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O uso do camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Pontederiaceae, para confec??o de artesanato no Distrito de Albuquerque, Corumbá, MS, Brasil
Bortolotto, Ieda Maria;Guarim Neto, Germano;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062005000200016
Abstract: eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms, known locally as camalote, is an aquatic plant indigenous to south america, abundant in the pantanal, brazil. guató indians used it for making sleeping mats in the pantanal. the non-indian community of albuquerque, corumbá, ms, nowadays, is also using it for the same purposes. an ancient guató indian 74 years old taught the process. the use of the camalote for handicraft in albuquerque is described here. the methods of investigation included both semi structured interviews and participant observations. the extraction of the camalote is made on the rivers, corixos and lagoons of the area. the leaf blades are cut and only petioles are carried to the houses, washed in clear water, and dried in the sun. after dried, the petioles are woven and sewed. the guató original technique consists of sewing the craft with threads made of cotton fibers (gossypium sp.) or tucum fibers (bactris sp.) recently replaced by a nylon thread in albuquerque. the crafts are sold to tourists.
Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) em um Lago de Várzea na Amaz?nia Central, Brasil
Braga,Carlos Elias; Gutjahr,Ana Lúcia Nunes-; Morais,José Wellington de; Adis,Joachim;
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2011,
Abstract: the neotropical grasshopper cornops aquaticum (bruner) lives associated with the macrophytes of the family pontederiaceae from which it feeds. in the lakes of central amazon, eichhornia crassipes (mart.) solms (water hyacinth or mururé) is considered the most important host plant for this grasshopper. this study aimed to perform a phenological study of adults and nymphs of grasshopper in association with its host plant, compared to the hydrological regime of the central amazon. this study was undertaken between april 2006 and august 2007 at the chameleon lake (03 17'05"s, 60 11'11"w) in the central amazon floodplain. an entomological net adapted for catching grasshoppers was used. 850 individuals (296 adults and 554 nymphs) were captured. it was observed that the abundance and biomass of adults and nymphs of c. aquaticum, as well as their macrophyte host are related to the "flood pulse", ie. to the seasonal oscillations of the amazonian rivers.
Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) associado a Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) em um Lago de Várzea na Amaz nia Central, Brasil Phenology of Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) associated with Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) in a Floodplain Lake in Central Amazonia, Brazil  [cached]
Carlos Elias Braga,Ana Lúcia Nunes- Gutjahr,José Wellington de Morais,Joachim Adis
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2011,
Abstract: O gafanhoto Neotropical Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) vive associado às macrófitas da família Pontederiaceae da qual se alimenta. Nos lagos da Amaz nia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (mururé ou aguapé) é considerada a planta hospedeira de maior importante para este gafanhoto. Esse trabalho teve o objetivo de realizar um estudo fenológico de adultos e ninfas desse gafanhoto em associa o a sua planta hospedeira, frente ao regime hidrológico da Amaz nia Central. Tal estudo foi realizado entre os meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007 no Lago Camale o (03o17'05"S 60o11'11"W), na várzea da Amaz nia Central. Para isso, utilizou-se uma rede entomológica (70 cm de diametro) adaptada para a captura dos gafanhotos. Onde foram capturados 850 exemplares (296 adultos e 554 ninfas). Observou-se que a abundancia e a biomassa de adultos e de ninfas de C. aquaticum, bem como de sua macrófita hospedeira, est o relacionados com a oscila o sazonal do nível do rio (pulso de inunda o). La tucura Neotropical, Cornops aquaticum (Bruner), vive asociada a las macrófitas de la familia Pontederiaceae, de las cuales se alimenta. En los lagos de la Amazonia Central, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (camalote o aguape) constituye la planta huésped más importante de esta tucura. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar la fenología de los adultos y las ninfas de C. aquaticum en los camalotales de E. crassipes, en relación al régimen hidrológico de la Amazonia Central. Los muestreos se realizaron entre los meses de abril de 2006 a agosto de 2007, en el Lago Camaleón (03o17'05"S 60o 11 '11 "O) en la Várzea de la Amazonia Central. Los individuos fueron capturados desde una embarcación a motor, utilizando una red entomológica de 70 cm de diámetro. Durante este estudio, se capturaron un total de 850 ejemplares (296 adultos y 554 ninfas). Se observó que la abundancia y la biomasa de los adultos y de las ninfas de C. aquaticum, así como la planta huésped, están estrechamente relacionados con la oscilación estacional del nivel del río (pulso de inundación). The Neotropical grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) lives associated with the macrophytes of the family Pontederiaceae from which it feeds. In the lakes of Central Amazon, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (water hyacinth or Mururé) is considered the most important host plant for this grasshopper. This study aimed to perform a phenological study of adults and nymphs of grasshopper in association with its host plant, compared to the hydrological regime of the Central Amazon. This study was undertaken between April 2006 a
Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae  [cached]
M. Cristina Hernández
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2007,
Abstract: Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae), digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae), and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart.) Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants. Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae), que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae), minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw.) Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae), excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart.) Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del t
The Physico-chemistry and Distribution of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia cressipes) on the river Nun in the Niger Nelta
BL Nyananyo, AH Gijo, EN Ogamba
Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management , 2007,
Abstract: The physicochemical studies and phytochemical investigations of River Nun and the water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) were carried out in relation to the distribution of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Family Pontederiaceae in the River Nun.. The physicochemical studies of the water showed that dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), nitrate (NO3), salinity and alkalinity (pH) had mean + SD values of 6.94 + 0.22, 5.86 + 0.42mg/L,13.76 + 5.76 mg/L, 0.237 + 0.082 mg/L, 7.25 + 0.37 mg/L and 5.92 + 0.32 mg/L respectively. Phosphate (PO4) and sulphite (SO3) were not detected. The pH and DO levels appeared to favour the growth of E. crassipes.The BOD values were relatively higher than those of the control. The phytochemical studies showed that E. crassipes contains flavonoids (luteolin, apigenin, tricin, chrysoeriol, kaempferol, azaeleatin, gossypetin and orientin), amino acids (methionine, valine, glutamic acid theonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, leucine and lysine), phosphorous, protein, organic matter and cyanide. Some of these phenolic compounds and cyanide contribute to the negative impact associated with the proliferation of E.crassipes, in aquatic systems in addition to blocking water ways. The high protein and total organic matter content of Eichhornia crassipes, however, make E. crassipes a potential raw material for the production of animal feed and organic fertilizers. The study also shows that this plant prefers an almost neutral pH aquatic environment with a substantial concentration of dissolved oxygen, an increased rate of biochemical oxygen demand with a substantial concentration of nitrates. These conditions explain why this plant thrives in freshwater habitats such as the River Nun
Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae
Hernández,M. Cristina;
Revista de la Sociedad Entomol?3gica Argentina , 2007,
Abstract: larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of thrypticus (diptera: dolichopodidae) that breed in pontederiaceae species are presented. the larvae of t. circularis bickel & hernández develop in globous petioles of eichhornia crassipes (martius) solms- laubach (pontederiaceae), digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. t. romus bickel & hernández develop in e. azurea (sw.) kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other thrypticus species. t. formosensis bickel & hernández develops in pontederia cordata l. (pontederiaceae), and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. t. taragui bickel & hernández breeds in submersed stems of p. subovata (seub. in mart.) lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. the mines of t. yanayacu, t. chanophalus and t. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. the truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the pontederiaceae. such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.
The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) floating meadows
María Celeste Franceschini,María Laura De Wysiecki,Alicia Poi de Neiff,María Eugenia Galassi
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: Cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the Neotropics. The development, feeding and oviposition of C. aquaticum take place on Pontederiaceae, especially on species of Eichhornia. Several aspects of the feeding of C. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating Eichhornia crassipes in native areas. The aims of this paper were: (1) to quantify the amount of E. crassipes consumed by C. aquaticum, (2) to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3) to determine the possible effect of consumption on E. crassipes productivity. Thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs A, nymphs B, adult males and adult females. Insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of E. crassipes. We estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (CI), relative growth rate (GR) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (ECI). The impact of C. aquaticum consumption on E. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. Food intake of C. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. Food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. Damage caused by C. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native E. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3): 1407-1418. Epub 2011 September 01. Cornops aquaticum es una tucura semiacuática Neotropical que vive asociada a las Pontederiaceae y constituye uno de los más importantes herbívoros de Eichhornia crassipes en áreas nativas. Los objetivos de este trabajo son: (1) cuantificar el consumo de C. aquaticum (2) determinar la tasa de crecimiento y la eficiencia de conversión del alimento ingerido de esta tucura, y (3) determinar el efecto del consumo en la productividad de E. crassipes. De cada categoría de edades de la población se utilizaron 30 individuos: ninfas A, ninfas B, adultos machos y hembras. Los insectos fueron confinados individualmente en recipientes con hojas de E. crassipes. Luego, se estimó el consumo por individuo, la tasa de consumo (CI), tasa de crecimiento (GR) y la eficiencia d
The role of the host-specific grasshopper Cornops aquaticum (Orthoptera: Acrididae) as consumer of native Eichhornia crassipes (Pontederiaceae) floating meadows
Franceschini,María Celeste; De Wysiecki,María Laura; Poi de Neiff,Alicia; Galassi,María Eugenia; Solange Martínez,Fedra;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2011,
Abstract: cornops aquaticum is a widely distributed semiaquatic grasshopper in the neotropics. the development, feeding and oviposition of c. aquaticum take place on pontederiaceae, especially on species of eichhornia. several aspects of the feeding of c. aquaticum are studied because is one of the most important herbivores of the highly invasive floating eichhornia crassipes in native areas. the aims of this paper were: (1) to quantify the amount of e. crassipes consumed by c. aquaticum, (2) to determine the growth rate and the conversion efficiency of food ingested by this grasshopper, and (3) to determine the possible effect of consumption on e. crassipes productivity. thirty individuals from each specific age class were used in the experiment: nymphs a, nymphs b, adult males and adult females. insects were individually confined in plastic pots with a leaf of e. crassipes. we estimated feeding by individual, consumption index (ci), relative growth rate (gr) and efficiency of conversion of ingested food to body substance (eci). the impact of c. aquaticum consumption on e. crassipes floating meadows was assessed with the abundance of the grasshopper, and the available data on primary production of the host plant at the study site. food intake of c. aquaticum was 11.23% of plant productivity. food consumption, growth rate and food conversion efficiency of this grasshopper varied according to the specific age classes. damage caused by c. aquaticum is high in comparison with the damage caused by other semiaquatic and grassland grasshoppers, however it is not enough to prevent the growth and coverage of native e. crassipes floating meadows because abundance of grasshoppers are realtively low and the growth rate and productivity of the host plant is high. rev. biol. trop. 59 (3): 1407-1418. epub 2011 september 01.
In Vitro Pollen Germination of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms: An Insight into its Preferred Mode of Clonal Reproduction  [cached]
Somnath BHOWMIK,Badal Kumar DATTA
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2012,
Abstract: Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms is an aquatic invasive weed throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The plant rarely produces any fruit under natural condition In order to understand the causes of failure of seed set in this plant various aspect of pollen biology were studied. Pollen fertility and pollen viability was assessed using Muntzing’ s mixture and in acetic orcein and TTZ, while pollen germination was assessed with different concentrations of sucrose supplemented with boric acid and Ca and Mg salts. The aim of present study was to find out the cause of sexual incompatibility of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. In spite of high pollen fertility, pollen viability and pollen germination the species show hardly any fruit set under natural condition. The abnormal pollen germination like curling of pollen tubes, shrinkage of pollen tube tips and bending of pollen tube might be reasons of sexual incompatibility of this species. It is observed that the taxa required comparatively low sucrose concentration (5%) for their optimal in vitro pollen germination (54.08%). Boric acid to certain extent also influences the in vitro pollen germination (56.2%). In the present investigation the nature of substrate in association with the effect of Boric acid, CaCO3, MgSO4 on the in vitro pollen germination of Eichhornia crassipes is also worked out. However the tested salts show no significant effect on pollen germination in the present study.
Fenologia de Cornops aquaticum (Bruner) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) em Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) no norte do Pantanal de Mato Grosso
Silva, Fatima R J da;Marques, Marinêz I;Battirola, Leandro D;Lhano, Marcos G;
Neotropical Entomology , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2010000400011
Abstract: cornops aquaticum (bruner) has eichhornia crassipes, e. azurea, pontederia cordata and p. lanceolata (pontederiaceae) as the known host plants. this grasshopper species is cited as a possible agent of biological control for native aquatic macrophytes e. azurea and e. crassipes. this study, carried out from march, 2006 to february, 2007, aimed to evaluate the phenology and age structure of the population of c. aquaticum associated with e. azurea in piuval bay, pantanal of poconé, mt, and to identify possible relationships of its life cycle to abiotic factors such as insolation, temperature and precipitation. monthly collections of 50 individuals were carried out according to the protocol defined by the "host - insect coevolution on waterhyacinth" project. adults and nymphs were separated and the females dissected in order to evaluate ovary maturation. the population presented adults and nymphs during the whole year, suggesting the occurrence of more than one reproductive period. the nymphs from the first stage predominated in august 2006 and the adults in september and october 2006, synchronized with the dry period and beginning of the flooding period, respectively. the highest relative abundance of the females with mature ovaries occurred in july 2006 (50%), indicating that this may be a more propitious period for reproduction. the data suggest that c. aquaticum is a species in continual reproduction in piuval bay and its cycle is associated with the environmental conditions guided by the flood pulse in the pantanal of mato grosso.
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