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Tradu??o, equivalência semantica e adapta??o cultural do Marijuana Expectancy Questionnaire (MEQ)
Pedroso, Rosemeri Siqueira;Oliveira, Margareth da Silva;Araujo, Renata Brasil;Moraes, Jo?o Feliz Duarte;
Psico-USF , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-82712004000200003
Abstract: the objective of this study was to translate, to adapt culturally and verify the semantic equivalence of the marijuana expectancy questionnaire (meq), which evaluates the beliefs to the marijuana’s use, which may be important in the treatment and prognostic of the chemical dependents of this substance. the meq was firstly translated from english to portuguese, administered to 10 persons, and then submitted to brainstorming in a group of 4 persons for individual and verbal reproduction, item by item. back-translation was executed based on first translation and from brainstorming to the origin language. soon after, it was translated again into portuguese. all the process was analyzed by a committee of specialists, which emitted a decision and the pertinent comments. the descriptive judges’ analysis was done verifying frequencies and percentages. considering the decision of the specialists, the final version of the meq (brazilian adaptation) was constructed.
Psychology of Craving  [PDF]
Sushil Sharma, Bal Nepal, Carolyn S. Moon, Anthony Chabenne, Azza Khogali, Comfort Ojo, Esther Hong, Rochelle Gaudet, Ali Sayed-Ahmad, Amanda Jacob, Mujtaba Murtuza, Michelle Firlit
Open Journal of Medical Psychology (OJMP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojmp.2014.32015
Abstract: Craving is a complex psychological condition characterized by impaired dietary intake, sleep disturbance, sexual dysfunction, and drug abuse. Craving may be associated with risk-taking reckless behavior to seek pleasure including cigarette smoking, binge alcohol drinking, and illicit drug abuse (e.g. cocaine, methamphetamine, methylene deoxy meth-amphetamine (MDMA), ecstasy, morphine and heroine). Craving for food, sex and drugs involves the limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Thus, basic understanding of craving is exceedingly important for the better clinical management of major depression, hopelessness, and poor quality of life among young adolescents, as well as morbidity and early mortality among adults. Physical, psychological, nutritional, and medical rehabilitation may be helpful in the effective clinical management of patients with craving of any age, sex and race. Further studies on the psychology of craving will curb the number of hospital admissions as several victims of drug craving develop schizophrenia later in their life, if they remain untreated.
Marijuana: Current Concepts?  [PDF]
Joav Merrick
Frontiers in Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.3389/fpubh.2013.00042
Abstract: Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.
Medical marijuana: a public health perspective  [cached]
Ushang Desai,Paras Patel
International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology , 2013, DOI: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130305
Abstract: Over the few years medical marijuana is growing in the United States. Because of the medical marijuana legislators able to legalized recreational marijuana in the two states in the US. Marijuana has several potential benefits that help in certain disease. The delivery of marijuana is also important because smoking marijuana has severe side effects. Physicians also play important role in medical marijuana, physicians also divided on the use of medical marijuana. Their attitude towards medical marijuana important for the treatment of disease is important for the community. Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the US and all over world, several risks associated with it. Major concern is medical marijuana increased the use of marijuana and will create the public health problem in the society. There are several medical benefits from the marijuana but require more research to establish the marijuana as a medicine. Control of medical marijuana is also major issue for the law enforcement agencies and challenge for policymakers also in the United States. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(2.000): 136-143]
Epilepsy and marijuana - a review
Dantas, Fábio Galv?o;
Journal of Epilepsy and Clinical Neurophysiology , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-26492005000200005
Abstract: abstract the medicinal use of components of cannabis sativa (marijuana) has been studied around the world. some of these components may have anti-convulsive properties, though the reports are controversial, and sometimes come from single case reports and clinical anecdotes. because of ethical aspects, as some of the components of cannabis have psychotropic effects, this is a very important issue. new researches have demonstrated that some components of cannabis that don't have psychotropic action may play a role in controlling seizures. this paper reviews the relation between epilepsy and the components of cannabis sativa.
Possible hepatotoxicity of chronic marijuana usage
Borini, Paulo;Guimar?es, Romeu Cardoso;Borini, Sabrina Bicalho;
Sao Paulo Medical Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-31802004000300007
Abstract: context: hepatotoxicity is a potential complication from the usage of various illicit drugs, possibly consequent to their liver metabolism, but information on this is scarce in the medical literature. objective: to study the occurrence of clinical and laboratory hepatic alterations in chronic marijuana users, from the use of marijuana on its own or in association with other legal or illicit drugs. type of study: transversal study setting: hospital espírita de marília, marília, s?o paulo, brazil participants: the study was made among 123 patients interned in the hospital espírita de marília from october 1996 to december 1998, divided into 3 groups: 26 (21%) using only marijuana, 83 (67.5%) using marijuana and crack, and 14 (11.4%) consuming marijuana and alcohol. procedures and main measurements: patients were examined clinically with special emphasis on types of drugs used, drug intake route, age when consumption began, length and pattern of usage, presence of tattooing, jaundice, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. serum determinations of total proteins, albumin, globulin, total and fractions of bilirubin, aspartate (ast) and alanine (alt) aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase (ap), gamma-glutamyltransferase and prothrombin activity were performed. results: among users of only marijuana, hepatomegaly was observed in 57.7% and splenomegaly in 73.1%, and slightly elevated ast (42.3%), alt (34.6%) and ap (53.8%). the three groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and hepatosplenomegaly. the group using both marijuana and alcohol showed the highest prevalence of alterations and highest levels of aminotransferases. mean ap levels were above normal in all groups. conclusions: chronic marijuana usage, on its own or in association with other drugs, was associated with hepatic morphologic and enzymatic alterations. this indicates that cannabinoids are possible hepatotoxic substances.
How Long Does Craving Predict Use of Methamphetamine? Assessment of Use One to Seven Weeks After the Assessment of Craving
Gantt P. Galloway, Edward G. Singleton and The Methamphetamine Treatment Project Corporate Authors
Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment , 2012,
Abstract: Aims: This study lays the foundation for a clinical prediction model based on methamphetamine craving intensity and its ability to predict the presence or absence of within-treatment methamphetamine use. Design: We used a random effects logistic approach for estimating repeated-measures, generalized linear mixed models (GLMM) using craving as the sole predictor of methamphetamine. A multivariate GLMM included craving, length of treatment, treatment assignment, and methamphetamine use the previous week as covariates to control for potential confounds. We performed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses to evaluate predictive accuracy. We investigated further whether methamphetamine craving predicted subsequent use more accurately at intervals more proximal to versus those more distal to assessment, examining one-week periods ending one to seven weeks after assessment of craving. Setting: The study was part of the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) Methamphetamine Treatment Project (MTP). Subjects: Analyses were based on data from 691 methamphetamine dependent outpatients enrolled in the MTP. Measurements: Craving was assessed by self-report on a 0–100 scale. Self-reported methamphetamine use was toxicologically verified. Craving and drug use were assessed weekly for 8 weeks. Findings: In the univariate analysis craving predicted methamphetamine use in the week immediately following the craving report (p <0.0001), with subject-specific use increasing 0.38% for each one-point increase in craving on a 0–100 scale. In the multivariate analysis the probability of use decreased by 2.45% for each week in treatment, increased by 33.11% for previous methamphetamine use, and the probability of methamphetamine use still increased with craving, rising 0.28% for each one-point increase in craving score (all p <0.0001). Predictive accuracy was strongest at the one-week time-lag and declined in magnitude the more distal the assessment period. Conclusions: Craving is a predictor of within-treatment methamphetamine use. Intensity of craving is appropriate for use as a surrogate marker in methamphetamine dependence.
Priapism, Ecstasy, and Marijuana: Is There a Connection?  [PDF]
Quan T. Tran,Robyn A. Wallace,Esther H. A. Sim
Advances in Urology , 2008, DOI: 10.1155/2008/193694
Abstract: Priapism is a urological emergency with multiple aetiologies including drug induced. Currently, there have been no reports of priapism induced by the combination of ecstasy and marijuana. We speculated on the potential mechanisms for acute drug-induced priapism resulting from ingestion of these two common illicit drugs.
Semantica e lexicografia  [cached]
Julio Casares,Balbino Lorenzo Feijóo-Hoyos
Alfa : Revista de Linguística , 2001,
Abstract: A Semantica e a Lexicografia se interpenetram mutuamente porque a Lexicografia n o se limita a recolher as palavras do léxico, mas procura descrever a significa o dos vocábulos e seus usos. O lexicógrafo também se ocupa de evolu o dos sentidos das palavras para estabelecer a escala das acep es de um signo lexical. Casares conceitua acep o e discute o problema da discrimina o das acep es e da sua ordena o no caso de palavras polissêmicas. Outra Quest o delicada para o lexicógrafo é o reconhecimento e a identifica o correta dos valores metafóricos. O autor usa como exemplo ilustrativo o verbete lat. ordo > esp. orden (port. ordem), signo polissêmico. Tra a gráficos da ma-, lha de significa es na semantica evolutiva dessa palavra, do étimo original latino ao espanhol moderno. Casares também trata do problema da lematiza o, ou seja, a decis o técnica de escolher como entrada de um dicionário, uma ou outra forma vocabular, o que envolve controvérsias permanentes em meio aos lexicólogos sobre as lexias (palavras) complexas e como e quando se dá a categoriza o lexical de um polinómio vocabular. Esse problema é ampliado por causa da tradi o caótica de muitas grafias, particularmente no caso de "locu es vocabulares". Advoga as vantagens e as virtudes de um dicionário que tivesse um índice de freqüência do uso de cada palavra, ou de cada acep o de um vocábulo.
An Increase in Tobacco Craving Is Associated with Enhanced Medial Prefrontal Cortex Network Coupling  [PDF]
Amy C. Janes, Stacey Farmer, Blaise deB. Frederick, Lisa D. Nickerson, Scott E. Lukas
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088228
Abstract: Craving is a key aspect of drug dependence that is thought to motivate continued drug use. Numerous brain regions have been associated with craving, suggesting that craving is mediated by a distributed brain network. Whether an increase in subjective craving is associated with enhanced interactions among brain regions was evaluated using resting state functional magnetic imaging (fMRI) in nicotine dependent participants. We focused on craving-related changes in the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) network, which also included the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) extending into the ventral striatum. Brain regions in the OMPFC network are not only implicated in addiction and reward, but, due to their rich anatomic interconnections, may serve as the site of integration across craving-related brain regions. Subjective craving and resting state fMRI were evaluated twice with an ~1 hour delay between the scans. Cigarette craving was significantly increased at the end, relative to the beginning of the scan session. Enhanced craving was associated with heightened coupling between the OMPFC network and other cortical, limbic, striatal, and visceromotor brain regions that are both anatomically interconnected with the OMPFC, and have been implicated in addiction and craving. This is the first demonstration confirming that an increase in craving is associated with enhanced brain region interactions, which may play a role in the experience of craving.
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