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Protective Effects of Beta Glucan and Gliclazide on Brain Tissue and Sciatic Nerve of Diabetic Rats Induced by Streptozosin
Harun Alp,Sefer Varol,Muhammet Murat Celik,Murat Altas,Osman Evliyaoglu,Orhan Tokgoz,Mehmet Halis Tanr verdi,Ertugrul Uzar
Experimental Diabetes Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/230342
Abstract: There have not been yet enough studies about effects of beta glucan and gliclazide on oxidative stress created by streptozotocin in the brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. The aim of this paper was to investigate the antioxidant effects of gliclazide and beta glucan on oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation created by streptozotosin in brain and sciatic nerve. Total of 42 rats were divided into 6 groups including control, diabetic untreated (DM) (only STZ, diabetic), STZ (DM) 
Immobilization of a-Amylase from Locale Bacteria Isolate Bacillus subtilis ITBCCB148 with Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CM-Cellulose)
Yandri Yandri,Devi Susanti,Tati Suhartati,Sutopo Hadi
Modern Applied Science , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v6n3p81
Abstract: This paper describes the stability increase of a-amylase obtained from Bacillus subtilis ITBCCB 148 by immobilization process using carboxymethyl cellulose (CM-Cellulose) as the immobile matrix. To achieve this aim the enzyme was purified by the following steps: fractionation with ammonium sulphate, dialysis, ion exchange column chromatography with CM-cellulose and molecule filtration column chromatography with Sephadex G-100. The purified enzyme was then immobilized with CM-Cellulose. The result showed that the immobilization with CM-cellulose on a-amylase obtained from B. subtilis has successfully increased the thermal stability of the native enzyme. The thermal stabilities of the modified enzyme were increased 3.67 times compared to the native enzyme. The decrease of ki value, the increase of half-life and ?Gi values showed that the modified enzymes were more stable than the native enzyme.
Consumption of Fish Products across the Lifespan and Prostate Cancer Risk  [PDF]
Johanna E. Torfadottir, Unnur A. Valdimarsdottir, Lorelei A. Mucci, Julie L. Kasperzyk, Katja Fall, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Thor Aspelund, Orn Olafsson, Tamara B. Harris, Eirikur Jonsson, Hrafn Tulinius, Vilmundur Gudnason, Hans-Olov Adami, Meir Stampfer, Laufey Steingrimsdottir
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059799
Abstract: Objective To examine whether fish and fish oil consumption across the lifespan is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Design The study was nested among 2268 men aged 67–96 years in the AGES-Reykjavik cohort study. In 2002 to 2006, dietary habits were assessed, for early life, midlife and later life using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Participants were followed for prostate cancer diagnosis and mortality through 2009 via linkage to nationwide cancer- and mortality registers. Adjusting for potential confounders, we used regression models to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) for prostate cancer according to fish and fish oil consumption. Results Among the 2268 men, we ascertained 214 prevalent and 133 incident prostate cancer cases, of which 63 had advanced disease. High fish consumption in early- and midlife was not associated with overall or advanced prostate cancer. High intake of salted or smoked fish was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of advanced prostate cancer both in early life (95% CI: 1.08, 3.62) and in later life (95% CI: 1.04, 5.00). Men consuming fish oil in later life had a lower risk of advanced prostate cancer [HR (95%CI): 0.43 (0.19, 0.95)], no association was found for early life or midlife consumption. Conclusions Salted or smoked fish may increase risk of advanced prostate cancer, whereas fish oil consumption may be protective against progression of prostate cancer in elderly men. In a setting with very high fish consumption, no association was found between overall fish consumption in early or midlife and prostate cancer risk.
Human Prostate Cancer Cells Secrete Neuro-Protective Factors in Response to Cryotherapy  [cached]
Seema Gupta,Mini Varghese,Mohammed M. Shareef,Mansoor M. Ahmed
Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology , 2009,
Abstract: Cryoablation is one of the established treatment modalities for prostate cancer management. Although, it is target specific, it may still lead to damage to the nerve fibers around the prostate tumor. In this study, by directly exposing the co-cultures of prostate cancer cells, PC-3 and Schwann cell-Dorsal Root Ganglion neuron (SC-DRG) to cryo-shock and by exposing SC-DRG to cryo-shock conditioned media (CSCM) obtained from PC-3 cells, robust neuro-protective effects were observed. Since this neuro-protective effect originated from cryotherapy-treated PC-3 cells, the presence of putative factors secreted by PC-3 cells in the medium following cryo-shock was analyzed. Using human cytokine antibody array analysis, differential release of cytokines in CSCM was observed with induced release of cytokines involved in neuro-protection like IL-1α, MIP-4, MI P-5, Leptin, IL-15 and ICAM-1 with simultaneous inhibition of TNFRI and TNFRII that are implicated in killing of nerve cells. Further, using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight (MALDI-TOF) sequencing, two proteins were identified namely, CypA (cyclophilin A) and NM23 (nonmetastatic protein 23) in the CSCM. CypA functions as a mediator of intracellular as well as extracellular neuro-protective mechanisms and NM23 has been implicated as a potential suppressor protein of tumor metastasis. Thus, this study revealed the presence of factors in CSCM that has the potential to protect normal neuronal cells and suppress metastasis.
The protective effect of soybean phytochemicals on androgen responsive human prostate cancer cells LNCaP is likely mediated through modulation of hormone/cytokine-dependent pathways
Thomas T.Y. Wang,Stephen M. Boue,Hari B. Krishnan
Functional Foods in Health and Disease , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Population studies suggested that consumption of a soy rich diet provides protective effects against several chronic diseases, including prostate cancer. However, the active components in soy as well as the mechanisms of action of soy’s protective effects remain unclear. It would be important to elucidate these questions to support the use of soy in the prevention of chronic disease.Methods: A cell culture model and molecular techniques were used as tools to identify a molecular signature induced by soy-derived phytochemicals.Results: Soy phytochemicals inhibit growth of androgen responsive prostate cancer cells. Global gene expression analysis using DNA microarray and real time PCR analysis identified multiple pathways affected by the soy-derived phytochemicals genistein, daidzein, equol, and glyceollins in the androgen responsive human prostate cancer cell LNCaP. These pathways included androgen receptor-dependent pathways, insulin-like growth factors pathways, and cell cyclerelated pathways. Soy-derived phytochemicals modulated these pathways in a concentrationdependent fashion. Conclusion: Taking into consideration the physiological achievable concentration of diet-derived soy phytochemicals, we propose the concentration-dependent cancer protective effect is likely mediated through modulation of hormone/cytokine-dependent pathways.
Efficacy of inactivated Streptococcus iniae vaccine and protective effect of -(1,3/1,6)–glucan on the effectiveness of vaccine in red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus  [PDF]
Naraid Suanyuk,Akkarawit Itsaro
Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Streptococcus iniae infections are becoming an increasing problem in aquaculture and have been reported worldwidein a variety of fish species. Our previous study showed that S. iniae infection in tilapia Oreochromis sp. and Asian sea bassLates calcarifer cause serious damage in fish farm in Thailand. To prevent streptococcosis caused by S. iniae, a formalinkilledvaccine was applied in red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus by injection, immersion and oral vaccination.At 1 week post vaccination, levels of antibody titer and some blood parameters response to different routes of administrationwere significantly different. The best disease resistance was found in the group injected with vaccine plus -(1,3/1,6)–glucan with the relative percent survival (RPS) of 95.12% followed by pure vaccine injection (RPS = 80.49%), immersion(RPS = 41.46%) and oral vaccination (RPS = 9.75%).No difference in blood parameters of tilapia after vaccination for 4 weeks was observed. However, antibody titer ofthe group received vaccine plus -(1,3/1,6)–glucan and vaccine alone were significantly higher than the other groups. RPS offish at week 4 post vaccination showed the same trend as the highest disease resistance recorded in the group injected withvaccine plus -(1,3/1,6)–glucan (RPS=76.00%) which significantly differ from vaccine alone (RPS=54.00%). Immersion andoral vaccination showed less effect on disease protection at week 4 post vaccination. The result from the present studyindicated that formalin-killed S. iniae vaccine provided excellent efficacy against S. iniae infection in tilapia by intrapertonealinjection and -(1,3/1,6)–glucan increased the effectiveness of vaccine produced from S. iniae.
Oral beta-glucan adjuvant therapy converts nonprotective Th2 response to protective Th1 cell-mediated immune response in mammary tumor-bearing mice.  [cached]
Jarek Baran,Daniel J Allendorf,Feng Hong,Gordon D Ross
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica , 2007, DOI: 10.5603/4540
Abstract: Beta (1-3)-D-glucans were identified almost 40 years ago as biological response modifiers that stimulated tumor rejection. In vitro studies have shown that beta-glucans bind to a lectin domain within complement receptor type 3 (CR3), or to, more recently described dectin-1 a beta-glucan specific receptor, acting mainly on phagocytic cells. In this study, we assessed the intracellular cytokine profiles of peripheral blood lymphocytes from mice bearing mammary tumors receiving i.v. anti-tumor mAbs combined or not with whole glucan particle suspension given orally (WGP, 400 microg every 24 hours). The proportions of T cells producing IL-4 and IFNgamma were determined by flow cytometry. The proportion of T cells producing IL-4 was significantly higher in tumor-bearing mice not receiving beta-glucan-enhanced therapy. Conversely, T cells from mice undergoing beta-glucan-enhanced therapy showed increased production of the Th1 cytokine IFNgamma. The switch from a Th2 to a Th1 response after WGP therapy was possibly mediated by intestinal mucosal macrophages releasing IL-12.
Clinical Investigation of the Role of Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 in the Evolution of Prostate Cancer  [PDF]
Robert Goldstein,Charles Hanley,Jonathan Morris,Declan Cahill,Ashish Chandra,Peter Harper,Simon Chowdhury,John Maher,Sophie Burbridge
Cancers , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/cancers3044281
Abstract: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men, both in the USA and Europe. Although incurable, metastatic disease can often be controlled for years with anti-androgen therapy. Once the disease becomes castrate resistant, the median survival is 18 months. There is growing evidence that the immune system, and in particular cytokines, play an important role in prostate cancer immunosurveillance and progression. Here, we have undertaken a clinical investigation of the role of two closely related cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13 in prostate cancer. In the largest series studied to date, we show that serum IL-4, but not IL-13 is significantly elevated in castrate resistant, compared to androgen sensitive disease. Notably however, serum IL-4 levels are also raised in patients with benign prostatic disease. Analysis of benign and malignant prostate tissue demonstrates that the source of IL-4 is epithelial cells rather than infiltrating leukocytes. Together, our data are consistent with a dual role for IL-4 in prostate cancer development. In benign disease, our data add to the evidence that IL-4 serves a protective role. By contrast, the data support a direct role for IL-4 in the progression of prostate cancer from androgen responsive, to advanced castrate-resistant disease.
Protection by Anti-β-Glucan Antibodies Is Associated with Restricted β-1,3 Glucan Binding Specificity and Inhibition of Fungal Growth and Adherence  [PDF]
Antonella Torosantucci, Paola Chiani, Carla Bromuro, Flavia De Bernardis, Angelina S. Palma, Yan Liu, Giuseppina Mignogna, Bruno Maras, Marisa Colone, Annarita Stringaro, Silvia Zamboni, Ten Feizi, Antonio Cassone
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005392
Abstract: Anti-β-glucan antibodies elicited by a laminarin-conjugate vaccine confer cross-protection to mice challenged with major fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cryptococcus neoformans. To gain insights into protective β-glucan epitope(s) and protection mechanisms, we studied two anti-β-glucan monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with identical complementarity-determining regions but different isotypes (mAb 2G8, IgG2b and mAb 1E12, IgM). C. albicans, the most relevant fungal pathogen for humans, was used as a model. Both mAbs bound to fungal cell surface and to the β1,3-β1,6 glucan of the fungal cell wall skeleton, as shown by immunofluorescence, electron-microscopy and ELISA. They were also equally unable to opsonize fungal cells in a J774 macrophage phagocytosis and killing assay. However, only the IgG2b conferred substantial protection against mucosal and systemic candidiasis in passive vaccination experiments in rodents. Competition ELISA and microarray analyses using sequence-defined glucan oligosaccharides showed that the protective IgG2b selectively bound to β1,3-linked (laminarin-like) glucose sequences whereas the non-protective IgM bound to β1,6- and β1,4-linked glucose sequences in addition to β1,3-linked ones. Only the protective IgG2b recognized heterogeneous, polydisperse high molecular weight cell wall and secretory components of the fungus, two of which were identified as the GPI-anchored cell wall proteins Als3 and Hyr1. In addition, only the IgG2b inhibited in vitro two critical virulence attributes of the fungus, hyphal growth and adherence to human epithelial cells. Our study demonstrates that the isotype of anti-β-glucan antibodies may affect details of the β-glucan epitopes recognized, and this may be associated with a differing ability to inhibit virulence attributes of the fungus and confer protection in vivo. Our data also suggest that the anti-virulence properties of the IgG2b mAb may be linked to its capacity to recognize β-glucan epitope(s) on some cell wall components that exert critical functions in fungal cell wall structure and adherence to host cells.
Antioxidant Activity of β-Glucan  [PDF]
Kyoko Kofuji,Ayumi Aoki,Kazufumi Tsubaki,Masanori Konishi,Takashi Isobe,Yoshifumi Murata
ISRN Pharmaceutics , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/125864
Abstract: β-Glucans extracted from barley, which mainly contains β-(1,3-1,4)-D-glucan, are used extensively as supplements and food additives due to their wide biologic activities, including a reduction in blood lipid level. In this study, the antioxidant activity of β-glucan was examined to assess potential new benefits associated with β-glucan, because oxidative stress is considered one of the primary causal factors for various diseases and aging. β-Glucan extracted from barley was found to possess significant antioxidant activity. The amount of antioxidant activity was influenced by different physiologic properties (e.g., structure and molecular size) of β-glucan, which varied depending on the source and extraction method used. The antioxidant activity of β-glucan was significantly higher than that of various polymers that are used as food additives. These results indicate that β-glucan has promise as a polymeric excipient for supplement and food additive with antioxidant and other benefits, which may contribute to enhancing health and beauty. 1. Introduction β-Glucan is a polysaccharide comprised of β-linked D-glucose molecules. Various β-glucans have been extracted from various sources such as fungi, baker’s yeast, barley, oats, and seaweed. The physicochemical properties of β-glucans differ depending on characteristics of their primary structure, including linkage type, degree of branching, molecular weight, and conformation (e.g., triple helix, single helix, and random coil structures) [1, 2]. β-Glucans extracted from barley, which mainly contains β-(1,3-1,4)-D-glucan, have been demonstrated to reduce blood lipid levels, including cholesterol and triglyceride levels [3–5]. The mechanisms by which β-glucans reduce blood lipid levels have been shown to include prevention of cholesterol reabsorption by adsorption, elimination of bile acid by adsorption, an increase in bile acid synthesis, and suppression of hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis by short-chain fatty acids produced by fermentation with intestinal bacteria [6–8]. Claims that barley products reduce the danger of coronary heart disease have been endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration of the United States [9]. In addition, β-glucans extracted from barley have also been reported to possess various other biologic activities, for example, reducing blood glucose level, enhancing insulin response [10], protecting against stress ulcers [11], and restraining allergic reactions [12]. Furthermore, β-glucans extracted from barley have been used in health products as a diet food, because glucan is a dietary
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