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Simulated ICJ Judgment : Revisiting the Lawfulness of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons  [cached]
Winston P. Nagan
Cadmus , 2012,
Abstract: The author prepared this simulated judgment at the request of Cadmus editors to demonstrate that there is ample ground for revisiting and revising the landmark 1996 advisory opinion of the ICJ on the legality of nuclear weapons. The ICJ failed to anticipate the proliferation of nuclear weapons, which expands the evolution of the concept of sovereignty, the potential cataclysmic impact of nuclear war on climate change, the multiplication of nuclear-weapon-free zones as evidence of a widespread rejection, mounting evidence regarding the physical and psychological harm, and unwillingness of the nuclear weapons states to fulfill their obligations under the NPT. This article challenges the notion that a few sovereign states should be the sole arbiters of international law and affirms the legitimate claim of the global community of protection from the existential threat posed by nuclear weapons. The use or threat of use undermines foundational values of the international legal system and the specific rules of self-defense and humanitarian law. The contribution seeks to give an accentuated role for the explicit use of the fundamental values of international legal order, in crafting an innovative methodology for the formulation of the judgment. The very existence of these weapons undermines the rights of all of humanity. The ICJ should be moved to categorically declare the use and possession of nuclear weapons a crime against humanity.
The bioscience revolution & the biological weapons threat: levers & interventions
Mark D'Agostino, Greg Martin
Globalization and Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1744-8603-5-3
Abstract: The US Commission on the Prevention of Weapons of Mass Destruction Proliferation and Terrorism (The Commission), was established in 2007 by the Congress of the United States in House Resolution 1 (P.L. 110-53) to assess and provide a clear and comprehensive strategy and concrete recommendations for prevention activities, initiatives, and programs. In December 2008, the Commission released a report, World At Risk, addressing these objectives. The Report's findings received considerable press coverage in the United States and internationally, in part because of the dire prediction that "it is more likely than not that a weapon of mass destruction will be used in a terrorist attack somewhere in the world by the end of 2013", and that "terrorists are more likely to be able to obtain and use a biological weapon than a nuclear weapon" [1]. The bold prediction that an attack with a WMD is likely somewhere in the world by the end of 2013 was arguably not substantiated in the text of the report, potentially fueling the discussion that the biological weapon threat is exaggerated [2]. This issue will not be addressed in this paper. Throughout the Report, many questions were posed that lie squarely at the intersection of globalization and health. In this paper, we aim to address the following questions: Firstly, how will the bioscience revolution change the nature of the biological weapons threat? And which levers and interventions might best mitigate the risk of such an attack?The Commission posed many questions, one of which was how in the future will the bioscience revolution and the globalization of the biotechnology industry change the nature of the biological weapons threat? The biotechnology revolution discussed herein began in 1973, 20 years after Watson & Crick's sentinel paper describing the structure of DNA, when Stanley Cohen of Stanford University and Herbert Boyer of the University of California-San Francisco discovered the basic technique for recombinant DNA [3,4
Radiological weapons: what type of threat?
James Mapstone, Stephen Brett
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3061
Abstract: Since the end of the Cold War preparations for dealing with major nuclear incidents have declined. Unless a hospital has a nuclear reactor nearby, it is unlikely that radiological incidents will feature high on the major incident plan. Recently, health protection agencies have again started to provide guidance on these issues, following a perceived heightened threat from terrorism [1-3]. The purpose of this article is to demystify the risks and describe the extra actions that should be considered.The risk of a nuclear explosion – the 'nuclear bomb' – is remote; such an incident could either be due to terrorist activity or result from the actions of 'rogue' nation states. However, highly enriched uranium or plutonium can be made into a nuclear explosive device relatively easily. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has listed 17 incidents of illicit trafficking of highly enriched uranium or plutonium over the past 10 years [4], and so there is a substantial mass of material that is unaccounted for and thus theoretically available. The risk is therefore present, the numbers of people affected would be substantial, and the potential consequences of any such incident would be great. The incident would present as a massive explosion, with a large blast area and patients presenting with blast and burn injuries.Overall, the IAEA has recorded 540 incidents of illicit trafficking of nuclear and radioactive materials during the past 10 years, of which the vast majority of cases involved material in the sub-giga-Becquerel range (i.e. unenriched). Although not employable in a nuclear bomb, this material could be utilized in crude radiological dispersion devices – the 'dirty bomb'. However, this remains a rather unlikely scenario. Were it to occur, the health consequences of the radiological element are likely to be very small. Such a scenario is likely to present as a conventional explosive incident, with casualties presenting with blast and burn injuries. Any radiolog
Re-examining the 1996 ICJ Advisory Opinion: Concerning the Legality of Nuclear Weapons  [cached]
Jasjit Singh
Cadmus , 2012,
Abstract: The primary objections raised against total elimination of nuclear weapons are built around a few arguments mostly of non-technical nature.Nuclear weapons and the strategies for their use have resulted in the establishment of a vicious circle within which the international community is trapped.The argument that the world will be unsafe without nuclear weapons is only meant to further the narrow self-interest of the nuclear weapon states and their allies.The World Court’s far-reaching 1996 advisory opinion concluded that almost any use or threat of use of nuclear weapons would violate international humanitarian law and law applicable in armed conflict, undermining most claims of nuclear weapon states regarding the legitimacy of possession, use or threat of use of nuclear weapons. The next logical step would be an initiative for a nuclear convention banning the use and threat of use of nuclear weapons in Asia and the adjoining oceans. But as long as the dominant elites in society and the nation-state believe in the utility of nuclear weapons for national security or as the currency of power, abolition of nuclear weapons will remain a mirage.
How Reliance on Nuclear Weapons Erodes and Distorts International Law and Global Order  [cached]
John Burroughs
Cadmus , 2012,
Abstract: Deployment of nuclear forces as an international security mechanism for prevention of major war is far removed from the world envisaged by the United Nations Charter in which threat or use of force is the exception, not the rule. Reliance on nuclear weapons has also distorted the development of major instruments of international humanitarian law and international criminal law, the 1977 Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions and the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Awareness is deepening of the inherent incompatibility of reliance on nuclear weapons with an ever more entrenched normative framework stressing states’ responsibilities to protect their populations against atrocities and to comply with international humanitarian law and the Rome Statute. International humanitarian law is a solid foundation for the emerging norm of non-use of nuclear weapons and for building a legal framework of a nuclear-weapons-free world that is universal in its approach.
Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons: Military effectiveness and collateral effects  [PDF]
Andre Gsponer
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: The paper begins with a general introduction and update to Fourth Generation Nuclear Weapons (FGNW), and then addresses some particularly important military aspects on which there has been only limited public discussion so far. These aspects concern the unique military characteristics of FGNWs which make them radically different from both nuclear weapons based on previous-generation nuclear-explosives and from conventional weapons based on chemical-explosives: yields in the 1 to 100 tons range, greatly enhanced coupling to targets, possibility to drive powerful shaped-charge jets and forged fragments, enhanced prompt radiation effects, reduced collateral damage and residual radioactivity, etc.
Requirements of Using Nuclear Weapons Based on Reverence Proofs
Mitra Hajian
International Journal of Nations Research , 2018, DOI: -
Abstract: The mission of Islam is to provide worldly and otherworldly prosperity as well as human tranquility. Achieving this goal needs some requirements including the acceptance of peace and security in social and international relations as a primary principle. Accepting this principle means that any disruptive factor to peace is prohibited. Among the various factors could endanger the safety of humans, the production, accumulation and use of nuclear weapons have been seriously addressed by the public according to their many effects and dangers. The question is this, what is jurisprudential sentence of the production, accumulation and use of nuclear weapons, given the different legal arguments? The results of the research indicate that any activity regarding such weapons is not only incompatible with Islamic thoughts, but is irrational and lacks probable interests. In terms of jurisprudential sources; production, accumulation and use of these types of weapons has no justification but prohibitory, while, nowadays they have a role other than prohibitory and pave the way for disturbing global peace and security.
Endomyocardial Fibrosis: Still a Mystery after 60 Years  [PDF]
Gene Bukhman ,John Ziegler,Eldryd Parry
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000097
Abstract: The pathologist Jack N. P. Davies identified endomyocardial fibrosis in Uganda in 1947. Since that time, reports of this restrictive cardiomyopathy have come from other parts of tropical Africa, South Asia, and South America. In Kampala, the disease accounts for 20% of heart disease patients referred for echocardiography. We conducted a systematic review of research on the epidemiology and etiology of endomyocardial fibrosis. We relied primarily on articles in the MEDLINE database with either “endomyocardial fibrosis” or “endomyocardial sclerosis” in the title. The volume of publications on endomyocardial fibrosis has declined since the 1980s. Despite several hypotheses regarding cause, no account of the etiology of this disease has yet fully explained its unique geographical distribution.
Yes, 60 years later we are still working hard on vortices  [PDF]
P. Ao
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: With the excitement generated by this year's Nobel Prize in physics, here I give a brief critical review of current vortex dynamics research activity, using a recent book as the background material. Two directions in which major progresses can be expected are selected: the role of vortex-phonon interaction in low temperature superfluid turbulence and the complete integration of topological method into vortex dynamics. In addition, I would like to call attention to 3 important experiments which have not been fully appreciated in the past: 1) the measurement of vorticity quantization via Magnus force done in Britain; 2) the extensive study of Josephson-Anderson relation carried out in USA; and 3) the direct measurement of Magnus force in superconductors performed in Sweden. They will play an important role in the further development of the field.
The origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program: Technical reality and Western hypocrisy  [PDF]
Suren Erkman,Andre Gsponer,Jean-Pierre Hurni,Stephan Klement
Physics , 2005,
Abstract: This report is based on a series of papers written between 1980 and 2005 on the origin of Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which was known to one of the authors in the late 1970s already, as well as to a number of other physicists, who independently tried without success to inform their governments and the public. It is concluded that at no point did the Western governments effectively try to stop Iraq's nuclear weapons program, which suggests that its existence was useful as a foreign policy tool, as is confirmed by its use as a major justification to wage two wars on Iraq.
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