru, Brazil
Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo;Pessan, Juliano Pelim;Fukushima, Rejane;Dias, Andréia;Rosa, Helena Maria;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572006000100008
Abstract: objectives: the aims of the present study were to evaluate the fluoride (f) concentrations in whole, defatted and chocolate milks commercially available in brazil and to estimate the daily f intake from these sources. material and methods: f concentrations were determined for 23 brands of milks, after hmds-facilitated diffusion, using a f ion-specific electrode. possible f ingestion per kg body weight was estimated, based on suggested volumes of formula consumption, for infants aging 1 to 12 months. results: f concentrations ranged from 0.02 to 1.6 μg/ml f for all brands analyzed. whole and defatted milks had the lowest f concentrations, ranging from 0.02 to 0.07 μg/ml. with respect to chocolate milks, three brands had f concentrations above 0.5 μg/ml. some brands of chocolate milks exceeded the dose regarded as the threshold level for the development of dental fluorosis, without taking into account other sources of fluoride intake. conclusion: the high fluoride concentrations found in some brands of chocolate milks in the present study indicate that many products may be important contributors to the total fluoride intake, reinforcing the need of assaying fluoride content of foods and beverages consumed by small children.
Fluoride in Tunisian Drinking Tap Water  [PDF]
Wiem Guissouma, Jamila Tarhouni
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2015.711070
Abstract: This paper presents a fluoride health risk characterization approach to identify the hyper-sensitive population of adverse effect like tooth decay, dental fluorosis and skeletal fluorosis. In this context, a sampling campaign has been done over 100 Tunisian water consumption points (tap). Laboratory analysis results show that the quality of drinking water is affected by high fluoride concentration level exceeding 2 mg·L-1. Over these samples, 7% of them present non-compliant with the Tunisian national standard (NT09.14) and the international guidelines (World Health Organization recommendations, WHO). The overtake cases are located essentially in southern Tunisian areas, i.e. Medenine, Gabes, Gafsa and Tataouine. One can highlight that groundwater, in these southern Tunisian areas, are naturally rich of fluoride. This is because of the aquifers geological and fossil nature. However, commonly northern and central Tunisian areas are characterized by low fluoride concentration level below 0.1 mg·L-1. These undertaken cases don’t meet the water quality requirement defined by WHO.
The effect of water purification systems on fluoride content of drinking water  [cached]
Prabhakar A,Raju O,Kurthukoti A,Vishwas T
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2008,
Abstract: Objective: The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of different water purification systems on the fluoride content of drinking water and to compare the efficacy of these water purification systems in reducing the fluoride content. Materials and Methods: Five different water purification systems were tested in this study. They were reverse osmosis, distillation, activated carbon, Reviva , and candle filter. The water samples in the study were of two types, viz, borewell water and tap water, these being commonly used by the people of Davangere City, Karnataka. The samples were collected before and after purification, and fluoride analysis was done using fluoride ion-specific electrode. Results: The results showed that the systems based on reverse osmosis, viz, reverse osmosis system and Reviva showed maximum reduction in fluoride levels, the former proving to be more effective than the latter; followed by distillation and the activated carbon system, with the least reduction being brought about by candle filter. The amount of fluoride removed by the purification system varied between the system and from one source of water to the other. Interpretation and Conclusion: Considering the beneficial effects of fluoride on caries prevention; when drinking water is subjected to water purification systems that reduce fluoride significantly below the optimal level, fluoride supplementation may be necessary. The efficacy of systems based on reverse osmosis in reducing the fluoride content of water indicates their potential for use as defluoridation devices.
Fluoride level in public water supplies of cities from the northwest region of S?o Paulo State, Brazil
Saliba, Nemre Adas;Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba;Tiano, Ana Valéria Pagliari;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572006000500009
Abstract: it may be difficult for small and medium cities to obtain information about the fluoride content of public water, because of the lack of equipments and technicians. this study aimed to analyze the fluoride levels of the water supplied by the public treatment stations of 40 cities situated in the northwest region of s?o paulo state, during a period of 6 months, to verify if fluoridation occurs in a continuous manner and if the fluoride levels are within the recommended. maps of the water distribution system were obtained from the water treatment companies and utilized to randomize the addresses of the collection sites, so that they included all regions with treated water sources. one water sample by month was collected and analyzed in duplicate using an ion-specific-electrode. samples with 0.6 to 0.8 mgf/l were considered acceptable. in the 38 cities that regularly provided the samples in the 6 months of the study, water from 144 collection sites was collected and a total of 864 samples were analyzed, of which 61.81 percent were classified as unacceptable. it was observed that 33 cities performed fluoridation but in 78.79 percent of these cities there were variations in the fluoride level among the sites and in the same site during the period of study. one can conclude that most of these cities do not control the fluoride levels in the public water, since fluoridation occurs in a discontinuous manner and in most of the situations not within the recommended concentrations.
Urinary fluoride excretion in children exposed to fluoride toothpaste and to different water fluoride levels in a tropical area of Brazil
Forte, Franklin Delano Soares;Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba;Sampaio, Fábio Correia;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402008000300007
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the urinary fluoride excretion of 2- to 7-year-old children exposed to different water fluoride concentrations in the city of catolé do rocha, pb, brazil. forty-two children were allocated to 3 groups according to the concentration of fluoride in the water: g1 (n=10; 0.5-1.0 ppm f), g2 (n=17; 1.1-1.5 ppm f) and g3 (n= 15; >1.51 ppm f). the study was carried out in two 1-week phases with 1-month interval between the moments of data collection: in the first phase, the children used a fluoride toothpaste (ft) (1,510 ppm f) for 1 week, whereas in the second phase a non-fluoride toothpaste (nft) was used. the urine was collected in a 24-h period in each week-phase according to marthaler's protocol. the urinary fluoride excretion data expressed as mean (sd) in μg/24 h were: g1-ft= 452.9 (290.2); g1-nft= 435.1 (187.0); g2-ft= 451.4 (224.0); g2-nft= 430.3 (352.5); g3-ft=592.3 (390.5); and g3-nft=623.6 (408.7). there was no statistically significant difference between the water fluoride groups, and regardless of the week phase (anova, p>0.05). the use of fluoride toothpaste (1,510 ppmf) did not promote an increase in urinary fluoride excretion. there was a trend, though not significant, as to the increase of urine fluoride concentration in relation to fluoride concentrations in the water. the excretion values suggest that some children are under risk to develop dental fluorosis and information about the appropriate use of fluoride is necessary in this area.
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