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Annular bone growth in phalanges of five Neotropical Harlequin Frogs (Anura: Bufonidae: Atelopus)
Erik Lindquist,Michael Redmer,Emily Brantner
Phyllomedusa : Journal of Herpetology , 2012,
Abstract: Skeletochronological studies were conducted on museum specimensrepresenting five species of the highly threatened Neotropical genus Atelopus (Bufonidae). We detected annular bone growth (expressed as lines of arrested growth [LAGs]) patterns in each species, and this might provide insight to understand demographic constituency infuture studies. In four of the five species under consideration, LAG counts in fore and hind limb bone occurred in a 1:1 ratio, indicating that bone growth was consistent within each individual. The use of skeletochronology in understanding historic and existing populations of Atelopus might assist in situ and ex situ population managers in making informed strategic conservation plans.
REGISTROS ADICIONALES DE ATELOPUS NAHUMAE Y ATELOPUS LAETISSIMUS PARA LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA
Carvajalino-Fernández,Juan M.; Cuadrado-Pe?a,Borish; Ramírez-Pinilla,Martha P.;
Actualidades Biológicas , 2008,
Abstract: new additional observations of atelopus nahumae and atelopus laetissimus are reported from a locality belonging to the sierra nevada de santa marta (magdalena), colombia; and their ecosystem is characterized. the species are endemic of this area and were listed as critically endangered due to their ecological vulnerability and the absence of verifiable records since 1992. we searched for frogs during the day by visual encounters on a transect 3 x 700 m and obtained data regarding density, activity, and morphometrics of the observed frogs. additionally, the area was explored to gather environmental data and obtain botanic samples. four species of frogs were found (two species each of the genera pristimantis and atelopus) of which 26 individuals were of atelopus nahumae and 12 of atelopus laetissimus. we obtained photographic and audiovisual recordings of atelopus species including calling and amplexus behaviors; both juveniles and apparently healthy adults were observed. the ecosystem is a secondary forest in recuperation, with a closed and continuous canopy with arboreal elements of high strata (25 m), being licania cuspidata (chrysobalanaceae) the most abundant species (38 ind/0.1 ha). in the area there are also plantations of pinus species; however, atelopus individuals were exclusively found in the secondary forest and close to the creek, only pristimantis megalops individuals were found inside the pine forest. this report summarizes the current survival of these populations.
REGISTROS ADICIONALES DE ATELOPUS NAHUMAE Y ATELOPUS LAETISSIMUS PARA LA SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA ADDITIONAL RECORDS OF ATELOPUS NAHUMAE AND ATELOPUS LAETISSIMUS FROM SIERRA NEVADA DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA
Juan M. Carvajalino-Fernández,Borish Cuadrado-Pe?a,Martha P. Ramírez-Pinilla
Actualidades Biológicas , 2008,
Abstract: Se presentan registros adicionales de Atelopus nahumae y Atelopus laetissimus en la Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Magdalena), Colombia, y una caracterización actual de su ecosistema. Las especies son endémicas del macizo monta oso y están clasificadas en Peligro Crítico de extinción por su vulnerabilidad ecológica y por la ausencia de registros verificables desde 1992. Mediante registro visual diurno y en un transecto de 3 x 700 m se tomaron datos de densidad, actividad y datos morfométricos de las ranas presentes, además se realizó una exploración del área tomando muestras florísticas y datos ambientales. Se encontraron cuatro especies de ranas (dos de cada uno de los géneros Pristimantis y Atelopus) de las cuales 26 especímenes son de Atelopus nahumae y 12 de Atelopus laetissimus. De las especies de Atelopus se tienen registros fotográficos y audiovisuales con vocalizaciones, amplexos y organismos aparentemente sanos juveniles y adultos. El ecosistema es un bosque secundario en recuperación, de dosel cerrado y continuo con elementos arbóreos de estratos altos (25 m), siendo Licania cuspidata (Chrysobalanaceae) la especie más abundante (38 ind/0,1 ha); también se encuentran plantaciones de especies del género Pinus. Los Atelopus se encontraron exclusivamente en el bosque secundario y el sector de la quebrada, mientras Pristimantis megalops se encontró también en el bosque de pinos. Este reporte permite evidenciar la supervivencia actual de estas poblaciones. New additional observations of Atelopus nahumae and Atelopus laetissimus are reported from a locality belonging to the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Magdalena), Colombia; and their ecosystem is characterized. The species are endemic of this area and were listed as Critically Endangered due to their ecological vulnerability and the absence of verifiable records since 1992. We searched for frogs during the day by visual encounters on a transect 3 x 700 m and obtained data regarding density, activity, and morphometrics of the observed frogs. Additionally, the area was explored to gather environmental data and obtain botanic samples. Four species of frogs were found (two species each of the genera Pristimantis and Atelopus) of which 26 individuals were of Atelopus nahumae and 12 of Atelopus laetissimus. We obtained photographic and audiovisual recordings of Atelopus species including calling and amplexus behaviors; both juveniles and apparently healthy adults were observed. The ecosystem is a secondary forest in recuperation, with a closed and continuous canopy with arboreal elements of high strata (25
The tadpole of Atelopus pulcher Boulenger (Annura, Bufonidae) from Manaus, Amazonas
Gascon, Claude;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81751989000200007
Abstract: the tadpole of atelopus pulcher is described for the first time. tadpoles of this species were encountered in large streams where reproduction occurs. tadpoles of this species conform to the genus characteristics in exhibiting an enlarged ventral disc and a 2/3 tooth row formula. one characteristic, however, distinguishes this species from other atelopodids in that the upper beak is shorter than the lower beak.
An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae) from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica
Savage,Jay M; Bola?os,Federico;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: a distinctive new species of atelopus is described from parque nacional chirripó grande, cordillera de talamanca (3 400-3 500 m). it closely resembles populations of the atelopus ignescens complex from the andes of northern ecuador and southern colombia. it differs most significantly from these frogs in the pattern of spiculae and coni development on the throat, chest, hands and feet. the costa rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1 600 km. rev. biol. trop. 57 (1-2): 381-386. epub 2009 june 30.
Bomolochus xenomelanirisi n. sp. parasito de Peixe-Rei: Xenomelaniris brasiliensis (Quoy & Gaimard) (Copepoda - Cyclopoida - Pisces - Mugiloidei)
Carvalho, J. de Paiva;
Boletim do Instituto Oceanográfico , 1955, DOI: 10.1590/S0373-55241955000100004
Abstract: this work deals with bomolochus xenomelanirisi n.sp. - copepoda cyclopoida - that was found as parasite on xenomelaniris brasiliensis (quoy & gaimard), a fish inhabiting the south seashore region of s?o paulo state (brazil). on examining 100 fishes, the author found 30 ♀ ♀ and 14 ♂ ♂ , all of which were attached to the internal portion of the posterior region of the opérele. the new species here described is related to bomolochus nitidus and b.exilipes, both described by wilson, but differs from them by the shape of the maxilliped, by the greater number of setae of the first maxilla, by the lenght of the second antennae, by the strongest armature of the first antennae and by the shape and number of the eggs contained in the ovigerous sacs. the author describes male and female, illustrating the descriptions with 21 drawings. some ecological notes are presented. the author is indebted to the national research council (conselho nacional de pesquisas) of rio de janeiro, for a grant in aid, for which thanks are due.
Surviving Chytridiomycosis: Differential Anti-Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Activity in Bacterial Isolates from Three Lowland Species of Atelopus  [PDF]
Sandra V. Flechas, Carolina Sarmiento, Martha E. Cárdenas, Edgar M. Medina, Silvia Restrepo, Adolfo Amézquita
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0044832
Abstract: In the Neotropics, almost every species of the stream-dwelling harlequin toads (genus Atelopus) have experienced catastrophic declines. The persistence of lowland species of Atelopus could be explained by the lower growth rate of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) at temperatures above 25°C. We tested the complementary hypothesis that the toads' skin bacterial microbiota acts as a protective barrier against the pathogen, perhaps delaying or impeding the symptomatic phase of chytridiomycosis. We isolated 148 cultivable bacterial strains from three lowland Atelopus species and quantified the anti-Bd activity through antagonism assays. Twenty-six percent (38 strains representing 12 species) of the bacteria inhibited Bd growth and just two of them were shared among the toad species sampled in different localities. Interestingly, the strongest anti-Bd activity was measured in bacteria isolated from A. elegans, the only species that tested positive for the pathogen. The cutaneous bacterial microbiota is thus likely a fitness-enhancing trait that may (adaptation) or not (exaptation) have appeared because of natural selection mediated by chytridiomycosis. Our findings reveal bacterial strains for development of local probiotic treatments against chytridiomycosis and also shed light on the mechanisms behind the frog-bacteria-pathogen interaction.
Evaluating Group Housing Strategies for the Ex-Situ Conservation of Harlequin Frogs (Atelopus spp.) Using Behavioral and Physiological Indicators  [PDF]
Shawna J. Cikanek, Simon Nockold, Janine L. Brown, James W. Carpenter, Angie Estrada, Jorge Guerrel, Katharine Hope, Roberto Ibá?ez, Sarah B. Putman, Brian Gratwicke
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090218
Abstract: We have established ex situ assurance colonies of two endangered Panamanian harlequin frogs, Atelopus certus and Atelopus glyphus, but observed that males fought with each other when housed as a group. Housing frogs individually eliminated this problem, but created space constraints. To evaluate the potential stress effects from aggressive interactions when grouping frogs, we housed male frogs in replicated groups of one, two, and eight. We measured aggressive behavioral interactions and fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (GC) concentrations as indicators of stress in each tank. In both small and large groups, frogs initially interacted aggressively, but aggressive interactions and fecal GCs declined significantly after the first 2 weeks of being housed together, reaching the lowest levels by week 4. We conclude that aggressive interactions in same-sex groups of captive Atelopus may initially cause stress, but the frogs become habituated within a few weeks and they can safely be housed in same-sex groups for longer periods of time.
An enigmatic frog of the genus Atelopus (Family Bufonidae) from Parque Nacional Chirripó, Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica
Jay M Savage,Federico Bola?os
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2009,
Abstract: A distinctive new species of Atelopus is described from Parque Nacional Chirripó Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3 400-3 500 m). It closely resembles populations of the Atelopus ignescens complex from the Andes of northern Ecuador and southern Colombia. it differs most significantly from these frogs in the pattern of spiculae and coni development on the throat, chest, hands and feet. The Costa Rican species appears to be an outlier of the complex inexplicably separated geographically from its nearest allies by an over land distance of about 1 600 km. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2): 381-386. Epub 2009 June 30. Se describe una nueva especie de Atelopus del Parque Nacional Chirripó Grande, Cordillera de Talamanca (3 400-3 500 m sobre el nivel del mar). Se parece a poblaciones del complejo de Atelopus ignescens de los Andes del norte de Ecuador y del sur de Colombia. Principalmente difiere de estas ranas en el patrón de desarrollo de espículas y conos en la garganta, pecho, manos y pies. La especie de Costa Rica es atípica dentro del complejo por estar inexplicablemente separada geográficamente de sus más cercanos representantes por una distancia aproximada de 1 600 km por tierra.
Nematóides parasitos de Gryllotalpoidea (Orthoptera) do Brasil
Kloss, G. R.;
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz , 1959, DOI: 10.1590/S0074-02761959000200003
Abstract: êste trabalho abrange t?das as espécies de nematóides parasitos de gryllotalpoidea do brasil, examinados até a presente data. na introduca??o é apresentada a classifica??o geral dêsse grupo, baseada na genitália dos parasitos. na conclus?o a autora chama a aten??o para a ampla distribui??o geográfica dêsses nematóides que, em continentes diversos, parasitam espécies diferentes de hospedeiros. no final do trabalhao é dada a lista de todos os nematóides de gryllotalpoidea fichados na cole??o helmintológica do instituto oswaldo cruz.
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