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Brazilian Guidelines for transcranial doppler in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease
Lobo, Clarisse Lopes de Castro;Can?ado, Rodolfo Delfini;Leite, Ana Claudia Celestino Bezerra;Anjos, Ana Claudia Mendon?a dos;Pinto, Ana Cristina Silva;Matta, Andre Palma da Cunha;Silva, Célia Maria;Silva, Gisele Sampaio;Friedrisch, Jo?o Ricardo;Braga, Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini;Lange, Marcos Christiano;Figueiredo, Maria Stella;Rugani, Marília álvares;Veloso, Orlando;Moura, Patrícia Gomes;Cortez, Paulo Ivo;Adams, Robert;Gualandro, Sandra Fátima Menosi;Castilho, Shirley Lopes de;Thomé, Ursula;Zetola, Viviane Flumignan;
Revista Brasileira de Hematologia e Hemoterapia , 2011, DOI: 10.5581/1516-8484.20110014
Abstract: background: sickle cell disease is the most common monogenic hereditary disease in brazil. although strokes are one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in these patients, the use of transcranial doppler to identify children at risk is not universally used. objective: to develop brazilian guidelines for the use of transcranial doppler in sickle cell disease children and adolescents, so that related health policies can be expanded, and thus contribute to reduce morbidity and mortality. methods: the guidelines were formulated in a consensus meeting of experts in transcranial doppler and sickle cell disease. the issues discussed were previously formulated and scientific articles in databases (medline, scielo and cochrane) were carefully analyzed. the consensus for each question was obtained by a vote of experts on the specific theme. results: recommendations were made, including indications for the use of transcranial doppler according to the sickle cell disease genotype and patients age; the necessary conditions to perform the exam and its periodicity depending on exam results; the criteria for the indication of blood transfusions and iron chelation therapy; the indication of hydroxyurea; and the therapeutic approach in cases of conditional transcranial doppler. conclusion: the brazilian guidelines on the use of transcranial doppler in sickle cell disease patients may reduce the risk of strokes, and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality and improve the quality of life of sickle cell disease patients.
Evaluation of Diet Quality of Egyptian Children and Adolescents using Healthy Eating Index
Mervat A. Esmail - Wafaa M.A.Saleh -Nebal A.R.Aboul Ella - Asmaa M. Abd
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine , 2009,
Abstract: Background: Healthful eating is essential for development and well-being. Some dietary patterns are associated with 4 of the 10 leading causes of death (coronary heart disease, certain types of cancer, stroke, and type 2 diabetes). Major improvements in the health of the public can, therefore, be made by improving people's dietary patterns. The U.S. department of Agriculture has developed an index, called the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) that was updated in the year 2002. It is based on different aspects of a healthful diet; the Index is designed to provide a measure of overall dietary quality, and the compliance with specific Dietary Guidelines recommendations. The aim of our study is to use the healthy eating index to assess the diet quality of a representative sample of the Egyptian children and adolescents and to examine the association between body mass index and caloric intake of the studied sample. Materials & Methods: This study is a part of National Egyptian survey, Diet, Nutrition and Prevention of Chronic Non-communicable Diseases. The Healthy Eating Index was applied with slight modifications to measure how well the studied Egyptian students' diet conforms to recommended healthy eating pattern. The data were based on representative sample (2145) of children and adolescents (10 -18) years in 7 governorates from. One day of dietary intake data (24 hours recall) was collected, during an in-person interview. The Healthy Eating Index measures how well the studied children and adolescents' diets conform to the American Dietary Guidelines recommendations and the Food Guide Pyramid applied in our country. Ten dietary components have been identified and the overall Index has a total possible score ranging from zero to 100. Results: Our results showed that the average Healthy Eating Index score was 59.1 out of a possible 100 and it ranged from 20 to 86, Only 0.5 percent of the students had Healthy Eating scores above 80; while 16.9 percent of them received scores below 50 and the majority (82.5 percent) had scores on the Healthy Eating Index between 51 and 80. In an effort to provide a "rating" of the overall student's diet, a grading scale was developed, the majority of students had diets rated as "Needs Improvement", only 0.5 % received diets rated as "Good" and 16.9 % had diets rated as "Poor". Males achieved a slightly higher average Index than females (59.7 Vs 58.2). The average score for food groups is much lower than that for dietary guidelines (23.5 Vs 35.6) out of total score of 50 for each. There was a significant positive correlation of BMI wi
Association of candy consumption with body weight measures, other health risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and diet quality in US children and adolescents: NHANES 1999–2004  [cached]
Carol E. O'Neil,Victor L. Fulgoni III,Theresa A. Nicklas
Food & Nutrition Research , 2011, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5794
Abstract: Objective : The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of total, chocolate, or sugar candy consumption on intakes of total energy, fat, and added sugars; diet quality; weight/adiposity parameters; and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in children 2–13 years of age (n=7,049) and adolescents 14–18 years (n=4,132) participating in the 1999–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Methods : Twenty-four hour dietary recalls were used to determine intake. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Covariate-adjusted means, standard errors, and prevalence rates were determined for each candy consumption group. Odds ratios were used to determine the likelihood of associations with weight status and diet quality. Results : In younger children, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 11.4 g±1.61, 4.8 g±0.35, and 6.6 g±0.46, respectively. In adolescents, total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumption was 13.0 g±0.87, 7.0 g±0.56, and 5.9 g±0.56, respectively. Total candy consumers had higher intakes of total energy (2248.9 kcals±26.8 vs 1993.1 kcals±15.1, p<0.0001) and added sugars (27.7 g±0.44 vs 23.4 g±0.38, p<0.0001) than non-consumers. Mean HEI-2005 score was not different in total candy and sugar candy consumers as compared to non-consumers, but was significantly lower in chocolate candy consumers (46.7±0.8 vs 48.3±0.4, p = 0.0337). Weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, percentiles/z-score for weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were lower for candy consumers as compared to non-consumers. Candy consumers were 22 and 26%, respectively, less likely to be overweight and obese than non-candy consumers. Blood pressure, blood lipid levels, and cardiovascular risk factors were not different between total, chocolate, and sugar candy consumers and non-consumers (except that sugar candy consumers had lower C-reactive protein levels than non-consumers). Conclusion : This study suggests that candy consumption did not adversely affect health risk markers in children and adolescents.
Changes of body composition during weight reduction program based on the diet and physical exercises and long term effectiveness of this therapy in obese adolescents
Julita Regu?a,Jan Jeszka
Acta Scientiarum Polonorum : Technologia Alimentaria , 2008,
Abstract: This study investigates to what extent long term effectiveness of weight reduction program in obese adolescents depends on the body composition before therapy and its changes during therapy. Studies were conducted on 78 obese adolescents aged 12-16 years, who participated in a 4-week weight reduction program, which consisted of low energy diet (5.47 MJ per day, 18% protein, 26% fat, 56% carbohydrate) and physical ex-ercises. Body weight (BW) and body composition (fat mass – FM, lean body mass – LBM) were measured using bioimpedance method before and during therapy as well as six months later. After 4-week BW, FM, LBM decreased significantly (p < 0.001). Six months after termination of therapy the mean BW increased, but mainly due to LBM. Mean changes FM (0.29 kg ±3.93) were not significant however in 50% of population FM increased. Correlation between loss of LBM during therapy and FM gain after six months was statistically significant. FM after six months correlated with BW and FM before ther-apy and changes BW during therapy. Effectiveness of the program could be well pre-dicted by BC before therapy and its changes during therapy. Results permitted to formu-late detailed recommendations for weight reduction program for obese adolescents regarding the individual degree of obesity and BC.
Compliance with behavioral guidelines for diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors is related to insulin resistance among overweight and obese youth
Jeannie S Huang, Michael Gottschalk, Gregory J Norman, Karen J Calfas, James F Sallis, Kevin Patrick
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-29
Abstract: 92 youths 11 - 16 years with BMI ≥ 85% underwent oral glucose tolerance testing. HOMA-IR and AUCInsulin/AUCGlucose were calculated as measures of insulin resistance. Dietary and physical activity (PA) measures were performed. Assessments included whether or not participants met recommended levels of diet, PA and sedentary behaviors.62% youths met criteria for insulin resistance. 82% (75/92) met at least one behavioral recommendation. Participants who met ≥ 1 dietary, sedentary, or PA recommendations had significantly reduced insulin resistance as compared with youth who did not. This relationship remained significant in multivariate modeling of insulin resistance adjusting for age, sex, and BMI.Even relatively minor behavior change may reduce insulin resistance in youth at risk for diabetes. Our findings support the relevance of current behavioral interventions for glycemic control.Clinical Trials #NCT00412165.Obesity is a well-known risk factor for the development of diabetes in childhood. Similarly, the effects of dietary, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors on insulin resistance have been well established. Dietary manipulation of macronutrients is important in the maintenance of glycemic control. Diet composition, specifically saturated fat and fiber, affects insulin resistance and risk of diabetes [1-3]. In prospective studies, improving physical activity improves insulin sensitivity [4,5]. Screen time and sedentary behaviors also are associated with abnormal glucose metabolism [6-8]. Guidelines have been developed for diet, physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors with the intent to improve glycemic control and prevent diabetes among children and adolescents. For example the American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends a diet low in saturated fat and high in fiber with adequate carbohydrate intake, reduced sedentary behavior and increased physical activity [9]. However, the relationship between compliance with these behavioral recommendations and
The Eat Smart Study: A randomised controlled trial of a reduced carbohydrate versus a low fat diet for weight loss in obese adolescents
Helen Truby, Kimberley A Baxter, Paula Barrett, Robert S Ware, John C Cardinal, Peter SW Davies, Lynne A Daniels, Jennifer A Batch
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-464
Abstract: Eat Smart is a randomised controlled trial and aims to recruit 100 adolescents over a 2 1/2 year period. Families will be invited to participate following referral by their health professional who has recommended weight management. Participants will be overweight as defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than the 90th percentile, using CDC 2000 growth charts. An accredited 6-week psychological life skills program 'FRIENDS for Life', which is designed to provide behaviour change and coping skills will be undertaken prior to volunteers being randomised to group. The intervention arms include a structured reduced carbohydrate or a structured low fat dietary program based on an individualised energy prescription. The intervention will involve a series of dietetic appointments over 24 weeks. The control group will commence the dietary program of their choice after a 12 week period. Outcome measures will be assessed at baseline, week 12 and week 24. The primary outcome measure will be change in BMI z-score. A range of secondary outcome measures including body composition, lipid fractions, inflammatory markers, social and psychological measures will be measured.The chronic and difficult nature of treating the obese adolescent is increasingly recognised by clinicians and has highlighted the need for research aimed at providing effective intervention strategies, particularly for use in the tertiary setting. A structured reduced carbohydrate approach may provide a dietary pattern that some families will find more sustainable and effective than the conventional low fat dietary approach currently advocated. This study aims to investigate the acceptability and effectiveness of a structured reduced dietary carbohydrate intervention and will compare the outcomes of this approach with a structured low fat eating plan.The protocol for this study is registered with the International Clinical Trials Registry (ISRCTN49438757).Obesity is being increasingly recognised as a major chro
Diet and behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents
Nina ?verby,Rune H?igaard
Food & Nutrition Research , 2012, DOI: 10.3402/fnr.v56i0.17231
Abstract: Background: Discussion about dietary factors in relation to behavioral problems in children and adolescents has been going on for a long time. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional relation between diet and self-reported behavioral problems at school in adolescents in the southern part of Norway. Design: In total, 475 ninth- and tenth-grade students (236 boys and 239 girls) out of 625 eligible students from four different secondary schools in three different communities in Vest-Agder County, Norway, participated, giving a participation rate of 77%. The students filled in a questionnaire with food frequency questions of selected healthy (e.g. fruits, vegetables, and fish) and unhealthy (e.g. sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and crisps) food items, questions of meal frequency, and four questions regarding behavioral problems at school. Results: Having breakfast regularly was significantly associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems (OR: 0.29 (0.15 0.55), p≤0.001). A high intake of unhealthy foods, such as sugar-sweetened soft drinks (OR: 2.8 (1.06 7.42), p=0.03) and sweets (OR: 2.63 (1.39 4.98), p=0.003), was significantly associated with increased odds of behavioral problems. At the same time, a high intake of fruits was associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems in Norwegian adolescents (OR: 0.30 (0.10 0.87), p=0.03). All ORs are adjusted for sex and BMI. Conclusions: This study shows that having an optimal diet and not skipping meals are associated with decreased odds of behavioral problems at school in Norwegian adolescents. Hence, it is important to improve the dietary intake and meal pattern of Norwegian adolescents. The cross-sectional design of this study limits any causal interpretations of the results of the study.
Food Intakes by Preschool Children in Flanders Compared with Dietary Guidelines  [PDF]
Inge Huybrechts,Christophe Matthys,Carine Vereecken,Lea Maes,Elisabeth HM Temme,Herman Van Oyen,Guy De Backer,Stefaan De Henauw
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph5040243
Abstract: The objective of this study was to compare food group intakes among preschool children with food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) and to determine the proportion of children meeting these guidelines. Food consumption of preschool children (2.5-6.5 years) living in Flanders (Belgium) were assessed in a cross-sectional study, using proxy reported 3d estimated dietary records (EDR) (n 696). Statistical modelling was used to account for within-individual variation in the 3d EDR. Mean daily intakes of most food groups (beverages, vegetables, fruit and milk) were below the minimum recommendations. Only ‘grains and potatoes’ and ‘meat products’ were in line with the recommendations and ‘bread and cereals’ showed borderline intakes. Mean intakes of energy-dense and low-nutritious foods, which are discouraged within a healthy diet (like snacks and sugared drinks), were high. Furthermore, the percentage of children complying with the different food-based dietary guidelines was for most food groups extremely low (ranging from approximately 4% for fluid and vegetable intakes up to 99% for potato intakes). Boys had in general higher mean intakes of the recommended food groups. In conclusion, preschool children in Flanders follow eating patterns that do not meet Flemish FBDG. Although the impact of these eating habits on preschooler’s current and future health should be further investigated, it is clear that nutrition education and intervention are needed among preschool children and their parents in Flanders.
Certain Grain Food Patterns Are Associated with Improved 2015 Dietary Guidelines Shortfall Nutrient Intakes, Diet Quality, and Lower Body Weight in US Adults: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010  [PDF]
Yanni Papanikolaou, Victor L. Fulgoni III
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2016.79078
Abstract: Objective: The goal of this study was to identify commonly consumed grain food patterns in US adults (≥19 years old; N = 14,384) and compare nutrient intakes, with focus on 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines’ shortfall nutrients, diet quality, and health parameters of those consuming various grain food patterns to those not consuming grains. Methods: This study conducted secondary analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2010. Cluster analysis was used and identified 8 grain patterns: 1) no consumption of main grain groups, 2) crackers and salty snacks, 3) yeast breads and rolls, 4) cakes, cookies, and pies, 5) cereals, 6) pasta, cooked cereals and rice, 7) quick breads, and 8) mixed grains. Results: Adults consuming “cereals”, “pasta, cooked cereals and rice”, and “mixed grains” had a better diet quality compared to no grains. Consuming many, but not all, of the grain food patterns resulted in less saturated fat and lower added sugars. Adults consuming “cereals”, “pasta, cooked cereals and rice” and “quick breads” had greater dietary fiber intake vs. no grains group. Calcium intake was increased in the cereals group, while magnesium intake was greater in adults consuming “cereals” and “pasta, cooked cereals and rice” vs. no grains. Vitamin D (D2 + D3) intake was higher in adults consuming “cereals”, “pasta, cooked cereals and rice”, and “mixed grains” vs. no grain group. Adults consuming “pasta, cooked cereals and rice” had lower body weights (79.1 ± 0.7 vs. 82.5 ± 1.2 kg; P = 0.009) and waist circumference (95.2 ± 0.6 vs. 98.2 ± 1.0 cm; P = 0.004) in comparison to those consuming no grains. Conclusions: Certain grain food patterns are associated with greater 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines’ shortfall nutrients, better diet quality and lower body weights in adults. Additionally, certain grain food patterns are associated with lower intake of nutrients to limit, including saturated fat and added sugars.
Epiphanies, velcro balls and McDonaldization: highlights from the 5th Meeting of the International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Kylie Ball
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-3-30
Abstract: How can the years' worth of international, cutting-edge behavioral nutrition and physical activity research, conceptual and methodological advances, and inspiring intellectual debate that comprised the program of the 5th Annual Scientific Meeting of the International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA), be adequately summed up in just a few short paragraphs? Clearly this is a near impossible objective, and instead I hope to convey in this commentary just a flavour of the diverse, high-calibre and motivating program featured at this recent event.Delegates at the Meeting held in Boston on July 13–16 contributed and were treated to all of the above, and more. With six world-renowned keynote speakers; a spirited debate; 16 symposium sessions; more than 150 peer-reviewed oral papers and poster presentations; 3 cutting-edge practical workshops; and networking opportunities with over 250 delegates from 27 countries around the world on the menu, the meeting certainly lived up to the highest of expectations.Among the conference highlights was the focus on research themes of increasing importance internationally. The International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical activity was formed in recognition of the significant impact these two key behaviors have on health. While sedentary lifestyles and poor diet pose a range of health risks, currently there is a global focus particularly on those risks posed by an 'obesity pandemic', to which physical inactivity and certain dietary behaviors are arguably key contributors. This theme was reflected in two keynote sessions, from Professors Jim Hill and Steve Gortmaker, and a number of symposium and free paper sessions, discussing issues such as the behavioral causes of obesity; the potential contributing roles of individuals, parents, schools, regulators, and the broader environment; and opportunities for obesity prevention and intervention with children, adolescents and adults. A particular highli
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