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The present, past and future of the study of intellectual disability: challenges in developing countries
Parmenter,Trevor R;
Salud Pública de México , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-36342008000800004
Abstract: there is strong evidence that socio-cultural factors largely determine what is seen as competent behaviour. within western high income countries, driven by the values of utilitarian individualism, the construct of intellectual disability has been largely determined to meet the needs of urban, industrialised societies. in contrast, competence in non-industrialised societies may be more reflected in collaborative, interpersonal problem solving skills such as those found among nigerian students labelled as intellectually disabled. however, people who are judged to be incompetent or "obtrusive" in countries deficient in support services, are often neglected and consigned to a life in poorly managed segregated institutions, as is the case in china, russia and some countries in eastern europe. non western countries that have a long history of a globalised economy, such as taiwan and japan also remain committed to segregated institutional provisions for people with an intellectual disability, despite a notional acceptance of inclusionary policies enunciated by the united nations? declarations and conventions. in this paper is concluded that it must be recognised that the population of people with an intellectual disability, regardless of how the condition is defined and classified, is quite heterogeneous. their needs are also varied and not at all dissimilar to those of the general population. as developing countries adopt western style consumer-driven economies, there is an extreme danger that they, too, will follow the same trajectory of exclusion and impose the culture of "otherness" for a group whose contribution to that society will be devalued. good science is futile unless it benefits all peoples.
Future of Remote Presence in Developing Countries and its Applications in Medicine (Robot to Otorob)  [cached]
Muhammad Iftikhar,Muralindran Mariappan
International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE) , 2010, DOI: 10.3991/ijoe.v6i4.1400
Abstract: Mobile robots are expensive for developing and under developed countries. Their utilizations are general in field of medicine, from neurosurgery to intensive care units. Our ongoing project “OTOROB” which stands for Orthopedic Robot is more specific for the usage of orthopedic surgeons with special consideration on its cost effectiveness. Statistical analysis of the survey conducted helped to identify the requirement of orthopedic surgeons to make OTOROB more specific. A new concept of VIrtual Presence (VIP) Specialist Clinic and Roboscope are discussed.
Is there any future for cash crops in developing countries? The case of vanilla.  [PDF]
I. Pokorná,L. Smutka
AGRIS on-line Papers in Economics and Informatics , 2011,
Abstract: A generally used ter m for easy mar ketable commodities usually with high prices is cash crops As a result of it these commodities are produced by many developing and especially least developed countries (LDC). These crops have witnessed fluctuation in prices during the last decade. We can suppose that these products would be the domain of developing countries nevertheless the opposite is true. Vanilla is a very good example of those products especially because just ver y few producers exist. We can suppose that vanilla trade would be the sphere of very few producers and beside that the agents would deal mostly with the demand site on the international mar ket. However, the international vanilla mar ket shows slight differences. Nevertheless, it can be grown just in very few areas. Madagascar belongs between the most well known producers. The aim of this paper is to analyse the international vanilla trade with regards to the production and consumption side and specifics of cash crops in general. International vanilla trade is even higher than the production itself. These results indicate that vanilla is being re-exported and the trade is not just a nor mal commodity trade but being use as a investment instr ument as well.
Productivity in Physical and Chemical Science Predicts the Future Economic Growth of Developing Countries Better than Other Popular Indices  [PDF]
Klaus Jaffe, Mario Caicedo, Marcos Manzanares, Mario Gil, Alfredo Rios, Astrid Florez, Claudia Montoreano, Vicente Davila
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066239
Abstract: Scientific productivity of middle income countries correlates stronger with present and future wealth than indices reflecting its financial, social, economic or technological sophistication. We identify the contribution of the relative productivity of different scientific disciplines in predicting the future economic growth of a nation. Results show that rich and poor countries differ in the relative proportion of their scientific output in the different disciplines: countries with higher relative productivity in basic sciences such as physics and chemistry had the highest economic growth in the following five years compared to countries with a higher relative productivity in applied sciences such as medicine and pharmacy. Results suggest that the economies of middle income countries that focus their academic efforts in selected areas of applied knowledge grow slower than countries which invest in general basic sciences.
Trends and Future Potential of Payment for Ecosystem Services to Alleviate Rural Poverty in Developing Countries  [cached]
Jeffrey C. Milder,Sara J. Scherr,Carina Bracer
Ecology and Society , 2010,
Abstract: Payment for ecosystem services (PES) is a market-based approach to environmental management that compensates land stewards for ecosystem conservation and restoration. Because low-income households and communities control much of the ecologically sensitive land in developing countries, they potentially stand to gain from PES, as environmentally responsible stewardship is assigned a value by various actors in society. To date, however, instances of PES benefiting the poor have been limited mainly to specific localities, small-scale projects, and a handful of broader government programs. We analyze the size, characteristics, and trends of PES to evaluate its future potential to benefit low-income land stewards in developing countries. We estimate that by the year 2030, markets for biodiversity conservation could benefit 10–15 million low-income households in developing countries, carbon markets could benefit 25–50 million, markets for watershed protection could benefit 80–100 million, and markets for landscape beauty and recreation could benefit 5–8 million. If payments and markets reach these potentials, they could provide a non-negligible contribution to poverty alleviation at the global level.
Horticultural Exports of Developing Countries: Issues under WTO Regime
Deepak Shah
Economic Analysis Working Papers , 2008,
Abstract: This paper seeks to evaluate the present and future prospects of developing and developed countries in agricultural exports in general and in horticultural exports in particular. The study also evaluates the behaviour of international export prices for agricultural commodities, both for developing and developed nations. In general, this study provides an insight into the direction in which various developed and developing countries are heading for insofar as their agricultural and horticultural exports are concerned in the changed market conditions. The study has made a few major observations. First, the study shows decline in market share of developing countries’ in world agricultural exports in the face of marginal increase in their market share in world fruits and vegetable (F&V) exports during the period between 1981 and 1997. Second, although the study shows lower market share of developing countries’ in world F&V exports during the period between 1981 and 1997, the growth in F&V exports as proportion of total agricultural exports is noticed to be much faster for developing countries’ as against the developed countries’ during the same period. Third, though agricultural exports of Least Developed Countries (LDC) have grown only marginally between 1981 and 1997, the growth in their F&V exports is seen to have been tremendous, especially after the late eighties period. Similarly, Socialist Countries of Asia (SCA) and developing countries of Oceania have also shown sharp increases in their F&V exports after the late eighties period. Fourth, while except America, other Africa and Oceania, all the developing countries have shown decline in their market share in total F&V exports of Developing Market Economies (DME), Asia shows rise in its market share not only in agriculture but also in F&V exports of DME. Another major observation of this study is in terms of instabilities in export prices. The instabilities in export prices of agricultural commodities, including horticultural ones, are noticed to be more sharp for developing world as compared to developed world. The study, therefore, has categorically emphasized upon the fact that the future growth in horticulture production and trade, especially of developing world, will mainly depend on future price mechanism and also on the import demand of these high value crops in various regions of the world.
Cryptosporidiosis in developing countries
William J. Snelling,1 Lihua Xiao,2 Guadalupe Ortega-Pierres,3 Colm J. Lowery,1 John E. Moore,4 Juluri R. Rao,5 Stephen Smyth,6 B. Cherie Millar,4 Paul J. Rooney,4 Motoo Matsuda,7Fiona Kenny,8 Jiru Xu,9 James S.G. Dooley.1
Journal of Infection in Developing Countries , 2007,
Abstract: Globally, Cryptosporidium infection continues to be a significant health problem where it is recognized as an important cause of diarrhoea in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent people. In developing countries persistent diarrhoea is the leading cause of death in children younger than five years of age, where it accounts for 30 to 50 percent of those deaths. Encouragingly an increasing number of investigations in developing countries employ molecular tools, significantly improving the quality of epidemiological information. This improved Cryptosporidium monitoring, with appropriate molecular methods, in surface water, livestock, wildlife and humans, will increase current knowledge of infection and transmission patterns, and ultimately help to control Cryptosporidium via improved risk assessments in the future.
Managing Innovation and Technology in Developing Countries  [PDF]
Murad Ali,Sana Ullah,Pervez Khan
Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract: Innovation and technology management is an inevitable issue in the high end technological and innovative organizations. Today, most of the innovations are limited with developed countries like USA, Japan and Europe while developing countries are still behind in the field of innovation and management of technology. But it is also becoming a subject for rapid progress and development in developing countries. Innovation and technology environment in developing countries are by nature, problematic, characterized by poor business models, political instability and governance conditions, low education level and lack of world-class research universities, an underdeveloped and mediocre physical infrastructure, and lack of solid technology based on trained human resources. This paper provides a theoretical and conceptual framework analysis for managing innovation and technology in developing countries like India and China. We present the issues and challenges in innovation and technology management and come up with proposed solutions.
Design and implementation of a low-cost classroom response system for a future classroom in the developing world  [PDF]
Imran A. Zualkernan
Interaction Design and Architecture(s) , 2013,
Abstract: Economic considerations and lack of adequate infrastructure impose unique design constraints on future classrooms of the developing world. Thus, future classrooms in underprivileged nations may differ significantly from their counterparts in the developed world. Classroom response systems (CRS) are an emerging technology for the future classroom. CRS are wireless, hand-held devices that help students provide immediate feedback to questions posed by a teacher. In their present form, due to their relatively high cost and high infrastructural requirements, such systems are not sustainable in most developing countries. This paper presents the design and implementation of a CRS based on an open-source, low-cost, and easily manufactured hardware. The CRS design is based on a hybrid wireless/wired platform using Bluetooth with the 1-Wire networking technology. This design significantly reduces the cost, and is consistent with existing conditions in a typical developing country.
Gastroenterology in developing countries: Issues and advances  [cached]
Kate L Mandeville, Justus Krabshuis, Nimzing Gwamzhi Ladep, Chris JJ Mulder, Eamonn MM Quigley, Shahid A Khan
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: Developing countries shoulder a considerable burden of gastroenterological disease. Infectious diseases in particular cause enormous morbidity and mortality. Diseases which afflict both western and developing countries are often seen in more florid forms in poorer countries. Innovative techniques continuously improve and update gastroenterological practice. However, advances in diagnosis and treatment which are commonplace in the West, have yet to reach many developing countries. Clinical guidelines, based on these advances and collated in resource-rich environments, lose their relevance outside these settings. In this two-part review, we first highlight the global burden of gastroenterological disease in three major areas: diarrhoeal diseases, hepatitis B, and Helicobacter pylori. Recent progress in their management is explored, with consideration of future solutions. The second part of the review focuses on the delivery of clinical services in developing countries. Inadequate numbers of healthcare workers hamper efforts to combat gastroenterological disease. Reasons for this shortage are examined, along with possibilities for increased specialist training. Endoscopy services, the mainstay of gastroenterology in the West, are in their infancy in many developing countries. The challenges faced by those setting up a service are illustrated by the example of a Nigerian endoscopy unit. Finally, we highlight the limited scope of many clinical guidelines produced in western countries. Guidelines which take account of resource limitations in the form of “cascades” are advocated in order to make these guidelines truly global. Recognition of the different working conditions facing practitioners worldwide is an important step towards narrowing the gap between gastroenterology in rich and poor countries.
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