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Biomass Gasification: Documented Information for Adoption/Adaptation and Further Improvements toward Sustainable Utilisation of Renewable Natural Resources  [PDF]
Andrew Agbontalor Erakhrumen
ISRN Renewable Energy , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/536417
Abstract: In many developing countries, biomass use as a means of generating energy is still relevant with the developed countries also gradually increasing this source of energy in their energy-mix. Furthermore, increased research and developmental efforts concerning bioenergy are more in these developed countries compared to many of the developing ones. This might have contributed to the present level of biomass conversion technologies, most of which are observed to be outdated, in developing countries such as those in sub-Sahara Africa. Improving on the available old bioenergy conversion technologies may not only be adequate for sustainable utilisation of renewable natural resources; there may be the need for adoption/adaptation of other recent research outputs geared toward optimal resource utilisation in this regard. Contributing to and application of improvements in biomass conversion technologies, such as gasification techniques, might assist in achieving this aim. This article was therefore conceived at highlighting information concerning biomass gasification in such a way as to sensitise the different stakeholders in research and developmental issues in developing countries where there are still challenges facing this sector. The language and presentation of the article was aimed at specifics avoiding too many technical details for the benefit of experts and non-experts alike. 1. Introduction History has it that the series of mankind’s developmental stages, cultures, and technologies were strongly linked with energy and associated systems [1–3]. Right from when fire was accidentally “discovered” to the period of Industrial Revolution and the recent “jet age” including the present period of high-technological innovations/inventions, the fundamental driving force for these developments, apart from the human mind, has been the generation and use of energy in a continuously increasing manner, a development that has particularly accelerated upwards in intensity and scale approximately in the last two hundred years or thereabout, after the discovery and start of large-scale use of fossil-derived fuels [2]. Prior to the discovery of fossil-derived fuels such as coal, crude oil, and natural gas, the main source of energy was from biomass, most especially lignocellulosic materials [1, 3–5]. However, the world is presently heavily reliant on fossil fuels, most especially crude oil and natural gas, as source of energy with the bulk of this usage being in the advanced/developed countries while the less advanced/developing countries still have most of their
Gaseous emissions during concurrent combustion of biomass and non-recyclable municipal solid waste
René Laryea-Goldsmith, John Oakey, Nigel J Simms
Chemistry Central Journal , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-5-4
Abstract: Emissions of nitrogen monoxide and sulphur dioxide for combustion of biomass are suppressed after substitution of biomass for municipal solid waste materials as the input fuel mixture. Interactions between these and other pollutants such as hydrogen chloride, nitrous oxide and carbon monoxide indicate complex, competing reactions occur between intermediates of these compounds to determine final resultant emissions.Fluidised bed concurrent combustion is an appropriate technique to exploit biomass and municipal solid waste resources, without the use of fossil fuels. The addition of municipal solid waste to biomass combustion has the effect of reducing emissions of some gaseous pollutants.Concurrent combustion of biomass and municipal solid waste (MSW) offers a method of electricity and heat generation using renewable energy resources. At small scale, biomass is recognised as a form of renewable energy that is capable of meeting both heat and electricity demand most effectively in the form of combined heat and power, contributing towards international commitments to minimise environmental damage [1]. Further efficiency in using biomass can be obtained where thermal conversion occurs adjacent to areas of demand (such as cities) for cooling, i.e. 'tri-generation', or combined cooling, heating and electrical power. Therefore, small-scale biomass combustion offers an excellent method to exploit heat energy. In contrast, wind turbines and large-scale pulverised fuel power stations are primarily used to produce electricity only, where the pulverised fuel may contain biomass for co-firing. Within waste management government policy, energy recovery from MSW is seen as an essential requirement for diverting waste from landfill disposal. As a result of Europe-wide legislation and government targets to minimise the environmental impact of landfill disposal, for example it is forecast that energy recovery within UK is expected to comprise 25% of MSW disposal by 2020; recent rates
Nitrogen Recovery and Utilisation Efficiencies for Biomass and Fruit Production in Pepper (Capsicum annum L.) As Affected by Fertilizer Management Strategies/Methods in a Humid Zone of Nigeria
S.O. Agele,I. Adeyemi,Adebayo
Agricultural Journal , 2013,
Abstract: In recent years, there has been increased tendency for intensive vegetable production in the tropics and the success of this effort depends strongly on the high application rates of fertilizers to maximise yields. However, in addition to high costs of mineral fertilizer and other logistic problems, intensive vegetable production is constrained by high rate of soil fertility depletion, a bane of continuous cropping systems. Capsicum species are high-value vegetable crops and are also important for human nutrition due to their high nutritional contents. The response of pepper Capsicum annum (var. Tatase) to sources of nutrients (nitrogen) and frequency of application (phase application) was analysed in terms of efficiencies of N recovery (uptake) and utilization for shoot biomass and fruit yield (fruit set efficiency) 2004 and 2005 on the field in Akure, a rainforest zone of Nigeria. The aims were to assess the effects of fertilizer materials management on the efficiencies of N uptake and utilisation for fruit setting and fruit yield in pepper. The effects of fertilizer type and frequency of application were significant (p<0.05) on growth and fruit yield of pepper. Single and phase application of the fertilizers strongly influenced soil N status and produced differences in pepper growth and fruit yield characters. Over organic fertilizer and control, NPK and FYM + stubble produced significant increases in the dry weights of root (17, 15%; 17.5, 16%) and shoot (15, 16%; 13, 18%), leaf area (16, 13%; 18, 16%) and fruit fresh weight (42, 54%; 40, 20%), respectively. NPK under single and split application maintained uniformly high level of fruit yields than other treatments. Split application of all fertilizer types enhanced leaf area, root and shoot biomass and fruit yields. Source of N and split application (placement methods) significantly improved N recovery and overall N use efficiency. The improvements in pepper growth and yield characters produced under FYM alone and FYM plus plant debris were accompanied by enhanced efficiencies of N fertilizer recovery (uptake), Nitrogen Harvest Index (NHI) and the utilization of N acquired for shoot biomass and fruit production. Residual N in the soil was high under phase application for fertilizer types (organic and mineral) especially for FYM alone and FYM + stubbles. The differences obtained in residual soil N under the different fertilizers and frequency of application could indicate changing availability of soil N as affected by mineralisation rates of the fertilizers. The status of available soil N enhanced ability of pepper to retrieve soil N. Low residual N and hence superior uptake efficiency were recorded under mineral NPK and organic fertilizer compared with FYM application. High residual N was recorded under phase application, the decreases in soil N in plots on which fertilizer was applied once (single application) could indicate more efficient retrieval of soil N from these plots. Agronomic indi
An Analysis of Waste Management Policies on Utilizing Biosludge as Material Resources in Taiwan  [PDF]
Wen-Tien Tsai
Sustainability , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/su4081879
Abstract: Biosludge is a by-product of secondary wastewater treatment processes. Due to its high contents of organic carbon and plant nutrients, this bioresource can be practically reused as raw feedstock for making organic fertilizers and building materials. The objective of this paper was to provide a preliminary analysis of biosludge utilization in Taiwan, including food processing sludge, wine brewery sludge, textile sludge, pulp sludge and agricultural sludge. The discussion focused on the status of biosludge generation in recent years (2004–2010), and its sustainable management principle. This paper also presents updated information about the governmental regulations and policies for promoting these biosolids as material resources, as well as validating the regulatory levels of toxic constituents in the biosludge and its derived product (e.g., organic fertilizer). Based on the preliminary benefit analysis of utilizing biosludge as raw material for organic fertilizer, reusing biosludge, being a beneficial resource, should be superior to those by traditional treatments (i.e., incineration and sanitary landfill).
Critical Evaluation of Allowance for Resources Wastefulness in the Construction Industry  [cached]
Fapohunda J. A.,Ogunsanmi O. E.,Omoniyi S. S.,Fatokun A. O.
Journal of Sustainable Development , 2011, DOI: 10.5539/jsd.v5n1p76
Abstract: In the construction industry, project site operatives see resources wastefulness as inevitable. Moreover, there is often an absence of appropriate resources to support waste management. This notion makes participants to a project exhibit nonchalantly towards optimising the “nuclear use” construction resources. It is also an important realisation that, these resources, materials, manpower and machinery are not only increasing in cost daily but also becoming increasingly scarce. Previous research has shown that more than 30% of construction resources often end up wasted during the building production process. These emanate the rational to evaluate the issues of ‘budgeting for resources waste syndromes’ in building industry, and to identify the appropriate measure of achieving optimal utilisation of these resources. This paper identifies the behavioural features of site participants in resources wastefulness and provides an incentive framework for achieving efficient utilisation of construction resources, which include self-fulfilment, belong-ness and appraisal. Adequate implementation of the framework proposed will not only be beneficial to the construction practitioners and researchers, but will also enhance construction sustainability and lean thinking in this building industry-regenerating era.
THE CONDITION OF WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ROMANIA
Lucia-Monica SCOR?AR,Diana ZAGAN ZELTER
Management & Marketing , 2009,
Abstract: The present article approaches a very important and actual theme andthat is the problem of generating waste in Romania which, on one hand,affects the environment and human health, and on the other hand itreflects the inefficient way of using the natural resources in society.Probably the majority of us have thought or hoped that the naturalresources are inexhaustible, but we can see today that the unwiseexploitation of these resources is threatening our future.Waste management is a difficult and complex problem in Romania whichis far from being solved according to the environment rules of theEuropean Union. The worsening of the waste problem, especially of thedomestic waste is generated by the significant increase of its quantity, aswell as by the inappropriate way of solving different stages of wasteprocessing.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN MALAYSIA: SOLUTION FOR SUSTAINABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT
ZAINI SAKAWI
Journal of Applied Sciences in Environmental Sanitation , 2011,
Abstract: This article discusses the present status of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in Malaysia. The basic situation in large municipalities in Malaysia is one in which available resources are not sufficient to provide adequate municipal services to either the main stream of the population, or to those residing in the slum settlements. Effective waste management is dependent upon achieving informed consensus amongst interested parties. The problem for data collection and planning is the lack of locally available trained personnel and the need for relevant data. Most universities and educational institution fails to offer curriculum in waste management, and this neglect results in a serious lack of trained human resources necessary for the planning and implementation of waste management systems.
An Overview of the Australian Biomass Resources and Utilization Technologies  [cached]
Moghtaderi, B.,Sheng, C.,Wall, T. F.
BioResources , 2006,
Abstract: Information on Australian biomass resources including bagasse, black liquor from paper pulp production, wood waste and forestry residues, energy crops, crop wastes, food and agricultural wet waste, and municipal solid wastes is provided in the review. The characteristics of the Australian biomass are typical of those of other countries, i.e., high moisture and volatile matter, low heating value and density, and low sulfur and nitrogen content, but high Ca and Mg for woody biomass. The characteristics influence biomass utilization. Biomass is used extensively at present within Australia, primarily for domestic heating, as bagasse in the sugar industry, and for electricity generation. Biomass usage for electricity generation is increasing and is expected to reach 5.2 Mt/year by 2019-20. Exports, as wood chips, are approximately 10 Mt/year in 2000-01. Forestry residues have been estimated to be 23 Mt/year. Current technologies that utilize biomass in Australia include those for electricity and heat by direct combustion, cofiring with coal and fluidized bed combustion), for biogas generation (from landfills, and aerobic digestion, and as bio-liquids. Related to bio-liquid fuels, ethanol production from molasses and wheat is making progress. The resultant ethanol is used as a petrol extender, and a bio-diesel process is under development.
MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE CHARACTERISTICS AND MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA  [PDF]
T. Ch. Ogwueleka
Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering , 2009,
Abstract: Municipal solid waste management has emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing environmental protection agencies in developing countries. This study presents the current solid waste management practices and problems in Nigeria. Solid waste management is characterized by inefficient collection methods, insufficient coverage of the collection system and improper disposal. The waste density ranged from 280 to 370 kg/m3 and the waste generation rates ranged from 0.44 to 0.66 kg/capita/day. The common constraints faced environmental agencies include lack of institutional arrangement, insufficient financial resources, absence of bylaws and standards, inflexible work schedules, insufficient information on quantity and composition of waste, and inappropriate technology. The study suggested study of institutional, political, social, financial, economic and technical aspects of municipal solid waste management in order to achieve sustainable and effective solid waste management in Nigeria.
Urbanisation and Municipal Solid Waste Management
K.V. Marthandan
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: Waste is an unavoidable by product of human activities. Economic development, urbanization and improving living standards in cities, have led to increase in the quantity and complexity of generated waste. Management of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) resulting out of rapid urbanization, has become a serious concern for government departments, pollution control agencies, regulatory bodies and also public in most of the developing countries. Rapid growth of population and industrialization (www.earthscam.co.uk) degrades urban environment and places serious stress on natural resources, which undermines equitable and sustainable development. Inefficient management and disposal of solid waste is an obvious cause for degradation of environment in most cities of the developing world. Improper disposal of this waste leads to spread of communicable diseases, causes obnoxious conditions and spoils biosphere as a whole. Cleanliness is a major factor that influences development of any nation, which is otherwise hampered due to improper disposal of solid waste.
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