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URINARY TRACT BACTERIAL PATHOGENS
Naeem Akhtar
The Professional Medical Journal , 2000,
Abstract: From November 1993 to March 1996, a total of 1154 urine specimens of patients from in-patient and outpatientdepartments of Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur were cultured on McConkey and blood agarplates to determine the incidence of urinary tract infection, the prevalent aetiological microorganisms andtheir antimicrobial susceptibility. Among these 470 specimens (40.7%) showed significant bacteriuria (105or more cfu/ml). Out of 804 male patients 340 (42.2%) and out of 350 female patients 130 (37.2%) hadsignificant bacteriuria. The commonest organism isolated was Escherichia coli (5 8.9%), followed byPseudomonas aeruginosa (17.5 %), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%), Proteussp. (5.1) and Citrobacter sp. (0.4%). The predominant organisms in males were Pseudomonas aeruginosaand Proteus sp., while in females Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were predominant. Thebacterial isolate showed greater resistance to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim and doxycycline.However, the organisms showed good sensitivity (62.4-81.3%) to gentamicin, tobramicin, pipemidic acid,norfloxacin. ciprofloxacin and enoxacin. The organisms were relatively less sensitive to cefoperzone,ceftazidime and ceftizoxime. Peudomonas aeruginosa showed good sensitivity to quinolones andaminoglycosides and decreased sensitivity to third generation cephalosporin. Amoxycillin-clavulanic acidand sulbactam-ampicillin had good activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Keeping in view theantimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates, amoxycillin-clavulanic acid or pipemidic acidare suggested for empirical therapy for urinary tract infections before the bacterial culture and antibioticsensitivity result is received.
Bacterial Urinary Tract Infections in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus
O.A. Adeyeba,Y.O. Adesiji,P.O. Omosigho
International Journal of Tropical Medicine , 2012,
Abstract: Diabetic patients comprise a large proportion of our outpatient population and deserve special attention. To determine the prevalence, the clinical characteristics, risk factors, causative organisms and antimicrobial susceptibility of Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) in diabetic patients. Mid-stream urine samples were obtained from a total of 320 patients attending medical outpatient clinic, University College Hospital, Ibadan and apparently healthy volunteers from February to July 2006. Medical records were also reviewed and the patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of diabetes, Patients that were confirmed to be diabetic were included in the study. Out of 320 midstream urine samples examined, 174(54.3%) were diabetic, out of which 37(21%) had significant bacteruria, these include 23(61.9%) females and 14(38.1%) males while in 146 control healthy volunteers only 7(5%) had significant bacteruria, which accounted for 84(58%) of male and 62(42%) of female within the age range of 20-65. Escherichia coli was the predominant bacterial isolate as a causative agent of urinary tract infection in both diabetics and healthy volunteers The antibiotic sensitivity pattern showed that most islolates were sensitive to ofloxaxin, Gentamycin, Nitrofurantoin, Nalixidic acid, Cotrimaxole and Rocephine while they are resistant to tetracyclines, ampicillins, cefuroxime and ceftazidine. The complications of diabetes are of great importance both financially and in terms of mortality and morbidity, because of frequency and severity of UTI in these groups of patients it is recommended that periodic screening of diabetics patients be undertaken to permit early detection and treatment of assymptomatic bacteruria.
Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection
Dias Neto, José Anastácio;Silva, Leonardo Dias Magalh?es da;Martins, Antonio Carlos Pereira;Tiraboschi, Ricardo Brianezi;Domingos, André Luis Alonso;Suaid, Haylton Jorge;Tucci Jr, Silvio;Cologna, Adauto José;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502003001200013
Abstract: purpose: urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. it is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. objective: to determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between january and june 2003. methods: we analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 105 colony-forming units/ml) following a period of 48 hours after admission. results: half of patients were male. mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (sd), range 3 months to 88 years. gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. the most common pathogens were e. coli (26%), klebsiella sp. (15%), p. aeruginosa (15%) and enterococcus sp. (11%). the overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%), second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27%) and cefalothin (30%). it is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42%) and norfloxacin (43%). conclusion: this study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.
Prevalence and bacterial susceptibility of hospital acquired urinary tract infection  [cached]
Dias Neto José Anastácio,Silva Leonardo Dias Magalh?es da,Martins Antonio Carlos Pereira,Tiraboschi Ricardo Brianezi
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2003,
Abstract: PURPOSE: Urinary tract infection is the most common nosocomially acquired infection. It is important to know the etiology and antibiotic susceptibility infectious agents to guide the initial empirical treatment. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of bacterial strains and their antibiotic susceptibility in nosocomially acquired urinary tract infection in a university hospital between January and June 2003. METHODS: We analyzed the data of 188 patients with positive urine culture (= 10(5) colony-forming units/mL) following a period of 48 hours after admission. RESULTS: Half of patients were male. Mean age was 50.26 ± 22.7 (SD), range 3 months to 88 years. Gram-negative bacteria were the agent in approximately 80% of cases. The most common pathogens were E. coli (26%), Klebsiella sp. (15%), P. aeruginosa (15%) and Enterococcus sp. (11%). The overall bacteria susceptibility showed that the pathogens were more sensible to imipenem (83%), second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides; and were highly resistant to ampicillin (27%) and cefalothin (30%). It is important to note the low susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (42%) and norfloxacin (43%). CONCLUSION: This study suggests that if one can not wait the results of urine culture, the best choices to begin empiric treatment are imipenem, second or third generation cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Cefalothin and ampicillin are quite ineffective to treat these infections.
Increasing incidence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics by isolates from the urinary tract
UC Ozumba
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2005,
Abstract: This is a prospective study to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among organisms causing urinary tract infections in a Teaching Hospital between August 2003 and July 2004 and to compare them with an earlier study in 1993. A total of 1,104 urine samples were collected in sterile universal containers from patients attending University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital and studied. All samples showing significant bacteriuna were studied and isolates identified using standard bacteriogical methods. Antibiotic sensitivity testing was performed on sensitivity test agar (Biotec, UK) using the disc diffusion method in accordance with the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (5). The results were compared with a previous study in 1993. A total of 336 urinary isolates were identified, with the coliforms being the most predominant (51.2%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus species (28.9% and 7.1%) respectively. Compared to the earlier study, a significant increase in the resistance of the urinary pathogens to ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was observed, however there was a decrease in the resistance to nitrofurantoin (p<0.05) using chi-square test. The results of this study should now alert doctors about the increasing possibility of treatment failures, when ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and nalidixic acid are used for the treatment of urinary tract infections without laboratory testing. A multi-faceted approach including continued and improved surveillance, a reduction in the unnecessary use of antibiotics and infection control are necessary.
Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from urinary tract infections at Felge Hiwot Referral Hospital, Ethiopia
F Biadglegne, B Abera
Ethiopian Journal of Health Development , 2009,
Abstract: Urinary tract infections are common health problems and vary according to geography and regions. A retrospective analysis was conducted to determine the antimicrobial resistance of bacterial isolates from urine at Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital from September 2003 to June 2008. From 529 urine specimens, bacterial isolates were found in 160 [(30.2%) (95% CI: 26.3-34.1%)]. Of these, 116 (72.5%) of the isolates were gram negatives. Single and multiple drug resistance to the commonly used antibiotics were high among bacterial isolates in the area. Thus, rational use of drugs should be practiced.
Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility
Dias Neto, José Anastácio;Martins, Antonio Carlos Pereira;Silva, Leonardo Dias Magalh?es da;Tiraboschi, Ricardo Brianezi;Domingos, André Luis Alonso;Cologna, Adauto José;Paschoalin, Edson Luis;Tucci Jr, Silvio;
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-86502003001200012
Abstract: purpose: urinary tract infections (uti) are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. uti account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. objective: the aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired uti diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. methods: we analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. results: the mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (sd) years. there were 242 (60.2%) females and 160 (39.8%) males. the most commonly isolated organism was escherichia coli (58%). klebsiella sp. (8.4%) and enterococcus sp.(7.9%) were reported as the next most common organisms. of all bacteria isolated from community acquired uti, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. the highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%), ceftriaxone (90%), amikacin (90%), gentamicin (88%), levofloxacin (86%), ciprofloxacin (73%), nitrofurantoin (77%) and norfloxacin (75%). conclusion: gram-negative agents are the most common cause of uti. fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. for severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.
Community acquired urinary tract infection: etiology and bacterial susceptibility  [cached]
Dias Neto José Anastácio,Martins Antonio Carlos Pereira,Silva Leonardo Dias Magalh?es da,Tiraboschi Ricardo Brianezi
Acta Cirurgica Brasileira , 2003,
Abstract: PURPOSE: Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common infectious diseases diagnosed. UTI account for a large proportion of antibacterial drug consumption and have large socio-economic impacts. Since the majority of the treatments begins or is done completely empirically, the knowledge of the organisms, their epidemiological characteristics and their antibacterial susceptibility that may vary with time is mandatory. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of uropathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility of the community acquired UTI diagnosed in our institution and to provide a national data. METHODS: We analyzed retrospectively the results of urine cultures of 402 patients that had community acquired urinary tract infection in the year of 2003. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in this study was 45.34 ± 23.56 (SD) years. There were 242 (60.2%) females and 160 (39.8%) males. The most commonly isolated organism was Escherichia coli (58%). Klebsiella sp. (8.4%) and Enterococcus sp.(7.9%) were reported as the next most common organisms. Of all bacteria isolated from community acquired UTI, only 37% were sensitive to ampicillin, 51% to cefalothin and 52% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. The highest levels of susceptibility were to imipenem (96%), ceftriaxone (90%), amikacin (90%), gentamicin (88%), levofloxacin (86%), ciprofloxacin (73%), nitrofurantoin (77%) and norfloxacin (75%). CONCLUSION: Gram-negative agents are the most common cause of UTI. Fluoroquinolones remains the choice among the orally administered antibiotics, followed by nitrofurantoin, second and third generation cephalosporins. For severe disease that require parenteral antibiotics the choice should be aminoglycosides, third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones or imipenem, which were the most effective.
Bacterial Uropathogens in Urinary Tract Infection and Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia
G Beyene, W Tsegaye
Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by clinicians in developing countries. Area-specific monitoring studies aimed to gain knowledge about the type of pathogens responsible for urinary tract infections and their resistance patterns may help the clinician to choose the correct empirical treatment. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the type and antibiotic resistance pattern of the urinary pathogens isolated from patients attending Jimma University Specialized Hospital from April to June 2010. METHODS: A hospital based cross sectional stud was onducted and urine samples were collected using the mid-stream "clean catch" method from 228 clinically-suspected cases of urinary tract infections and tested bacteriologically using standard procedures. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. RESULTS: - Significant bacteria were detected from 9.2% of the total patients. The most common pathogens isolated were Escherichia coli (33.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (19%) and S. saprophyticus (14.3%). E. coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the highest percentage of resistance to ampicillin and amoxacillin (100%) however, all isolates of E. coli and K. pneumoniae were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. S. saprophyticus and S. aureus were resistant to ampicillin (100%) and amoxicillin (66.7%). For all UTI isolates, least resistance was observed against drugs such as ceftriaxone, gentamycin and chloramphenicol. CONCLUSION: - This study finding showed that E. coli isolates were the predominant pathogens and the presence of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs that in turn leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. As drug resistance among bacterial pathogens is an evolving process, routine surveillance and monitoring studies should be conducted to provide physicians knowledge on the updated and most effective empirical treatment of UTIs. KEYWORDS: Urinary tract infection, antimicrobial resistance, Jimma, Ethiopia
Bacterial Isolates from Urinary Tract Infection in Dogs in Grenada, and Their Antibiotic Susceptibility  [PDF]
Harry Hariharan, Erica Brathwaite-Sylvester, Vanessa Matthew Belmar, Ravindra Sharma
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2016.66010
Abstract: Of 52 culture positive urine samples from dogs in Grenada for six years (2004 through 2009) 65.5% of isolates were Gram-negative bacteria, with E. coli as the predominant species, followed by Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Other Gram-negative isolates included Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter anitratus, and Serratia plymuthica. Among the Gram-positive isolates, Staphylococcus intermedius was the most common species, followed by S. aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci, and enterococci. Sensitivity results obtained with 6 antibiotics showed least resistance to enrofloxacin, the rate being 19% for all isolates together. More than two-thirds of isolates were resistant to tetracycline. For Gram-positive isolates, resistance to cephalothin was even less than that against enrofloxacin, with a rate of only 13%. Overall resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was 36%. The most common drug used for treatment of urinary tract infections in Grenada has been amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, followed by enrofloxacin.
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