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Mesoamerican Origin and Pre- and Post-Columbian Expansions of the Ranges of Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, a Cosmopolitan Insect Pest of the Common Bean  [PDF]
Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho Oliveira, Alberto Soares Corrêa, Giselle Anselmo de Souza, Raul Narciso Carvalho Guedes, Luiz Orlando de Oliveira
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070039
Abstract: An unprecedented global transfer of agricultural resources followed the discovery of the New World; one consequence of this process was that staple food plants of Neotropical origin, such as the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), soon expanded their ranges overseas. Yet many pests and diseases were also transported. Acanthoscelides obtectus is a cosmopolitan seed predator associated with P. vulgaris. Codispersal within the host seed seems to be an important determinant of the ability of A. obtectus to expand its range over long distances. We examined the phylogeographic structure of A. obtectus by (a) sampling three mitochondrial gene sequences (12s rRNA, 16s rRNA, and the gene that encodes cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)) throughout most of the species’ range and (b) exploring its late evolutionary history. Our findings indicate a Mesoamerican origin for the current genealogical lineages of A. obtectus. Each of the two major centers of genetic diversity of P. vulgaris (the Andes and Mesoamerica) contains a highly differentiated lineage of the bean beetle. Brazil has two additional, closely related lineages, both of which predate the Andean lineage and have the Mesoamerican lineage as their ancestor. The cosmopolitan distribution of A. obtectus has resulted from recent expansions of the two Brazilian lineages. We present additional evidence for both pre-Columbian and post-Columbian range expansions as likely events that shaped the current distribution of A. obtectus worldwide.
From Suazoid to folk pottery: pottery manufacturing traditions in a changing social and cultural environment on St. Lucia
Corinne L. Hofman,Alistair J. Bright
New West Indian Guide , 2004,
Abstract: Overview of pottery manufacturing traditions in St Lucia, placed within the island's cultural history from pre-Columbian times up to present Afro-Caribbean folk pottery. Authors focus on manufacturing processes in different cultural traditions through history, looking at raw materials used, the shaping and finishing, decoration, and firing process. First, they sketch St Lucia's habitation history since the first Amerindian settlers in 200 AD, and evidence of pottery, which climaxed in the later Suazoid period pottery since about 1150 AD, and discuss how later European colonization and arrival of Africans contributed to the decline of Amerindian traditions, replaced by European and West African pottery traditions, although some Amerindian traditions remained. The pottery manufacturing of 3 main cultural traditions are examined, discussing differences, as well as similarities due to cultural blending: Suazoid pottery, later Amerindian Island Carib pottery, with origins in the Guianas region, related to the Kar'ina, and current St Lucian, West African-influenced, "folk pottery". Authors conclude that all 3 traditions mainly use local clay, and include hand-built and low-fired pottery. Shaping techniques include coiling, and in today's pottery also fashioning with smaller lumps. Surfaces are smooth and polished in today's pottery, but more scraped and scratched in Suazoid vessels. Further, they find that decoration is uncommon in today's pottery, while Suazoid ceramics included decorations, and that vessel shapes tend to be simple in all 3 traditions. They also find that women have been the principal potters through time, although pottery was a male activity among the Island Caribs in the mid-17th c.
The Palikur Potters: an ethnoarchaeological case study on the Palikur pottery tradition in French-Guiana and Amapá, Brazil
Bel, Martijn van den;
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S1981-81222009000100005
Abstract: ethnographic fieldwork (1994-1998) by the author among the palikur of french-guiana and amapá state, in brazil, provided a description of the actual state of their pottery tradition. it shows how the last palikur potters manufacture ceramics and how they decorate their pottery. the palikur decoration motifs reflect the organisation of palikur society which is embedded in their oral tradition. they play an important role during public (ritual) events such as marriage, initiation and death. this information can be used as a tool for archaeologists to gain a better understanding of pre- columbian ceramic complexes.
The Palikur Potters: an ethnoarchaeological case study on the Palikur pottery tradition in French-Guiana and Amapá, Brazil  [PDF]
Martijn van den Bel
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2009,
Abstract: Ethnographic fieldwork (1994-1998) by the author among the Palikur of French-Guiana and Amapá State, in Brazil, provided a description of the actual state of their pottery tradition. It shows how the last Palikur potters manufacture ceramics and how they decorate their pottery. The Palikur decoration motifs reflect the organisation of Palikur society which is embedded in their oral tradition. They play an important role during public (ritual) events such as marriage, initiation and death. This information can be used as a tool for archaeologists to gain a better understanding of pre-Columbian ceramic complexes.
LANDS CARTOGRAPHY: A MESOAMERICAN HERITAGE
David Pájaro Huertas
Ra Ximhai , 2010,
Abstract: Land maps, like prehispanic mesoamerican maps, do notuse Euclidean projections, which are based on ahumanistic or social projection. The spatial reality inthese maps is defined and structured by socialrelationships. Thus, a land map represents a communityshowing its territory and history, and not only an area likein conventional technical maps. A land map is a“communicentric projection” of the “egocentricperception” of the peasant, and can be defined as theprojection in graphic symbols of the spatial relationshipsabstracted from the knowledge available in cognitivemaps of the environments known by the peasant, ratherthan the result of sophisticated techniques, such as thoseused in soil surveys or remote perception.
Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia
González Ruibal, Alfredo
Trabajos de Prehistoria , 2005,
Abstract: The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture. Se presentan los resultados de tres campa as etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.
STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTTERY
LUMINITA MORARU,FLORICA SZENDREI
Journal of Engineering Studies and Research , 2011,
Abstract: Investigations of archaeological pottery artifacts using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) provide information on pore structure of fired samples of shred belonging to Cris 1 culture. From long ago, the ancient art has been faked. We present a scientific analysis of the pore structure of ancient ceramic samples in order to establish a method that allows us to differentiate between the true and false ancient ceramic sample. The use of the technique is illustrated on both lot of authentic and fakes specimens. Measurement of pore sizes and established the statistical pore distribution in wall thickness of ceramics are highlighted as research area useful in the administration and tracking down the traffic with objects of patrimony.
Pre-Columbian Earthworks in Coastal Amazonia  [PDF]
Stéphen Rostain
Diversity , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/d2030331
Abstract: As in other parts of Amazonia, pre-Columbian Indians have profoundly modified the coast of the Guianas. Between 650 and 1650 AD, Arauquinoid people occupied a territory that was approximately 600 km long and used the raised field technique intensively before the European conquest. They erected thousands of raised fields of various shapes, dug canals, ditches, and pathways, and built artificial mounds to establish their villages. All these earthworks changed forever the face of the coastal flooded savannas and their ecology. Such labor was probably organized under the leadership of a central authority: it seems that Arauquinoid societies were organized in a chiefdom system. Statistical calculations, based on the known surface area of raised fields and on their estimated productivity, suggest a population density of 50 to 100 inhabitants per km 2. Pre-Columbian inhabitants of the Guianas coast carefully organized, managed and “anthropisized” their territory following a specific pattern.
Lead poisoning due to geophagia: The consumption of miniature pottery  [PDF]
Ashley Phipps, Heather Fels, Mackenzie S. Burns, Shawn L. Gerstenberger
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2012.21010
Abstract: Geophagia (the pica of pottery, clay, earth, or dirt) is practiced before and during pregnancy in several countries, including Mexico, Turkey, Australia, and some African countries, and has been linked with cultural fertility beliefs and the satisfaction of cravings. Unfortunately, consumption of contaminated pottery can represent a source of lead exposure. Concerns regarding ingested pottery are two-fold; first, that people consuming these pots might be exposed to high concentrations of lead, and, second, that ingestion of these pots by pregnant women could result in elevated in utero lead exposure for the fetus. Very few published articles exist on this topic. In an effort to investigate “pot eating”, this study aims to summarize published case studies on lead poisonings resulting from consumption of contaminated pottery. Additionally, several pottery items that are sold for the purpose of consumption were located and analyzed. This paper investigates the risk that “pot eating” poses by reviewing the literature, examining case studies, and analyzing the availability and lead concentration of edible pottery. Preliminary research indicates that although it is not common, “pot eating” can represent a high-risk lead exposure for pregnant women and their fetuses.
The spatial organization of pottery production in Huancito, Michoacan, Mexico
Eduardo Williams
Papers from the Institute of Archaeology , 1995, DOI: 10.5334/pia.78
Abstract: This paper contributes to the study of the organization of space in pottery-producing households from the ethnoarchaeological perspective. The ethnoarchaeological approach is based on observation of contemporary cultural patterns to provide data and inferences to help in the interpretation of the archaeological record.
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