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Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties
Echart-Almeida, Cinara;Cavalli-Molina, Suzana;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2001000200001
Abstract: since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein) fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (hordeum vulgare l.) varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. the formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. by the sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.
Hordein polypeptide patterns in relation to malting quality in Brazilian barley varieties  [cached]
Echart-Almeida Cinara,Cavalli-Molina Suzana
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2001,
Abstract: Since there is evidence that malting quality is related to the storage protein (hordein) fraction, in the present work the hordein polypeptide patterns from 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties of different malting quality were analysed in order to explore the feasibility of using hordein electrophoresis to assist in the selection of malting barleys. The formation of clusters separating the varieties with higher malting quality from the others with lower quality suggests that there is a relationship between the general hordein polypeptide pattern and malting quality in the varieties analysed. By the Sperman's correlation test three hordein bands correlated negatively with malting quality in the germplasm studied.
Hordein gene dose effects in triploid endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  [PDF]
Perovi? Dragan,Zori? Dragica,Milovanovi? Milivoje,Prodanovi? Slaven
Genetika , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/gensr0903271p
Abstract: The presence of two maternal chromosome sets in triploid barley endosperm allows the distinction of maternal and paternal hordein bands in an electrophoregram: the maternal bands are stronger due to the higher gene dose. In the F1 generation there are differences between reciprocal crosses and in the F2 generation all 16 classes that are theoretically possible for a pair of polymorphic loci can be distinguished. This full classification is rarely possible in genetic studies, and allows more accurate estimates of recombination rates. Two hordein gene clusters (Hor1 and Hor2, corresponding to hordein C and hordein B respectively) were analyzed in hybrids obtained by crossing two winter barley cultivars Partizan and HWV-247. Hordein separation was performed by acid-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 3.2 (A-PAGE). A set of most informative bands of B and C hordeins was selected in each cross by two criteria: (1) presence or absence of bands in the parents and (2) signal strength to allow doses scoring. The average genetic distance between Hor1 and Hor2 loci was 11 cM. Distances in male and female maps were not significantly different, suggesting a similar recombination rate in male and female meiosis.
Genetic diversity of the monomeric prolamins and hordein in hulless barley genotypes and their relation with agronomical traits
R Eshghi, E Akhundova
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: In order to compare polymorphism resulting from monomeric prolamine and hordein, 63 genotypes of hulless barley from ICARDA were investigated. Also, to compare the patterns observed in the analyses of storage proteins and their relation with morphologic and phenologic traits, 20 agromorphological traits were recorded. In the analysis of the hordeins, no polymorphism was observed in the area D hordein. However, 10 patterns in the area C hordein, and 13 patterns in the area B hordein were observed; and in total 32 bands and 32 patterns were observed. The average genetic diversity index for these proteins was calculated as H = 0.866. In the analysis of the monomeric prolamins, which was performed with the Acid-PAGE method, 15, 9, 24, and 20 patterns were observed for the , , , and areas, respectively. The average of the genetic diversity index for these proteins was H = 0.889, and in total 33 bands as well as 57 patterns were observed. In the analysis of the monomeric prolamins, 51 genotype having unique patterns were identifiable while in the analysis of the hordeins, only 18 samples were identified. With regard to the fact that monomeric prolamins enjoy a greater diversity than hordeins and are more powerful in identifying samples and regarding the simple, in addition to the low cost of conducting the analysis, it can be used in a variety of genetic studies such as genetic diversity assessment, identifying genotypes and determining the phylogenic relations in barley. In the analysis of hordeins, one pattern was found among the patterns of area B hordein that was related to the traits of days to heading and days to maturity.
Genetic Polymorphism of Hordein in Wild Relatives of Barley from China
中国近缘野生大麦醇溶蛋白的遗传多态性研究

TANG Hui-Hui,DING Yi,HU Yao-Jun,
唐慧慧
,丁毅,胡耀军

植物科学学报 , 2002,
Abstract: Using A PAGE,genetic polymorphism of hordein was analyzed among 181 wild relatives of barley from 24 different counties in Tibet,including 47 six rowed wild relatives of barley and 134 two rowed wild forms.Three barleys that came from Qinghai Province of China,Europe and Israel respectively were used as controls.The hordein patterns showed a very large variation.60 types of hordein patterns were obtained from the tested materials and 38 materials had their unique patterns respectively. The results revealed that 184 materials were clustered into 3 major groups.One major group had only two materials.Two types of hordein patterns that were represented by ZYM0019 and ZYM1488 were widespread and abundant in Tibet,and about 29 3 percent of the tested materials had these patterns.The findings suggested a correlation between hodein patterns and geographic environment.Furthermore,the origin of cultivated barley was discussed.
Measuring Hordein (Gluten) in Beer – A Comparison of ELISA and Mass Spectrometry  [PDF]
Gregory J. Tanner, Michelle L. Colgrave, Malcolm J. Blundell, Hareshwar P. Goswami, Crispin A. Howitt
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056452
Abstract: Background Subjects suffering from coeliac disease, gluten allergy/intolerance must adopt a lifelong avoidance of gluten. Beer contains trace levels of hordeins (gluten) which are too high to be safely consumed by most coeliacs. Accurate measurement of trace hordeins by ELISA is problematic. Methods We have compared hordein levels in sixty beers, by sandwich ELISA, with the level determined using multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS). Results Hordein levels measured by ELISA varied by four orders of magnitude, from zero (for known gluten-free beers) to 47,000 μg/mL (ppm; for a wheat-based beer). Half the commercial gluten-free beers were free of hordein by MS and ELISA. Two gluten-free and two low-gluten beers had zero ELISA readings, but contained significant hordein levels (p<0.05), or near average (60–140%) hordein levels, by MS, respectively. Six beers gave false negatives, with zero ELISA readings but near average hordein content by MS. Approximately 20% of commercial beers had ELISA readings less than 1 ppm, but a near average hordein content by MS. Several barley beers also contained undeclared wheat proteins. Conclusions ELISA results did not correlate with the relative content of hordein peptides determined by MS, with all barley based beers containing hordein. We suggest that mass spectrometry is more reliable than ELISA, as ELISA enumerates only the concentration of particular amino-acid epitopes; this may vary between different hordeins and may not be related to the absolute hordein concentration. MS quantification is undertaken using peptides that are specific and unique, enabling the quantification of individual hordein isoforms. This outlines the problem of relying solely on ELISA determination of gluten in beverages such as beer and highlights the need for the development of new sensitive and selective quantitative assay such as MS.
Comparison of the Effect of Different Extractants on Hordein and Gliadin Extraction by A-PAGE
不同提取剂对麦醇溶蛋白提取效果的电泳比较

SHAO Jin-Zhen,QIU Chang-En,DING Yi,
邵锦震
,邱昌恩,丁毅

植物科学学报 , 2003,
Abstract: The alcohol-soluble proteins (hordeins from barley, gliadins from wheat) were extracted from the embryo-removed seeds of four barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) and three wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) with different extracting solvents. The results revealed that the extraction of hordeins and gliadins was most efficient with extraction solution composed of the 2-chloroethanol (25%) and 2-mercaptothanol (1%). Using this extractant, more hordein or gliadin protein bands could be resolved by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under acid pH condition.
ANALYSIS OF POLYMORPHISM OF BARLEY STORAGE PROTEINS  [PDF]
Marián Tomka,Milan Chňapek,Jana Bradová,Zdenka Gálová
Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences , 2012, DOI: 13385178
Abstract: Identification and characterization of different genotypes is essential for improving the quality of cultivated varieties in breeding programs. Electrophoretic separation of barley storage proteins allows us to identify and to differentiate the individual genotypes. We used acid polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE) and starch gel electrophoresis (SGE) to differentiate14 barley genotypes.Using SGE we were able to detect 29 lines while using APAGE we have detected only 22 lines. A total of 43 different alleles were deteceted and based on their combination we observed 20 hordein profiles using each method. The frequency of alleles varied from 0.51 % to 9.64 % for A-PAGE and from 1.0 % to 11.0 % for SGE. On the basis of detected alleles dendrograms were constructed using UPGMA algorithm. These dendrograms revealed genetic relations between varieties and divided collection of barley genotypes into two main groups based on A-PAGE and SGE. Both methods confirmed heterogeneity of barley varieties what allowed us to study intravarietal polymorphism.
Effects of trxS gene on protein degradation in germinating barley seeds
trxS基因对大麦发芽籽粒中蛋白质降解的影响

Li Wei,Weiwei Kong,Jun Yin,Weijie Wang,
卫丽
,孔维威,尹钧,王伟杰

生物工程学报 , 2009,
Abstract: We assessed the effects of trxS gene on changes of proteinase activity, contents of different protein fractions and SDS-PAGE profiles in germinating seeds of contrasting transgenic and nontransgenic barley variety. Proteinase activity was enhanced by 70.28% in transgenic than nontransgenic barley seeds, whereas contents of albumin, globulin, hordein and glutelin in transgenic seeds were 3.68%, 23.52%, 31.37%, and 21.04%, lower than those in nontransgenic seeds. Degradation rates of hordein and glutelin in transgenic seeds were faster than those in nontransgenic seedlings as indicated by the SDS-PAGE profiles. Our data imply that the transformation of trxS gene could promote the degradation of protein, providing theoretic basis for the use of trxS gene and barley quality breeding.
Cloning and Characterization of Three B Hordein Genes From Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon
Z.E. Pu,Y.C. Hou,X.X. Xu,Z.H. Yan
Journal of Biological Sciences , 2008,
Abstract: Three novel B hordein genes (designated as Ha1, Ha2 and Ha3) were isolated from the genomic DNA of Hordeum vulgare ssp. agriocrithon accession ZYM0834 by PCR amplification. The coding regions of Ha1, Ha2 and Ha3 were 900, 945 and 975 bp, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequences were 297, 312 and 322 amino acid residues each with a signal peptide, a central repetitive region rich in proline and glutamine and C-terminal non-repetitive domains. Seven (for Ha1 and Ha2) and eight (for Ha3) cysteine residues were found in the C-terminal domain. In order to investigate the three novel B hordein genes belong to B1 or B3 subfamily, a comparison was carried out of these genes with other known B1 and B3 type hordein genes and the phylogenetic tree was constructed. The results indicated that Ha2 and Ha3 were most similar to two B3 type hordein genes respectively and belong to the B3 sub-family. The results provide new information on the variability of B hordein genes.
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