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Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Raw, Pasteurized and UHT Milks in Shops  [PDF]
Z.A. Shojaei,A. Yadollahi
Asian Journal of Scientific Research , 2008,
Abstract: This study was conducted to evaluate physicochemical and microbiological quality of raw, pasteurized and UHT milks in Shahrekord (Iran) in the spring 2005. All types of milk samples were collected from different part of the city were selected and in three consequent periods. The physicochemical parameters including fat, protein, temperature, Titrable Acidity (TA), Solid Not Fat (SNF) and Specific Gravity (SG) were determined. Additionally, the microbiological evaluations were based on the total bacterial count, total coliform count and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results (mean values of 81 measurements) for raw milk samples showed fat content 2.6, protein 3.5, T 18 °C, TA 0.17, SNF 7.71 and SG 1.030 and total bacterial count 13x106 cfu mL-1, total coliform count 1300 cfu mL-1 and E. coli positive. Those values for the pasteurized milks were the fat content 2, protein 3.5, T 15 °C, TA 0.16, SNF 7.5 and SG 1.033 and total bacterial count 71x104 cfu mL-1, total coliform count 800 cfu mL-1 and E. coli positive. Furthermore, the values of UHT milks were the fat content 2.8, protein 3.1, T 19 °C, TA 0.15, SNF 8.3, SG 1.029, total bacterial count 71 cfu mL-1, total coliform count 9 cfu mL-1 and E. coli negative. Statistical analysis of data revealed that there is significant difference between results of different shops at the level of p<0.01 which implies the contamination of raw and pasteurized milk is above standards.
Fluoride concentrations in industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of Bauru, Brazil
Lodi, Carolina Simonetti;Ramires, Irene;Pessan, Juliano Pelim;Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das;Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572007000300010
Abstract: the increasing consumption of juices, soft drinks and teas among children has increased significantly fluoride ingestion at the age range of risk for development of dental fluorosis. objective: the purpose of this study was to evaluate fluoride concentrations in some brands of industrialized beverages consumed by children in the city of bauru, sp, brazil. material and methods: 98 brands of beverages were analyzed, divided into 3 lots, comprising 36, 32 and 30 brands, respectively, for the first, second and third lots. fluoride concentrations were determined by hmds-facilitated diffusion, using a fluoride ion-specific electrode (orion 9409). results: fluoride concentrations ranged between 0.04 and 1.76 μg f/ml. it was observed a wide variation in fluoride concentrations among the different brands, as well as the different lots of the same brand. there was no information on fluoride concentrations on the labels of any product. conclusions: some of the products analyzed could contribute significantly to the total fluoride intake and, thus, be important risk factors for development of dental fluorosis, which indicates the need of controlling the production of these beverages with respect to fluoride concentration.
Fluoride concentration in water at the area supplied by the Water Treatment Station of Bauru, SP
Lodi, Carolina Simonetti;Ramires, Irene;Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo;Bastos, José Roberto de Magalh?es;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572006000500012
Abstract: objective: to analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply at the area supplied by the water treatment station of bauru and classify the samples as acceptable or unacceptable according to the fluoride concentration. material and methods: samples were collected from 30 areas at two periods, october 2002 and march 2003. the fluoride concentration in the samples was determined in duplicate, using an ion sensitive electrode (orion 9609) connected to a potentiometer (procyon, model 720). samples with fluoride concentration ranging from 0.55 to 0.84 mg f/l were considered acceptable, and those whose concentration was outside this range as unacceptable. data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. results: the fluoride concentration of the water samples varied between 0.31 and 2.01 mg f/l. nearly 56% of the samples were classified as acceptable. conclusion: the variations in fluoride concentration at the area supplied by the water treatment station reinforce the need of constant monitoring for maintenance of adequate fluoride levels in the public water supply.
Effect of fluoride-containing solutions on the surface of cast commercially pure titanium
Toniollo, Marcelo Bighetti;Tiossi, Rodrigo;Macedo, Ana Paula;Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira;Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria;Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello de;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402009000300005
Abstract: this study evaluated the effects of fluoride-containing solutions on the surface of commercially pure titanium (cp ti) obtained by casting. cp ti specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to 5 groups (n=10): group 1: stored in distilled water at 37 ± 1oc; group 2: stored in distilled water at 37 ± 1oc and daily immersed in 0.05% naf for 3 min; group 3: stored in distilled water at 37 ± 1oc and daily immersed in 0.2% naf for 3 min; group 4: stored in distilled water at 37 ± 1oc; and immersed in 0.05% naf every 15 days for 3 min; and group 5: stored in distilled water at 37 ± 1oc and immersed in 0.2% naf every 15 days for 3 min. surface roughness was measured with a profilometer immediately after metallographic polishing of the specimens (t0) and at 15-day intervals until completing 60 days of experiment (t15, t30, t45, t60). data were analyzed statistically by anova and tukey's test (α=0.05). there was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) in surface roughness among the solutions. in conclusion, fluoride-containing solutions (ph 7.0) used as mouthwashes do not damage the surface of cast cp ti and can be used by patients with titanium-based restorations.
Chemical and Microbiological Quality Assessment of Raw and Processed Liquid Market Milks of Bangladesh
Tanim Jabid Hossain,Khorshed Alam,Dwipayan Sikdar
Research Journal of Dairy Sciences , 2012, DOI: 10.3923/rjdsci.2010.28.34
Abstract: Twelve different liquid market milks of Bangladesh were examined to evaluate their chemical and sanitary quality. Six of these were open raw milk bought from local daily markets and the other six were processed packet milk (both pasteurized and UHT (Ultra High Temperature)-processed) available in shops. The twelve samples were examined for the determination of percentage of water, total soluble solids, fat, solids non-fat, lactose, protein and ash, measurement of titratable acidity, detection of adulterants, enumeration of total bacterial count, staphylococcal count, coliform count, fecal coliform count, Salmonella and Shigella count, Aeromonas hydrophila count and psychrophilic count. Results revealed that most of the raw and pasteurized milks were substandard in both chemical and sanitary quality whereas the quality of UHT-treated milks was excellent. All the pasteurized and raw milks were found to be contaminated having bacterial load exceeding the acceptable limit. Pathogenic bacterial genera (Aeromonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus) were identified in some of these samples. But none of the UHT-processed milk contained any bacteria. Water had been added in six samples whereas, sucrose was found in five of the six temperature-processed samples.
Fluoride Content in Bottled Water in Fiji
Public Health Research , 2012, DOI: 10.5923/j.phr.20120205.10
Abstract: Objectives: The aims of this study was to evaluate the fluoride content of bottled drinking water commercially available in Fiji in March 2006; and to report on the labelling of fluoride concentrations. Methods and Materials: Commercially available bottled water in Fiji, in March 2006 was purchased from supermarkets. Three bottles of 11 brands were purchased. Ten millilitres of each water sample was mixed with 2 millilitres of spands reagent; these were then tested for fluoride concentrations using photo spectrometry at wavelength of 580 nanometres. The fluoride concentrations listed on the sample labels were also noted and compared with the results obtained from the spectrometry test. Results: The mean (±standard deviation) of fluoride was 0.09 (±0.05) ppm. None of the brands tested labelled the fluoride concentration in the bottled water. The range of fluoride concentration was between 0.02 to 0.34 ppm. There was also a vast variation of fluoride concentrations within the same brand of product. Conclusions: Commercially available bottled drinking waters in Fiji contain a wide range of concentrations of fluoride and none of the manufacturers labelled the content of fluoride on the bottle. It was also noted that none of the brands contained optimal levels of fluoride.
Estudio comparativo de calidad de leche fluida y en polvo Comparative study of the quality of processed stored milks  [cached]
Ernesto Guzmán C,Saturnino de Pablo V,Carmen G. Yánez G,Isabel Zacarías H
Revista chilena de pediatría , 2003,
Abstract: Introducción: La leche de vaca forma parte de la alimentación del ni o mayor de 1 a o. La industria láctea utiliza procesos térmicos que pueden afectar algunos nutrientes de la leche. Objetivo: evaluar el efecto del proceso de elaboración de leches pasteurizada, fluida UHT y en polvo, sobre la calidad químico nutricional y organoléptica. Método: Muestras de los 3 tipos de leche, obtenidas de una materia prima común, a los 0 y 90 días fueron sometidas a análisis de humedad, proteínas (N x 6,38), grasas, cenizas, calcio, fósforo, acidez, vitamina A, lisina disponible, perfil de ácidos grasos, índice de peróxidos e índice tiobarbitúrico y de energía. Se evaluó también apariencia, color, aroma, sabor, acidez, rancidez, viscosidad y aceptabilidad. Análisis estadístico: se utilizó cálculo de promedio aritmético y desviación estándar, diferencia entre promedios, test de análisis de varianza y test "t" de Student a los promedios de análisis químicos y test de Duncan a las pruebas sensoriales11. Resultados: La evaluación realizada a tiempo cero, para todas las leches, y después de 90 días de almacenamiento a temperatura ambiente, para leche UHT y en polvo, no mostró cambios en los macronutrientes para ningún tipo de leche siendo similares al expresarlos en base líquida con cantidades comparables de sólidos. En cuanto a micronutrientes, hubo una disminución significativa en vitamina A y lisina disponible en leche en polvo y en ácido linoleico para leche UHT a los 90 días. Sensorialmente, todas las leches fueron evaluadas como de buena calidad, buena aceptabilidad, sin diferencias notables ni entre ellas ni con un control siendo, en algunos atributos de calidad y en aceptabilidad, mejor evaluada la leche UHT. Conclusión: Los cambios químico-nutricionales encontrados en ambas leches (fluida UHT y en polvo), que son inherentes a los procesos utilizados, no debieran afectar la situación nutricional del ni o cuando la leche está integrada a una alimentación balanceada Cow’s milk is part of the diet of children older than 1 year. The thermal processes used by the dairy industry may affect some of the nutrients present in milk. This study evaluated the effect of processing milk in terms of the nutritional and chemical quality of pasteurized, spray dried and UHT milks using the same batch of milk as raw material. All milks showed no change in macronutrients immediately after production and after a 90 day storage period for spray dried and UHT milk, with similar contents when expressed on a liquid basis and comparative solid levels. Regarding micronutrients, a significant
Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage  [PDF]
Jovanka V. Popov-Ralji?,Nada S. Laki?,Jovanka G. Lali?i?-Petronijevi?,Miroljub B. Bara?,Vi?nja M. Sikimi?
Sensors , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/s8095961
Abstract: In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C) were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01) depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.
Conhecimento dos médicos pediatras e odontopediatras de Bauru e Marília a respeito de flúor
Buzalaf,Marília Afonso Rabelo; Ramires,Irene; Maria,Andréa Gutierrez; Peres,José Roberto Berber; Lauris,José Roberto Pereira;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232006000100029
Abstract: the aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of pediatric doctors and dentists, in respect to the use of fluoridated compounds. ninety-one pediatric doctors and seventy-two pediatric dentists from bauru and marília municipalities were visited. after agreeing in participating, they received a questionnaire with 22 questions. they immediately filled and returned the questionnaires. data obtained were analyzed by descriptive statistics, using absolute and relative frequencies, represented by tables. some pediatric drugs containing a combination of vitamins and fluoride are usually prescribed by pediatric doctors, while fluoride gels, varnishes and rinsing solutions are often recommended by pediatric dentists. it was not established a relationship between the knowledge of pediatric doctors and dentists regarding the sources of fluoride intake and gender, time of graduation, age, place of graduation, city and area of working (public, private area or both). the results suggest that the knowledge of pediatric doctors and pediatric dentists that work in bauru and marília, regarding the presence of fluoride in various sources of intake is insufficient and, in some cases, concerning, with respect to the prevention of dental fluorosis.
Profile of consumers of milk pasteurized type C and sterilized (UHT) from Janaúba – MG Perfil dos consumidores de leites pasteurizado tipo C e esterilizado (UHT) de Janaúba – MG  [cached]
Poliana Batista de Aguilar,Fredson Vieira e Silva,Edivania Souza Zeferino,Franklin Delano dos Santos Soares
Semina : Ciências Agrárias , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of this work was to evaluate the consumption of pasteurized type C milk and sterilized (UHT) in the city from Janaúba-MG. The borough had 53.832 inhabitants in the urban area is divided into 58 sectors that were distributed in six samples in accordance population, being chosen randomly. The survey was conducted with 10% of urban population and according to the IBGE of Janaúba the number of habitants per household is 3,84 with respondents 85, 215, 498, 295, 247, and 83 homes respectively, were however interviews conducted in 1561. The consumer profile of milk was obtained by a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice questions related to the consumption of pasteurized and sterilized milk (UHT). The data were compiled and analyzed by using the Chi-Square at 5% probability. In relation to consumption, 91,03% of people interviewed said that consumed milk. Regarding the type of milk, 45% of people interviewed said that consumed pasteurized milk. However, one should bear in mind that 11,06% of these individuals are pasteurized milk donated by the Federal Government program. Of people interviewed, 36,76% said that consumed milk informal. With regard to diseases that are transmitted by milk, 51,65% of people interviewed that consumed sterilized milk said did not know and 61,45% of people interviewed that consumed sterilized milk said that they knew or knew of any disease transmitted by milk. Of people interviewed, 67,65% did not knew any sanitary inspection seal. And 73,48% of people interviewed said that this feature does not influence the time of purchase. The more consumed in the municipality of pasteurized was Janaúba taking into account the milk donated by the Federal Government program, followed by informal and sterilized milks. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o consumo de leites pasteurizado tipo C e esterilizado (UHT) na cidade de Janaúba-MG. O município possuía 53.832 habitantes na zona urbana sendo dividido em 58 setores que foram distribuídos em 6 amostragens de acordo número de habitantes, sendo escolhidos aleatoriamente. A pesquisa foi realizada com 10% da popula o urbana e de acordo com os dados do IBGE de Janaúba o número de habitantes por casa é de 3,84 sendo entrevistadas 85, 215, 498, 295, 247, e 83 residências respectivamente, entretanto foram realizadas 1561 entrevistas. O perfil do consumidor de leite foi obtido por um questionário constituído por quest es de múltipla escolha referente ao consumo de leites pasteurizado e esterilizado (UHT). Os dados coletados foram compilados e analisados pelo método do Qui-quadrado
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