oalib
Search Results: 1 - 10 of 100 matches for " "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item
Plant biotechnology and food security in Latin America and the Caribbean
de la Riva,Gustavo A.;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2000,
Abstract: agriculture is expected to feed an increasing population, forecasted to reach 8 billion by 2020, out of whom 6.7 billion will be in developing countries where the carrying capacity of agricultural lands will soon be reached. in latin american and the caribbean (lac) countries, in spite of the abundance of natural resources and continued investments in development, poverty and food insecurity affect more than 55 percent of the rural population. fifteen years ago, plant biotechnology comprised only a few applications of tissue culture, recombinant dna technology and monoclonal antibodies. today, genetic transformation, and marker-aided selection and breeding are just a few of the examples of the applications in crop improvement with profound implications for the lac region. plant biotechnology applications must respond to increasing demands in terms of food security, socio-economic development and promote the conservation, diversification and sustainable use of plant genetic resources as basic inputs for the future agriculture of the region. food security is defined by fao as the access by all people at all times to the food needed for a healthy and active life. the concept means the achievement of the food self-sufficiency, and guarantees that this condition will be sustained in the future. food security implies reaching productive growth and the preservation of the environment. malnutrition affects 15% the population in mexico, central america and the caribbean and 13% of the population in south america, while the region represents nearly 23% of the arable lands and 12% of the world cultivated areas. plant biotechnology offers several possibilities for increasing productivity, diversification and production, while developing a more sustainable agriculture. it includes biopesticide production, plant tissue culture techniques, and the use of advanced molecular biology techniques for plant transformation, genomic analysis coupled with breeding and plant-disease diagnos
Strategic approaches to informing the public about biotechnology in Latin America
Traynor,Patricia L; Adonis,Marta; Gil,Lionel;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: abstract reprint (pdf) the benefits of today's biotechnology products are not evident to consumers. the public will accept biotechnology only when individuals decide for themselves that biotec products will contribute to their personal well-being. to make such a decision, people will need greater awareness and understanding of how biotechnology will affect the environment, human health, local and national economies, and the well-being of society. a low level of awareness and understanding about biotechnology is characteristic of latin america and the caribbean countries, as elsewhere, efforts to remedy poor public perception often seem inadequate and do not reflect a well-designed strategy. in order to improve the understanding of the biotechnology and their human applications, a strategic plan for public communications is required. specific objectives for this initiative may include: (1) to make evident to decision makers that modern biotechnology can be an effective tool for increasing agricultural productivity, and thereby economic growth, without imposing unacceptable risk to the environment or human and animal health; (2) to enable members of the public to make informed decisions about appropriate uses of biotechnology by providing accurate information about benefits, risks and impacts; or (3) to incorporate modern biotechnology into science curricula for secondary schools, university and college students, and agriculture extension officers. a variety of specialized expertise, including communication specialists, technical writers, graphic artists and illustrators to design information materials and conduct training is needed to implement this. ideally, members bring expertise in biotechnology and biosafety, public communications and project management. the plan will need to identify scientists and technical experts who can provide expertise in science writing for general audiences, advertising, graphic arts, public opinion polling and media communications. the
The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean
Barceló,Alberto; Aedo,Cristian; Rajpathak,Swapnil; Robles,Sylvia;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862003000100006
Abstract: objetive: to measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in latin america and the caribbean. methods: prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. the human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. a 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. findings: the annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339 035. this represented a loss of 757 096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (us$ 3 billion). permanent disability caused a loss of 12 699 087 years and over us$ 50 billion, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136 701 years in the working population and over us$ 763 million. costs associated with insulin and oral medications were us$ 4720 million, hospitalizations us$ 1012 million, consultations us$ 2508 million and care for complications us$ 2 480 million. the total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as us$ 65 216 million (direct us$ 10 721; indirect us$ 54 496). conclusion: despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to latin american and the caribbean as whole.
Breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean
Robles,Sylvia C; Galanis,Eleni;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49892002000300007
Abstract: as recently as two decades ago breast cancer was not a significant public health concern in latin america and the caribbean (lac). however, mortality rates from breast cancer have been increasing for at least 40 years in most lac countries. socioeconomic development and consequent changes in reproductive behaviors over the past 50 years are thought to have contributed to the increased risk of breast cancer. socioeconomic development has also increased women's health awareness and therefore the demand for quality services. in industrialized countries, screening and widely available, high-quality treatment protocols are being implemented as the main strategy for breast cancer control. studies show that out of three available screening methods (mammography, clinical breast examination, and breast self-examination), only mammography for women 50-69 years of age has been effective at reducing mortality, and has done so by an estimated 23%. while there is much controversy about the benefits and cost-effectiveness of mammography screening for women aged 40-49, some countries, including australia, the united states of america, and four european nations, recommend that physicians assess the need for it on an individual basis. a survey that we conducted of lac countries shows that most of their breast cancer screening policies are not justified by available scientific evidence. moreover, as seen by relatively high mortality/incidence ratios, breast cancer cases are not being adequately managed in many lac countries. before further developing screening programs, these countries need to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing appropriate treatment guidelines and providing wide access to diagnostic and treatment services. given the relevance of breast cancer in latin america and the caribbean today, it is crucial that both women and health care providers have access to up-to-date information on which to base their decisions.
Breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean  [cached]
Robles Sylvia C,Galanis Eleni
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 2002,
Abstract: As recently as two decades ago breast cancer was not a significant public health concern in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). However, mortality rates from breast cancer have been increasing for at least 40 years in most LAC countries. Socioeconomic development and consequent changes in reproductive behaviors over the past 50 years are thought to have contributed to the increased risk of breast cancer. Socioeconomic development has also increased women's health awareness and therefore the demand for quality services. In industrialized countries, screening and widely available, high-quality treatment protocols are being implemented as the main strategy for breast cancer control. Studies show that out of three available screening methods (mammography, clinical breast examination, and breast self-examination), only mammography for women 50-69 years of age has been effective at reducing mortality, and has done so by an estimated 23%. While there is much controversy about the benefits and cost-effectiveness of mammography screening for women aged 40-49, some countries, including Australia, the United States of America, and four European nations, recommend that physicians assess the need for it on an individual basis. A survey that we conducted of LAC countries shows that most of their breast cancer screening policies are not justified by available scientific evidence. Moreover, as seen by relatively high mortality/incidence ratios, breast cancer cases are not being adequately managed in many LAC countries. Before further developing screening programs, these countries need to evaluate the feasibility of designing and implementing appropriate treatment guidelines and providing wide access to diagnostic and treatment services. Given the relevance of breast cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean today, it is crucial that both women and health care providers have access to up-to-date information on which to base their decisions.
The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean  [cached]
Barceló Alberto,Aedo Cristian,Rajpathak Swapnil,Robles Sylvia
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2003,
Abstract: OBJETIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339 035. This represented a loss of 757 096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (US$ 3 billion). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12 699 087 years and over US$ 50 billion, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136 701 years in the working population and over US$ 763 million. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were US$ 4720 million, hospitalizations US$ 1012 million, consultations US$ 2508 million and care for complications US$ 2 480 million. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as US$ 65 216 million (direct US$ 10 721; indirect US$ 54 496). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole.
Managing agricultural biotechnology in Colombia
Schuler,Ingrid; Orozco,Luis Antonio;
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: the international scenario for biotechnology shows a rapid tendency at industrialized countries in the increase of publications, patents, enterprises and novel solutions for the industry, the environment, health and agriculture. nevertheless, colombia has an important delay in relation to the international scientific development and the capacity to generate wealth and services for its productive systems. this delay has been one of the concerns of the country's policy during the last years, and more precisely since 2002, when for the first time biotechnology was included in a national development plan as one of the mechanisms for competitiveness and the use of biodiversity and genetic resources. this paper is the result of a survey conducted in 2005 aimed to provide an overview of agrobiotechnology in colombia to be included in the compendium of case studies organized by the fao's regional office for latin america and the caribbean (lac) and the network for technical cooperation in agricultural biotechnology in latin america and the caribbean (redbio/fao)
Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal
Labruna,Marcelo B; Mattar V,Salim; Nava,Santiago; Bermudez,Sergio; Venzal,Jose M; Dolz,Gaby; Katia,Abarca; Romero,Luis; de Sousa,Rita; Oteo,Jose; Zavala-Castro,Jorge;
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2011,
Abstract: data on genus and infectious by rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in latin america, caribbean islands, portugal and spain. we considered all rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. in a few cases, when no direct detection of a given rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. a total of 13 rickettsia species have been recorded in latin america and the caribbean. the species with the largest number of country confirmed records were rickettsia felis (9 countries), r. prowazekii (7 countries), r. typhi (6 countries), r. rickettsii (6 countries), r. amblyommii (5 countries), and r. parkeri (4 countries). the rickettsial records for the caribbean islands (west indies) were grouped in only one geographical area. both r. bellii, r. akari, and candidatus 'r. andeane' have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas r. massiliae, r. rhipicephali, r.monteiroi, and r. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, r. africae has been recorded in nine caribbean islands). for el salvador, honduras, and nicaragua, no specific rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. the following countries remain without any rickettsial records: belize, venezuela, guyana, surinam, and paraguay. in addition, except for a few islands, many caribbean islands remain without records. a total of 12 rickettsia species have been reported in spain and portugal: r. conorii, r. helvetica, r. monacensis, r. felis, r. slovaca, r. raoultii, r. sibirica, r. aeschlimannii, r. rioja, r. massiliae, r. typhi, and r. prowazekii. amongst these rickettsia species reported in spain and portugal, only r. prowazekii, r. typhi, r. felis, and r. massiliae have also been reported in latin america. this study summarizes the current state
Rickettsioses in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal
Marcelo B. Labruna,Salim Mattar V.,Santiago Nava,Sergio Bermudez
Revista MVZ Córdoba , 2011,
Abstract: Data on genus and infectious by Rickettsia were retrospectively compiled from the critical review literature regarding all countries in Latin America, Caribbean islands, Portugal and Spain. We considered all Rickettsia records reported for human and/or animal hosts, and/or invertebrate hosts considered being the vector. In a few cases, when no direct detection of a given Rickettsia group or species was available for a given country, the serologic method was considered. A total of 13 Rickettsia species have been recorded in Latin America and the Caribbean. The species with the largest number of country confirmed records were Rickettsia felis (9 countries), R. prowazekii (7 countries), R. typhi (6 countries), R. rickettsii (6 countries), R. amblyommii (5 countries), and R. parkeri (4 countries). The rickettsial records for the Caribbean islands (West Indies) were grouped in only one geographical area. Both R. bellii, R. akari, and Candidatus ‘R. andeane’ have been recorded in only 2 countries each, whereas R. massiliae, R. rhipicephali, R.monteiroi, and R. africae have each been recorded in a single country (in this case, R. africae has been recorded in nine Caribbean Islands). For El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua, no specific Rickettsia has been reported so far, but there have been serological evidence of human or/and animal infection. The following countries remain without any rickettsial records: Belize, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, and Paraguay. In addition, except for a few islands, many Caribbean islands remain without records. A total of 12 Rickettsia species have been reported in Spain and Portugal: R. conorii, R. helvetica, R. monacensis, R. felis, R. slovaca, R. raoultii, R. sibirica, R. aeschlimannii, R. rioja, R. massiliae, R. typhi, and R. prowazekii. Amongst these Rickettsia species reported in Spain and Portugal, only R. prowazekii, R. typhi, R. felis, and R. massiliae have also been reported in Latin America. This study summarizes the current state of art on the rickettsial distribution in Latin America, Caribbean, Spain and Portugal. The data obtained allow a better understanding on rickettsial epidemiology and distribution of vector ecology.
ETHICS AND HEALTH INFORMATICS: FOCUS ON LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN
Goodman,Kenneth W;
Acta bioethica , 2005, DOI: 10.4067/S1726-569X2005000200002
Abstract: expanding use of computers in medicine continues to raise interesting and important ethical issues. after a brief review of the history of work in ethics in medical informatics, this introduction to this special issue of acta bioethica makes the case that this work must be applied in a latin american and caribbean context. from the use of intelligent machines to the evolution of the world wide web, the region presents vital -and under addressed- challenges to clinicians and policy makers. sustained and regional debates, curriculum development and empirical and conceptual scholarship are among the means to ensure ethically optimized applications of health information technology in the region
Page 1 /100
Display every page Item


Home
Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.