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Relative Aerial Biomass Yield of Intercroped Alfalfa with Winter Forage Cereals
Pereyra,Telmo; Pagliaricci,Héctor; Ohanian,Alfredo;
Chilean journal of agricultural research , 2008, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-58392008000300005
Abstract: in the tropical regions of the world, intercropping is mostly associated with food grain production, whereas it is receiving increased attention in temperate regions as a means of efficient forage production. the aim of this work was to determine the relative yield of aerial biomass in alfalfa or lucerne (medicago sativa l.) and winter forage cereals intercrops. these were done in eight systems resulting from the combination of species sown at different dates. the biomass was measured in three situations: alfalfa and cereal sole-crop and alfalfa-cereal intercrops, the relative biomass yields were calculated by the relative yield index (ryi). the field experiment was conducted as a bifactorial array in a randomized complete block design of two replicates. the alfalfa-cereal intercrops provided ryi values ranging from 0.71 to 0.83. this showed that it is possible to produce, in the same area, between 71 and 83% of the biomass that both crops would produce in separate ones.
Interactive Effect of Forage Mixing Rates and Organic Fertilizers on the Yield and Nutritive Value of Berseem Clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) and Annual Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)  [PDF]
Heba Sabry Attia Salama
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/as.2015.64041
Abstract:

Berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) is the main winter forage legume in Egypt. Despite that the yield and protein content of berseem clover are high, it is characterized by low dry matter content especially in the 1st cut. Intercropping berseem clover with forage grasses, especially annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is a recommended technique to produce higher forage yield with better balanced nutritional quality. However, little is known about the performance of these proposed mixtures under the arising organic farming system in Egypt. Organic farming and the application of organic fertilizers (compost and poultry manure) are receiving increased attention in the last few years. Thus, the current study was carried out on the winter season of two successive years (2012 and 2013) in the experimental station of SEKEM organic farm, Egypt. Main aim was to investigate the variation in 1st cut forage yield and nutritive value of berseem clover and annual ryegrass, grown in pure stands and with three mixing rates, under three organic fertilization regimes (compost, poultry litter, and no fertilization). Nutritive value was judged through investigating the crude protein (CP), total carbohydrates (TC), and fiber fractions (NDF, ADF, and ADL). Results revealed significant two-way interaction between the forage treatments and the fertilization regimes for all the studied parameters. In general, mixing berseem clover with annual ryegrass, fertilized by compost or poultry litter resulted in significantly higher forage yield, dry matter content, and balanced CP, TC, and fiber fractions, compared to the pure stands.

Evaluating the Intercropping of Millet with Cowpea for Forage Yield and Quality  [PDF]
Naveed Islam, Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir, Shan Mohi Ud Din, Umer Farooq, Haseeb Arshad, Aqib Bilal, Muhammad Talha Sajjad
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2018.99130
Abstract: A field study was scheduled to estimate the impact of intercropping of pearl millet with cowpea on forage yield and quality at Agronomy Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. It was done in kharif season 2016. Randomized complete block design was used to conduct this experiment. It has three replications. The size of net plot is 3.6 m × 6 m. It comprised of five treatments (T1 = one row of millet alternating with one row of cowpea (1M:1C), T2 = two rows of millet alternating with one row of cowpea (2M:1C), T3 = one row of millet alternating with two rows of cowpea (1M:2C), T4 = sole millet, T5 = sole cowpea). We found that intercropping significantly effected the yield and quality of forage. Intercropping system had significant effects on nutritive value of forage crop. Within various treatments of intercropping, it is evident that treatment T2 (two rows of millet alternating with one row of cowpea) gives maximum total dry matter yield (9.68 t ha-1). It was then tracked by treatment T1 (one row of millet alternating with one row of cowpea) and treatment T3 (one row of millet alternating with two rows of cowpea) producing
Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming
Marco Mariotti,Alessandro Masoni,Laura Ercoli,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.403
Abstract: This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC) and intercrops (IC) of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY), crude protein concentration (CPC), and nitrogen yield (NY). Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC) were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.
Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming  [cached]
Marco Mariotti,Alessandro Masoni,Laura Ercoli,Iduna Arduini
Italian Journal of Agronomy , 2011, DOI: 10.4081/ija.2006.403
Abstract: This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC) and intercrops (IC) of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.), and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY), crude protein concentration (CPC), and nitrogen yield (NY). Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC) were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER) of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.
Effect of Intercropping Maize (Zea mays L.) With Cow Pea (Vigna unguiculata L.) on Green Forage Yield and Quality Evaluation  [PDF]
Mehdi Dahmardeh,Ahmad Ghanbari,Baratali Syasar,Mahmood Ramroudi
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences , 2009,
Abstract: In this study effect of different planting ratios and harvest time of intercropping maize and cowpea on economical and biological yield and quality of maize forage (Zea mays L.) was evaluated in the Department of Agronomy, University of Zabol, during 2007. The planting ratios of maize to bean was 100:100, 50:100, 100:50, 25:75, 75:25, 50:50 , 0:100 and 100:0, respectively. The intercropped of maize and bean in different planting ratio significantly affected the quantitative and qualitative characters of the forage. The highest yield of green fodder (65.7 t ha-1) was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100. The highest grain yield (9.0 t ha-1) for maize was recorded from 75+25% ratio, maize and cowpea and the highest grain yield for cowpea (3.9 t ha-1) was recorded from 50+100% ratio, maize and cowpea, respectively. The highest crude protein (19.65%) was produced by the cowpea sole cropping and the lowest from the maize plots sole cropping (12.11%). The highest land equivalent ratio (2.26) was obtained by sowing the crops in ratio of 100:100 and the highest crude protein was obtained by harvest time in milky stage (15.2%).
Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover
Tomm, Gilberto Omar;Foster, Robert Kerry;
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-204X2001000300010
Abstract: the use of winter legumes in southern brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. introduction of these species along with spring wheat (triticum aestivum l.) was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. birdsfoot trefoil (lotus corniculatus l.), red clover (trifolium pratense l.) cultivar qui?equelli, white clover (t. repens l.), and arrowleaf clover (t. vesiculosum savi) did not reduce cereal yield in either year. wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar kenland and by subclover (t. subterraneum l.) in the first year. no grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.
Effect of intercropping wheat with forage legumes on wheat production and ground cover
Tomm Gilberto Omar,Foster Robert Kerry
Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira , 2001,
Abstract: The use of winter legumes in southern Brazil is hindered by the slow growth of these species during establishment exposing soil surface to erosion. Introduction of these species along with spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was studied as a means of increasing ground cover during their initial establishment period, without reducing wheat grain yield. Two experiments were conducted in nearby areas, one in each year. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) cultivar Qui equelli, white clover (T. repens L.), and arrowleaf clover (T. vesiculosum Savi) did not reduce cereal yield in either year. Wheat yield was reduced by intercropped red clover cultivar Kenland and by subclover (T. subterraneum L.) in the first year. No grain yield differences due to intercropping with any legume were detected in the second year, when rainfall was below normal. Intercropping with wheat showed to be a practical alternative to enhance ground cover at establishing forage legumes.
Intercropping of Cereals and Legumes for Forage Production  [cached]
Hamdollah ESKANDARI,Ahmad GHANBARI,Abdollah JAVANMARD
Notulae Scientia Biologicae , 2009,
Abstract: Cereals are high important in feeding ruminant animals for their high dry matter production and low cost. However, cereals forage is poor in protein content which shows their low quality and nutritive value. Regarding to high feed costs of protein supplementations, legumes can be used in livestock nutrition for their high protein content and, thus, providing cost saving. Since legumes have low dry matter yield, acceptable forage yield and quality can obtained from intercropping of cereals and legumes compared with their sole crops. In this paper, forage quality indicators and different factors affecting forage quality are discussed. Forage production and quality of different cereals-legumes intercropping are also reviewed, where; different legumes had different effect on forage quality when intercropped with specific cereal. Regarding to forage quality and quantity, different cereals also led to different production of forage. A number of factors which must be noticified in selecting cereal-legume intercropping compositions, especially for forage production, were considered.
Relative Aerial Biomass Yield of Intercroped Alfalfa with Winter Forage Cereals Rendimiento Relativo de Biomasa Aérea en Intercultivos de Alfalfa con Cereales Forrajeros de Invierno  [cached]
Telmo Pereyra,Héctor Pagliaricci,Alfredo Ohanian
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2008,
Abstract: In the tropical regions of the world, intercropping is mostly associated with food grain production, whereas it is receiving increased attention in temperate regions as a means of efficient forage production. The aim of this work was to determine the relative yield of aerial biomass in alfalfa or lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) and winter forage cereals intercrops. These were done in eight systems resulting from the combination of species sown at different dates. The biomass was measured in three situations: alfalfa and cereal sole-crop and alfalfa-cereal intercrops, the relative biomass yields were calculated by the relative yield index (RYI). The field experiment was conducted as a bifactorial array in a randomized complete block design of two replicates. The alfalfa-cereal intercrops provided RYI values ranging from 0.71 to 0.83. This showed that it is possible to produce, in the same area, between 71 and 83% of the biomass that both crops would produce in separate ones. En las regiones tropicales del mundo, el intercultivo está asociado con la producción de granos para la alimentación, mientras que en áreas templadas recibe mayor atención como medio de producción eficiente de forraje. El objetivo de este experimento fue determinar el rendimiento relativo de biomasa aérea en intercultivos de alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) y cereales forrajeros de invierno. Se establecieron ocho sistemas producto de la combinación con especies de cereales con distintas fechas de siembra. Las mediciones de biomasa se realizaron en tres situaciones: monocultivo de alfalfa, monocultivo de cereales e intercultivo de alfalfa-cereal, calculándose el rendimiento relativo del intercultivo (RRI). Se empleó un dise o con arreglo bifactorial y dos repeticiones en bloques completos al azar. Los intercultivos de alfalfa-cereal generaron valores de RRI entre 0,71 y 0,83, lo que indicó que en una misma superficie es posible producir entre el 71 y 83% de la biomasa que ambos cultivos producirían en superficies separadas.
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