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Tackling tuberculosis patients' internalized social stigma through patient centred care: An intervention study in rural Nicaragua
Jean Macq, Alejandro Solis, Guillermo Martinez, Patrick Martiny
BMC Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-8-154
Abstract: Five out of 9 municipal teams were coached to tailor and introduce patient-centered package. New TB patients were assigned to the intervention group when diagnosed in municipalities implementing effectively at least TB clubs and home visits.We compared the changes in internalized stigma and TB treatment outcome in intervention and control groups. The internalized stigma was measured through score computed at 15 days and at 2 months of treatment. The treatment results were evaluated through classical TB program indicators. In all municipalities, we emphasized process monitoring to capture contextual factors that could influence package implementation, including stakeholders.TB clubs and home visits were effectively implemented in 2 municipalities after June 2004 and in 3 municipalities after January 2005. Therefore, 122 patients were included in the intervention group and 146 in the control group. After 15 days, internalized stigma scores were equivalent in both groups. After 2 months, difference between scores was statistically significant, revealing a decreased internalized stigma in the intervention group and not in the control group.This study provides initial evidences that it is possible to act on TB patients' internalized stigma, in contexts where at least patient centered home visits and TB clubs are successfully implemented. This is important as, indeed, TB care should also focus on the TB patient's wellbeing and not solely on TB epidemics control.Tuberculosis (TB) is usually presented as a global public health problem: there were an estimated 9 million new TB cases and 2 million TB deaths in 2004 [1]. TB can also be seen as an individual health problem. TB patients experience psychological, social suffering and their basic rights may be negated [2]. Amongst problems met by TB patients, social stigma is increasingly recognized, often in association with HIV[3]. Social stigma is "an undesirable or discrediting attribute that an individual possesses, thus redu
Focus on further education of librarians in Latvia
Iveta Gudakovska
Information Research: an international electronic journal , 2001,
Abstract: Describes the needs for continuing education of professional librarians in Latvia, following independence and the consequent structural changes. Following research into further education needs, the Continuing Education Centre for Librarians of Latvia (CECLL) was established to provide training courses. CECLL is a collaborative venture, involving the Department of Library Science and Information, University of Latvia, the Library Department of the National Library of Latvia and the initiative group of IT ALISE Ltd. The Centre is supported by funds from the Soros Foundation-Latvia and the Open Society Institute. The paper describes the courses offered, the further collaborative work of the Centre and the impact of its programmes.
Training of translators and interpreters in Latvia  [cached]
Janis Silis
Mutatis Mutandis : Revista Latinoamericana de Traducción , 2009,
Abstract: The article provides a brief insight into the field of training translators and interpreters in Latvia, a European Union member state since 2004. The demand for an increasing number of professionals, being able to cope not only with translation of fiction, but capable to translate and interpret information vital for any independent country, became especially urgent toward the end of the 1980's due to the rapid political and economic changes accompanied by the growth of international contacts. The first training programme of translators and interpreters was started in 1995 and in the next few years was followed by several others. At present translators and interpreters in Latvia are trained in 16 study programmes at 10 higher education institutions (3 universities and 3 university colleges funded by the government, as well as 4 private higher education institutions) - in 7 professional, 5 professional undergraduate and 4 professional master programmes. Doctoral dissertations in translatology at present are written and defended in two of the 3 doctoral programmes in Applied, Comparative and Contrastive Linguistics. After the general survey of the situation in training translators and interpreters in Latvia, the author provides a more detailed overview of the undergraduate, master and Ph.D. programmes of the Ventspils University College.
The State of Open Data in Latvia: 2014  [PDF]
Uldis Bojārs,Renārs Liepi??
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: This paper examines the state of Open Data in Latvia at the middle of 2014. The study is divided into two parts: (i) a survey of open data situation and (ii) an overview of available open data sets. The first part examines the general open data climate in Latvia according to the guidelines of the OKFN Open Data Index making the results comparable to those of other participants of this index. The second part examines datasets made available on the Latvia Open Data community catalogue, the only open data catalogue available in Latvia at the moment. We conclude that Latvia public sector open data mostly fulfil the basic criteria (e.g., data is available) of the Open Data Index but fail on more advanced criteria: the majority of data considered in the study are not published in machine-readable form, are not available for bulk download and none of the data sources have open license statements.
Higher Education for the Development of Latvia
Tatjana Ko e
Journal of Pedagogy and Psychology "Signum Temporis" , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10195-011-0001-1
Abstract: Introduction One of the preconditions for successful development of Latvia and competitive growth of its national economy is an appropriately functioning system of higher education. Aim of the Study To update the most significant tasks and activities of the contemporary higher education institutions in Latvia within the context of the country's competitiveness. Materials and Methods In the study, the author analyses theoretical sources, normative acts, research data on the conformity of the development of higher education with the needs of the national economy. Results The author characterises the support from the government and EU structural funds for the implementation of higher education growth possibilities for 2007-2013. Conclusions The enabling objectives include: elaboration and implementation of a modern legal framework; development and implementation of an array of flexible study programmes meeting the national and international standards; effective utilisation of the possibilities given by lifelong learning and further education; securing of an offer of study programmes matching the needs of the national economy.
Migration flows management in Latvia
Inga Shina
Perspectives of Innovations, Economics and Business , 2009,
Abstract: The present-day world features ever growing mobility - free movement of people, financial capital, markets and services. This mobility is enhanced and arranged by cross-national networks. The major instrument driving migration is modern technologies and information, including internet, communications and cheap air travels. The article makes insight into external migration trends of labour force and migration flows management prospects so as to discover the possible solutions for further formation of migration policy in Latvia.
Carotid Endarterectomies in Latvia
Patricija Ivanova , , Ilga Kikule , Dainis Krievins , , Vitalijs Zvirgzdins , Edvins Lietuvietis , Svetlana Thor , , Gatis Sprudzans
Acta Chirurgica Latviensis , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10163-010-0007-4
Abstract: Introduction. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is a treatment of choice for significant carotid stenosis, and it has an important role in stroke prophylaxis, that is proved in many trials all over the world. Aim of the study. To evaluate preoperative diagnostic methods, risk factors and co-morbidities, operation results for patients undergoing CEA in Latvia. To analyze used anaesthasia and operation technique in CEA in Latvia. To reflect carotid endarterecomy results that depends from chosen operation technique. Materials and methods. 317 patients were included in the retrospective study from January 1st till December 31st, 2008. Patient charts were evaluated for information about history of disease and other comorbidities, preoperative investigation, operation and early postoperative period followed by protocol. All patients were divided into three groups depending on type of endarterectomy (CEA with primary suture, with patch or eversion CEA). Results. In 59% cases carotid disease were asymptomatic. Computer tomography angiography (CTA) and duplex ultrasound were the most common diagnostic methods to evaluate carotid stenosis. 339 carotid endarterectomies were performed, where CEA with primary suture was used in 56.2% of cases (group 1). There were no significant diferences in patient atherosclerotic risks factors, comorbidities, preoperative investigation methods, time of surgery and complications rate between the groups. Conclusions. In Latvia carotid endarterectomy is carried out mostly in classical conventional tecniques and arteriotomy is being closed with a primary suture.
Dormice - Their present status in Latvia
Valdis Pilats
Hystrix : the Italian Journal of Mammalogy , 1995, DOI: 10.4404/hystrix-6.1-2-4029
Abstract: The distribution and habitats of four Dormouse species (Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula and Myoxus glis) found in Latvia are described. This study was carried out as part of a Latvian and European mammal atlas project, starting in 1991. Questionnaires were the main source of information regarding the period since 1970. In Latvia dormice are rare animals and have small populations in separated localities. Here D. nitedula and M. glis are at their most northern edge of distributional range. Reduction of the known localities for M. glis and E. quercinus is described. M. avellanarius, often found in bird nest boxes, is the most common Dormouse in western Latvia. Legal and practical aspects of dormice conservation, and the protection of habitats are discussed. Riassunto Mioxidi in Lettonia: lo stato attuale - Vengono descritti distribuzione e habitat di quattro specie di Mioxidi (Muscardinus avellanarius, Eliomys quercinus, Dryomys nitedula e Myoxus glis) presenti in Lettonia. Questa ricerca è stata condotta come parte del progetto per un atlante dei mammiferi lettoni ed europei avviato nel 1991. La maggior parte delle informazioni riguardanti il periodo successivo a1 1970 deriva da questionari. In Lettonia i Mioxidi sono animali rari con piccole popolazioni in località distinte. La Lettonia rappresenta il margine settentrionale di distribuzione di D. nitedula e di M. glis. Viene descritta la riduzione di località note per M. glis e E. quercinus. M. avellanarius, spesso trovato in cassette nido per uccelli, è il Mioxide più comune nella Lettonia occidentale. Vengono discussi aspetti pratici e legali riguardanti la conservazione e la protezione degli habitats dei Mioxidi.
Premise of Optimal Water Management in Latvia
Gunārs Za is , Raimonds Ern teins
Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. , 2008, DOI: 10.2478/v10046-008-0005-2
Abstract: The development of water management in Latvia was broadly investigated with a focus on identifying the main managerial problems when analysing all factors affecting water administration and management optimisation prospects. Combined sociological research was performed using traditional and also case study research methodologies to produce systemic assessment of institutional and human resource capacities and managerial impact on the organisational ability of municipalities and the provision of water supply and waste water treatment services by companies and utilities. Alternative water management models and their applications were also elaborated and evaluated. To provide rational use of water resources in Latvia and to meet the requirements of the EU legislation, it is necessary to change the water management system in the country, but, most important, to develop principles of systemic integration and coordinated cooperation with respecting historically formed conditions, and, to introduce an optimal water management model comprising a set of management preconditions—approaches, principles, structural components and set of tools into complement institutional capacities.
Aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia  [PDF]
Irina Sivicka,Ieva ?ukauska,Aleksandrs Adamovi?s
Modern Phytomorphology , 2013,
Abstract: Oregano populations are variable by morphology, cytology, genetics, biochemistry and agrobotany. Using international Draft Descriptor Lists it is possible to describe oregano samples and to select the most variable accessions for cultivation of Origanum vulgareL. The aim of this research was to explore the several aspects of morphological diversity of oregano in Latvia. In summer 2012, 44 oregano accessions from an ex situcollection of spice- and medicinal plants of the Laboratory of Cultivated Plants and Apilogy ( Jelgava, 1 Strazdu str.) were analysed. Plant growth habit, plant height, number of stems per plant, branching density, colour of the upper surface and shape of blade of the leaf, density of flowers, colour of petals were described in this research. The results showed that oregano accessions differ morphologically in Latvia. It is necessary to continue this research to allow plants to fully express their characteristics and to explore the possible changeableness of parameters.
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