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Salpingitis due to Entamoeba histolytica
Calore, E.E;Calore, N.M.P.;Cavaliere, M.J.;
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-86702002000200007
Abstract: we describe the pathology of a unique case of fallopian tube amebiasis, associated with hydrosalpinx, in a 21-year-old woman. she complained of lower abdominal pain, had a foul-smelling green vaginal discharge and fever during one week. there was a discrete increase in body temperature and a painful abdominal palpation at the lower right side, with signs of local peritoneal irritation. pathological examination showed a marked dilatation of the fallopian tube and hydrosalpinx. microscopic examination showed a poorly formed granuloma composed of large macrophages with many entamoeba histolytica trophozoites inside the fallopian tube. even though it is a rare disease the correct diagnosis of female genital tract amebiasis is of great importance for the indication of proper therapy.
Salpingitis due to Entamoeba histolytica  [cached]
Calore E.E,Calore N.M.P.,Cavaliere M.J.
Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases , 2002,
Abstract: We describe the pathology of a unique case of Fallopian tube amebiasis, associated with hydrosalpinx, in a 21-year-old woman. She complained of lower abdominal pain, had a foul-smelling green vaginal discharge and fever during one week. There was a discrete increase in body temperature and a painful abdominal palpation at the lower right side, with signs of local peritoneal irritation. Pathological examination showed a marked dilatation of the fallopian tube and hydrosalpinx. Microscopic examination showed a poorly formed granuloma composed of large macrophages with many Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites inside the fallopian tube. Even though it is a rare disease the correct diagnosis of female genital tract amebiasis is of great importance for the indication of proper therapy.
Historia del protozoo Entamoeba histolytica History of the Entamoeba histolytica protozoan  [cached]
Análida Elizabeth Pinilla,Myriam Consuelo López,Diego Fernando Viasus
Revista médica de Chile , 2008,
Abstract: This article presents a history of Entamoeba histolytica spanning since the remote times when it was not even recognized as a cause of human disease to the recent molecular advances. Feder Losch (1875) in Saint Petersburg, found amoebae in fecal samples but only regarded them as responsible for maintaining the inflammatory process, not as a cause of dysentery. Fritz Schaudinn (1903) established the differentiation between Entamoeba histolytica and Endamoeba coli, Schaudinn decided to call it E. histolytica because of its ability to cause tissue lysis. Emile Brumpt (1925) based on experimental studies, pointed out the existence ofE. Histolytica as a species complex, comprising two morphologically indistinguishable species, E. dysenteríae which is the cause of symptomatic infection, and Entamoeba dispar found only in asymptomatic carriers. Louis Diamond et al (1961) during the 1960s developed an axenic culture medium for E. histolytica which allowed in vivo and in vitro studies. Sargeaunt and Williams (1978) distinguished for the first time E. histolytica strains by isoenzyme electrophoresis, thus confirming thatE. hystolytica was indeed a species complex comprising both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. William Petri et al (1987 demonstrated that the 170 kDa protein with greater antigenicity was the Gal/GalNac-specific lectin. Diamond and Clark (1993) described again Brumpt's original 1925hypothesis, concluding that there was enough evidence to support the existence of two morphologically indistinguishable species, a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic one, corresponding to E. histolytica and Entamoeba dispar respectively. The World Health Organization accepted this hypothesis in 1997 (RevMéd Chile 2008; 136:118-24)
Historia del protozoo Entamoeba histolytica
Pinilla,Análida Elizabeth; López,Myriam Consuelo; Viasus,Diego Fernando;
Revista médica de Chile , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872008000100015
Abstract: this article presents a history of entamoeba histolytica spanning since the remote times when it was not even recognized as a cause of human disease to the recent molecular advances. feder losch (1875) in saint petersburg, found amoebae in fecal samples but only regarded them as responsible for maintaining the inflammatory process, not as a cause of dysentery. fritz schaudinn (1903) established the differentiation between entamoeba histolytica and endamoeba coli, schaudinn decided to call it e. histolytica because of its ability to cause tissue lysis. emile brumpt (1925) based on experimental studies, pointed out the existence ofe. histolytica as a species complex, comprising two morphologically indistinguishable species, e. dysenteríae which is the cause of symptomatic infection, and entamoeba dispar found only in asymptomatic carriers. louis diamond et al (1961) during the 1960s developed an axenic culture medium for e. histolytica which allowed in vivo and in vitro studies. sargeaunt and williams (1978) distinguished for the first time e. histolytica strains by isoenzyme electrophoresis, thus confirming thate. hystolytica was indeed a species complex comprising both pathogenic and non-pathogenic species. william petri et al (1987 demonstrated that the 170 kda protein with greater antigenicity was the gal/galnac-specific lectin. diamond and clark (1993) described again brumpt's original 1925hypothesis, concluding that there was enough evidence to support the existence of two morphologically indistinguishable species, a pathogenic and a nonpathogenic one, corresponding to e. histolytica and entamoeba dispar respectively. the world health organization accepted this hypothesis in 1997 (revméd chile 2008; 136:118-24)
Trend of Entamoeba histolytica infestation in Kolkata
Avik K Mukherjee, Kaushik Das, Mihir K Bhattacharya, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Sandipan Ganguly
Gut Pathogens , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1757-4749-2-12
Abstract: A systemic surveillance was set up at the Infectious Disease hospital, Kolkata, India between November 2007 and October 2009 for understanding the trend of E. histolytica infection in Kolkata. Fecal samples were collected from diarrhoeal patients attending the hospital, under the surveillance system and processed for detection of E. histolytica.During the last two years about 2500 diarrhoeal samples were collected and screened for E. histolytica. About 3.6% were positive for E. histolytica. As compared to the earlier years, E. histolytica infection was observed to be less amongst patients screened during the last two years. No seasonality was observed in Kolkata although in the neighboring tropical country Bangladesh, a typical seasonality of E. histolytica infection was noticed.The study indicates that the detection rate of E. histolytica infection amongst diarrhoeal patients in Kolkata is decreasing during the last two years than that of Bangladesh.Amoebiasis caused by infection with E. histolytica occurs almost all over the world and is highly endemic especially in the developing countries. It is one of the major causes of dysentery/diarrhoea in Kolkata, India. According to our previous study (unpublished), detection of Entamoeba histolytica showed a marked seasonality, i.e. high peak during post-monsoon and post-winter seasons. According to the reports from other tropical countries, especially in Bangladesh, which is geographically closest to Kolkata, there is a typical pattern of detection of E. histolytic where E. histolytica usually shows its highest peaks in the wet season and gradually decreases with the arrival of dry season [1,2]. In a study in Bangladesh, it was shown that wet environment is not the only factor that affects the detection curve of E. histolytica, but anti-Carbohydrate Recognition Domain IgA level in the gut is another determining factor for its occurrence in a closed population [3]. However, even in that case E. histolytica detection foll
Interaction of rheumatoid factor and Entamoeba histolytica
Kremsner, P.G.;Graninger, W.;
Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de S?o Paulo , 1989, DOI: 10.1590/S0036-46651989000400001
Abstract: the amoebae's cytotoxicity test and the amoebae's lysis test were used to show possible interactions between rheumatoid factor (rf) and entamoeba histolytica. amoebae's cytotoxic activity (aca) was inhibited by affinity chromatography purified antiamoebae rabbit igg (rigg). enhanced inhibition could be demonstrated with rigg plus rf. but the same marked inhibition of aca could be seen when replacing rf by heat inactivated normal human serum as a control. about 50% amoebae's lysis occurred when amoebae were brought together with native normal human serum (nnhs) as a source of complement. amoebae's lysis increased to 60% when incubated with nhs plus human antiamoebae antibodies. no further augmentation could be obtained by the addition of rf. using rigg instead of human antibodies the lysis rate did not increase. incubation of amoebae, nnhs, rigg and rf even reduced amoebae's lysis. rf neither has an effect on aca nor on complement mediated al in vitro.
Ocorrência de Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar em pacientes ambulatoriais de Recife, PE
Dourado, Ant?nio;Maciel, Amélia;Aca, Ivanize da Silva;
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 2006, DOI: 10.1590/S0037-86822006000400015
Abstract: the objective this study was to determine the occurrence of the species entamoeba histolytica/entamoeba díspar in clinical samples of ambulatory patients in pernambuco. a specific assay for entamoeba histolytica was used in this study, which identified no positive fecal samples among the 213 patients. these results confirm that e. dispar is the dominant species in pernambuco state.
Proteomic Comparison of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar and the Role of E. histolytica Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 in Virulence  [PDF]
Paul H. Davis,Minghe Chen,Xiaochun Zhang,C. Graham Clark,R. Reid Townsend,Samuel L. Stanley Jr.
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000415
Abstract: The protozoan intestinal parasite Entamoeba histolytica infects millions of people worldwide and is capable of causing amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess. The closely related species Entamoeba dispar colonizes many more individuals, but this organism does not induce disease. To identify molecular differences between these two organisms that may account for their differential ability to cause disease in humans, we used two-dimensional gel-based (DIGE) proteomic analysis to compare whole cell lysates of E. histolytica and E. dispar. We observed 141 spots expressed at a substantially (>5-fold) higher level in E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS than E. dispar and 189 spots showing the opposite pattern. Strikingly, 3 of 4 proteins consistently identified as different at a greater than 5-fold level between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and E. dispar were identical to proteins recently identified as differentially expressed between E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS and the reduced virulence strain E. histolytica Rahman. One of these was E. histolytica alcohol dehydrogenase 3 (EhADH3). We found that E. histolytica possesses a higher level of NADP-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activity than E. dispar and that some EhADH3 can be localized to the surface of E. histolytica. Episomal overexpression of EhADH3 in E. histolytica trophozoites resulted in only subtle phenotypic differences in E. histolytica virulence in animal models of amebic colitis and amebic liver abscess, making it difficult to directly link EhADH3 levels to virulence differences between E. histolytica and less-pathogenic Entamoeba.
Cloning and Characterization of Serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica Protein Gene from an Iranian E. histolytica Isolate  [PDF]
Sima Rasti,Ali Haghighi,Bahram Kazemi,Mostafa Rezaian
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences , 2006,
Abstract: Entamoeba histolytica causes amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess, placing it second only to malaria, as a cause of death resulting from parasitic protozoa. Serine-rich Entamoeba histolytica Protein gene is an immunogenic, polymorphic protein and a candidate of vaccine that was cloned and characterized in this research. An Iranian Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar isolate was cultivated in Robinson Medium. Total genomic DNA was isolated and Entamoeba histolytica strain has been distinguished by PCR with two sets of species-specific primers and SREHP gene was amplified by Nested-PCR. The purified PCR product was cloned into pBluscript via T/A cloning method. The recombinant plasmid was screened by Rusconis test, digested with BamH1 restriction enzyme, which was approved by direct PCR and sequencing. The digested fragment of SREHP gene from recombinant plasmid was sequenced and showed a 666 base pair nucleotides as a new genotype of SREHP Entamoeba histolytica. The SREHP gene from Iranian isolate (SHR 10 IR) was different from HM1-IMSS cl.6 as well as all previously reported Entamoeba histolytica genotypes. Isolation of SREHP, expression of the gene, makes an opportunity to develop diagnostic kit, as well as determination of genetic variation of Entamoeba histolytica isolates in Iran.
Prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar in Gonabad City, 2006, Iran
E Nazemalhoseini Mojarad,A Haghighi,M Azimi Rad,F Mesgarian
Iranian Journal of Parasitology , 2007,
Abstract: Background: Differential diagnosis of two protozoan parasites Entamoeba histolytica and E. dispar is of great clinical and epide miologi cal importance, but except in the case of haematophagous trophozoites in acute dysentery, it is not possible to differ entiate them by microscopy. The present study was carried out from February 2005 to July 2006 in order to determine the preva lence of E. histolytica and E. dispar in Gonbad City, by using a PCR method. Methods: Five hundred and sixty four fecal samples were collected from primary health care centers of Gonbad both urban and rural ar eas. The stool specimens were examined by light microscopy (Direct slide smear, Iodine wet mount, Formal-ether concentra tion and Trichrome staining) to distinguish E. histolytica/E. dispar complex and differentiate them from other non-patho genic intestinal amoebae. Results: The microscopy results of stool exams showed a frequency rate of 23 positive samples (4.07%) for cyst of E. histo lytica/E. dis par complex. All the microscopy positive isolates appeared to be infected with cyst of E. histolytica/E. dispar com plex were cultivated and maintained successfully in HSr + s medium for DNA extraction and identification by the PCR method. The PCR study showed that 16 isolates (69.56 %) of the Entamoeba samples were E. dispar while 7 samples (30.43%) of those microscopy positive samples were not amplified and none of them showed E. histolytica pattern. Conclusion: High frequency rate of E. dispar in this study were in high agreement with the estimation rate of these entamoe bas worldwide.
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