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Effect of professional cleaning and dental brushing with or without fluoridated dentifrice on enamel remineralization
Marta, Sara Nader;Lima, José Eduardo de Oliveira;Vono, Bernardo Gonzales;Silva, Salete Moura Bonifácio da;Machado, Maria Aparecida Andrade Moreira;Pin, Maria Ligia Gerdullo;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572005000300004
Abstract: an in situ evaluation of the potential rehardening effect of fluoridated and non-fluoridated toothpastes with or without air polishing was conducted. ten volunteers, using acrylic palatal appliances containing two bovine enamel blocks with artificial carious lesions, took part in this study. four times a day, after the main meals and at night, the volunteers, in a habitual way, brushed their natural teeth with the dentifrice indicated to the experimental design and after that the appliances were put again into the mouth. they were divided into 4 different groups: g1 - control - non-fluoridated dentifrice; g2 - fluoridated dentifrice; g3 - non-fluoridated dentifrice, but having a previous prophylaxis using air polishing; g4 - fluoridated dentifrice and previous air polishing. the effects of treatments on enamel rehardening were evaluated in the blocks that were assessed by surface microhardness, and the percentage of surface microhardness change (%reh) was calculated in relation to the baseline values. the results showed that %reh was higher in the groups with fluoridated dentifrice, and professional prophylaxis did not have an additional effect in the groups of fluoridated dentifrices (p<0.05). the data suggested that, in the absence of fluoride, removal of dental plaque helped to increase the process of enamel rehardening.
In vivo remineralization of artificial enamel carious lesions using a mineral-enriched mouthrinse and a fluoride dentifrice: A polarized light microscopic comparative evaluation  [cached]
Bansal K,Gauba K,Tewari A,Chawla H
Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry , 2010,
Abstract: Background: Remineralization process is accelerated by the presence of fluoride ions in the oral environment, but this mechanism of caries reversal will be further enhanced if the concentration of calcium, phosphate and fluoride ions is supersaturated with respect to that of oral fluids. Aim: This in vivo study was carried out to evaluate and compare the remineralizing efficacy of a urea-based mineral-enriched mouthrinse and a fluoridated dentifrice using an in vivo intraoral appliance model and polarized light microscopic evaluation technique. Materials and Methods: The specimens were prepared from sound teeth and artificial caries was produced using an artificial caries medium in vitro and enamel specimens were inserted in removable orthodontic appliances that were to be worn by 14 children of 10-15 years of age. They were divided into three groups - nonfluoridated dentifrice, fluoridated dentifrice and mineral-enriched mouthrinse groups. After the 6-month experimental period, during which the enamel specimens inserted in the intraoral appliance were subjected to one of the agents (either fluoride, nonfluoride dentifrice or mouthrinse) in vivo, the specimens were retrieved from the patients and were evaluated using the polarized light microscopic technique. Observations and Results: On analysis, mineral gain occurred in all groups, viz. nonfluoride dentifrice group, fluoride dentifrice and mineral-enriched mouthrinse group. However, it was found to be complete in the mouthrinse group, i.e. both at the surface and at the subsurface (67%), while in the fluoridated dentifrice group, 43% of the samples showed mineral gain in both zones. In the nonfluoridated dentifrice group also, remineralization occurred but was limited either to the surface or the subsurface zone. Conclusions: Urea-based mineral-enriched mouthrinse was shown to be more efficacious in the process of remineralization of artificial carious lesions.
Remineralization of eroded enamel by a NaF rinse containing a novel calcium phosphate agent in an in situ model: a pilot study
Bennett T Amaechi, Ramalingam Karthikeyan, Poornima K Mensinkai, et al
Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dentistry , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S11844
Abstract: eralization of eroded enamel by a NaF rinse containing a novel calcium phosphate agent in an in situ model: a pilot study Original Research (4960) Total Article Views Authors: Bennett T Amaechi, Ramalingam Karthikeyan, Poornima K Mensinkai, et al Published Date August 2010 Volume 2010:2 Pages 93 - 100 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S11844 Bennett T Amaechi1, Ramalingam Karthikeyan1, Poornima K Mensinkai1, Kaveh Najibfard1, Allen C Mackey2, Robert L Karlinsey2 1University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas, USA; 2Indiana Nanotech, Indianapolis, IN, USA Purpose: An in situ study evaluated the remineralization potential of 225 ppm fluoride (F) rinses with and without a calcium phosphate agent (TCP-Si-Ur) on eroded enamel. Methods: 20 human patients participated in this IRB approved study. Enamel blocks extracted from 20 human molars were assigned to each of the three study phases (G1, G2, G3). Each block was eroded using 1% citric acid (pH = 2.5), with a slice cut from each block to establish baseline lesion parameters (ie, integrated mineral loss Z, and lesion depth LD) using -transverse microradiography (TMR). Participants and assigned blocks were randomly divided into three 28-day phases. The blocks were mounted into modified orthodontic brackets and bonded to the buccal surface of one of the subject’s mandibular molars. The appliance remained in the -subject’s mouth for 28 days. Prior to each study phase, participants observed a one-week-washout period using a fluoride-free dentifrice. In each phase, participants brushed with the fluoride-free -dentifrice for 1 min, followed by one of the following coded treatments: G1: 225 ppm F + 40 ppm -TCP-Si-Ur rinse (1 min); G2: 225 ppm F rinse (1 min); G3: no rinse (saliva-only). After each phase, appliances were removed and specimens were analyzed using TMR. Results: TMR data (ie, Z and LD) revealed all three groups significantly remineralized eroded enamel (paired t-tests, P , 0.001). Net mineralization (% change in Z, LD) were as follows (mean (std.dev.): G1: 44.1 (22.6), 30.5 (27.0); G2: 30.0 (7.4), 29.4 (10.5); G3: 23.8 (16.4), 25.7 (15.5). Furthermore, G1 was found to cause significantly more remineralization than G2 (P = 0.039) and G3, (P = 0.002). Conclusion: Mouthrinse containing 225 ppm F plus TCP-Si-Ur provided significantly greater remineralization relative to 225 ppm F only or saliva alone.
Effect of a dentifrice containing aloe vera on plaque and gingivitis control: a double-blind clinical study in humans
Oliveira, Sílvia Morgana Araújo de;Torres, Ticiana Carneiro;Pereira, Sérgio Luís da Silva;Mota, Olívia Morais de Lima;Carlos, Márlio Ximenes;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572008000400012
Abstract: the effect of aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingivitis was evaluated in a randomized, parallel and double-blind clinical trial. subjects were randomly allocated to the test group (n=15) - dentifrice containing aloe vera - or the control group (n=15) - fluoridated dentifrice. plaque index (pi) and gingival bleeding index (gbi) were assessed at days 0 and 30. subjects were asked to brush their teeth with the control or test dentifrice, three times a day, during a 30-day period. there was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in both groups, but no statistically significant difference was observed among them (p>0.01). the dentifrice containing aloe vera did not show any additional effect on plaque and gingivitis control compared to the fluoridated dentifrice.
pH-cycling models to evaluate the effect of low fluoride dentifrice on enamel de- and remineralization
Queiroz, Celso Silva;Hara, Anderson Takeo;Paes Leme, Adriana Franco;Cury, Jaime Aparecido;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402008000100004
Abstract: since the currently available ph-cycling models do not differentiate the anti-caries potential of dentifrices with low fluoride (f) concentration, two models were developed and tested in the present. bovine enamel blocks were subjected to the models and treated with f solutions containing from 70 to 280 mg f/ml in order to validate them in terms of dose-response effect. the models were also tested by evaluating the dentifrices colgate baby (500 mg f/g, as a low fluoride dentifrice), tandy (1,100 mg f/g, as an active f-dentifrice) and crest (1,100 mg f/g, as positive control). enamel mineral loss or gain was assessed by surface and cross-sectional microhardness, and lesion depth was analyzed by polarized light microscopy. the ph-cycling models showed f dose-response effect either reducing enamel demineralization or enhancing remineralization. the low f dentifrice presented anti-caries potential, but it was not equivalent to the dentifrices containing 1,100 mg f/g. these data suggest that the models developed in this study were able to evaluate the anti-caries potential of low f dentifrice either on resistance to demineralization or on enhancement of remineralization.
Visual evaluation of in vitro cariostatic effect of restorative materials associated with dentifrices
Rodrigues, José Augusto;Marchi, Giselle Maria;Serra, M?nica Campos;Hara, Anderson Takeo;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402005000200005
Abstract: this study evaluated in vitro the cariostatic effect of 6 restorative materials with and without fluoride release (fuji ii lc, f-2000, degufil mineral, sure fil and z-250) associated with a fluoridated and a non-fluoridated dentifrice (sensodyne original formula and sensodyne sodium bicarbonate), on human enamel. class v-like cavities were prepared on 240 enamel slabs, assigned to 12 groups (6 materials and 2 dentifrices). after cavity restoration, the slabs were submitted to a thermocycling regimen of 1000 thermal cycles and demineralization/remineralization cycles. during ph cycles, slurries of fluoridated and non-fluoridated dentifrices were applied for 5 min. formation of artificial caries-like lesions was scored independently and blindly by 5 calibrated examiners according to an ordinal scale ranked 0 to 3 by visual examination. the results were analyzed statistically by the kruskal-wallis test and pair-wise comparisons (a=0.05). there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the restorative materials associated with the fluoridated dentifrice. when used in association with the non-fluoridated dentifrice, ketac-fil showed the highest cariostatic effect followed by fuji ii lc and the other materials. ketac-fil was the only material that did not differ statistically when combined with either the fluoridated or the non-fluoridated dentifrice. in conclusion, under the tested experimental conditions, the association of restorative materials and fluoridated dentifrice yielded higher cariostatic effect, except for the conventional glass ionomer cement, whose cariostatic effect was not influenced by the type of dentifrice.
Effect of different frequencies of fluoride dentifrice and mouthrinse administration: an in situ study
Souza, Daniela Correia Cavalcante;Hashizume, Lina Naomi;Eidelwein, Morjana;Maltz, Marisa;
Brazilian Oral Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242010000400003
Abstract: the effect of a combination of topical fluoridation methods for inhibition of enamel demineralization in the face of a cariogenic challenge has not been clearly established. this in situ crossover study aimed to assess whether the addition of daily use of fluoride mouthrinse (fr) to that of fluoride dentifrice (fd) is equivalent to increasing the frequency of fd application in terms of the effect on enamel demineralization and fluoride content. over 3 phases of 14 days each, 12 volunteers wore appliances containing enamel blocks exposed to a 20 % sucrose solution 8 times/day. during each phase the blocks underwent one of the following treatments: 2x/day fd, 2x/day fd + 1x/day fr, and 3x/day fd. the blocks were assessed for hardness and fluoride content. three x/day fd did not differ from 2x/day + 1x/day fr, however it enhanced demineralization protection when compared to 2x/day fd. all treatments produced an increase in enamel fluoride content compared to no treatment (sound blocks) (p < 0.05), but the differences between them were not significant. the results of this study suggest that the daily use of fluoride mouthrinse combined with that of fluoride dentifrice has similar effects on enamel demineralization and fluoride content when compared to increasing the frequency of fluoride dentifrice use.
Antimicrobial capacity of Aloe vera and propolis dentifrice against Streptococcus mutans strains in toothbrushes: an in vitro study
Bertolini, Patrícia Fernanda Roesler;Biondi Filho, Oswaldo;Pomilio, Arnaldo;Pinheiro, Sérgio Luiz;Carvalho, Meghi Silva de;
Journal of Applied Oral Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S1678-77572012000100007
Abstract: objectives: this study evaluated in vitro the efficiency of aloe vera and propolis dentifrice on reducing the contamination of toothbrush bristles by a standard strain of streptococcus mutans (atcc 25175; sm), after toothbrushing. material and methods: fifteen sterile toothbrushes were randomly divided into 5 toothbrushing groups: i (negative control): without dentifrice; ii: with fluoridated dentifrice; iii: with triclosan and gantrez dentifrice; iv (positive control): without dentifrice and irrigation with 10 ml of 0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate; v: with aloe vera and propolis dentifrice. in each group, 1 sterile bovine tooth was brushed for 1 min, where the toothbrush bristles were contaminated with 25 μl of sm. after toothbrushing, the bristles were stored in individual test tubes with 3 ml of bhi under anaerobiosis of 37°c for 48 h. then, they were seeded with sterile swab in triplicate in the mitis salivarius - bacitracin culture medium. the samples were kept under anaerobiosis of 37°c for 48 h. scores were used to count the number of colony forming units (cfu). the results were submitted to the mann-whitney statistical test at 5% significance level. results: there was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) for the reduction of bristle contamination comparing groups ii, iii, iv and v to group i. conclusions: it may be stated that after toothbrushing, the aloe vera and propolis dentifrice reduced the contamination of toothbrush bristles by sm, without differentiation from the other chemical agents used.
The influence of residual salivary fluoride from dentifrice on enamel erosion: an in situ study
Magalh?es, Ana Carolina;Rios, Daniela;Martinhon, Cleide Cristina Rodrigues;Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo;Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo;Machado, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira;
Brazilian Oral Research , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1806-83242008000100012
Abstract: the objective of this study was to assess the salivary residual effect of fluoride dentifrice on human enamel subjected to an erosive challenge. this crossover in situ study was performed in two phases (a and b), involving ten volunteers. in each phase, they wore acrylic palatal appliances, each containing 3 human enamel blocks, during 7 days. the blocks were subjected to erosion by immersion of the appliances in a cola drink for 5 minutes, 4 times a day. dentifrice was used to brush the volunteers? teeth, 4 times a day, during 1 minute, before the appliance was replaced into the mouth. in phases a and b the dentifrices used had the same formulation, except for the absence (pd) or presence (fd) of fluoride, respectively. enamel alterations were determined using profilometry, microhardness (%smhc), acid- and alkali-soluble f analysis. the data were tested using anova (p < 0.05). the concentrations (mean ± sd) of alkali- and acid-soluble f (μgf/cm2) were, respectively, pd: 1.27a ± 0.70/2.24a ± 0.36 and fd: 1.49a ± 0.44/2.24a ± 0.67 (p > 0.05). the mean wear values (± sd, μm) were pd: 3.63a ± 1.54 and fd: 3.54a ± 0.90 (p > 0.05). the mean %smhc values (± sd) were pd: 89.63a ± 4.73 and fd: 87.28a ± 4.01 (p > 0.05). thus, we concluded that the residual fluoride from the fluoride-containing dentifrice did not protect enamel against erosion.
Effects of a non-rinse conditioner on the enamel of primary teeth
Fava, Marcelo;Myaki, Silvio Issáo;Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias;Fava-de-Moraes, Flavio;
Brazilian Dental Journal , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-64402003000300005
Abstract: the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate by scanning electron microscopy the morphological aspects of the enamel of primary teeth after etching with 36% phosphoric acid or a non-rinse conditioner. ten naturally exfoliated anterior primary teeth were selected. the samples were subjected to prophylaxis with pumice paste and water using a low-speed hand piece. etching was done on the buccal surface. specimens were divided into 2 groups: g1 (n=10): etching with 36% phosphoric acid gel - conditioner 36 (dentsply) for 20 s, followed by water rinse for 15 s; g2 (n=10): etching with nrc - non rinse conditioner (dentsply) for 20 s, followed by air drying for 15 s. the samples were dehydrated, mounted on metal stubs, coated with gold and observed with jeol jsm-6100 scanning electron microscope. electron-micrographic analysis showed that both etching agents were effective for etching the enamel of primary teeth causing the formation of microporosities on the enamel surface, although the etching pattern was more effective with the use of 36% phosphoric acid gel.
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