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Anatomical and developmental aspects of leaf galls induced by Schizomyia macrocapillata Maia (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) on Bauhinia brevipes Vogel (Fabaceae)
, Camila Emiliane Mendes de;Silveira, Fernando A. O.;Santos, Jean C.;Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos;Fernandes, G. Wilson;
Brazilian Journal of Botany , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-84042009000200011
Abstract: samples of healthy leaves and galls induced by schizomyia macrocapillata maia on bauhinia brevipes vogel were submitted to routine techniques to investigate gall anatomy and development. pouch galls are induced on the abaxial surface of unfolded immature leaves, and become spheroid with long reddish hairs covering their external surface. galls occur isolated or coalesce when in larger numbers. gall development was divided into six phases: 1) initiation; 2) tissue re-arrangement; 3) tissue differentiation; 4) maturation; 5) growth phase; and 6) dehiscence. this last phase corresponds to gall senescence, which takes place just after the larva exits the chamber to pupate. an important developmental phase of tissue reorientation was recorded after the initiation phase. the presence of hyphae close to the covering layer characterizes this gall as an ambrosia gall and the feeding mode of the gall migde is discussed. few hyphae were found during the first developmental phases and fungi may play an important role during gall morphogenesis. neoformed trichomes may provide not only photoprotection but also protection against natural enemies and water loss. the neoformation of phloematic bundles suggests host manipulation and indicates the establishment of a deviating sink.
Terpenoids from Endophytic Fungi  [PDF]
Jucimar Jorgeane de Souza,Ivo José Curcino Vieira,Edson Rodrigues-Filho,Raimundo Braz-Filho
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules161210604
Abstract: This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.
New species of Hymenoptera associated with galls on Calliandra brevipes Benth. (Fabaceae, Mimosoidea) in Brazil
Penteado-Dias, Angélica M.;Carvalho, Fabrício M. de;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262008000300001
Abstract: four species of hymenoptera: tanaostigmodes ringueleti (brèthes, 1924), t. mecanga sp.nov. (chalcidoidea, tanaostigmatidae), allorhogas taua sp. nov. (braconidae, doryctinae) and eurytoma sp. (chalcidoidea, eurytomidae) were reared from two different types of galls of calliandra brevipes benth. (fabaceae, mimosoidea) in juiz-de-fora, minas gerais state, brazil. the two tanaostigmatidae species are probably the gall inducers; the braconidae species probably is phytophagous inquiline in round gall type. the two new species are described and illustrated, including their immature stages.
Seasonal variation of phenolic content in galled and non-galled tissues of Calliandra brevipes Benth (Fabaceae: Mimosoidae)
Detoni, Michelle de Lima;Vasconcelos, Eveline Gomes;Rust, Naiara Miranda;Isaias, Rosy Mary dos Santos;Soares, Geraldo Luiz Gon?alves;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062011000300013
Abstract: two species, tanaostigmodes ringueleti and t. mecanga, induce distinct galls on calliandra brevipes benth (fabaceae: mimosoidae), a globose and a fusiform gall morphotype. seasonal changes of phenolic content in the tissues of the two distinct galls were compared to those of non-galled leaves and stems of the host plants over one year. the variation in the phenolic content profiles was similar in both non-galled and galled tissues, and was primarily associated with changes in the levels of rainfall, indicating a direct response to hydric stress. in periods of drastic changes in water precipitation, the alterations were significantly higher in non-galled than in galled tissues suggesting that the gall inducers might limit the variation in the phenolic concentration for their own benefit.
Potencial Antioxidante de Bauhinia Kalbreyeri Harms (FABACEAE)
Murillo,Elizabeth; Lombo,Oscar; Tique,Margarita; Méndez,Jonh J;
Información tecnológica , 2007, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-07642007000600009
Abstract: antioxidant activity of aqueous and organics extracts from the leaf and bark of bauhinia kalbreyeri harms it is describes, this plant has been determined by the colombian ethnomedicine as antidiabetic. the extracts were evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity by dpph method. ethanol an aqueous extracts showed the higher dpph radical scavenging activity than 90% in almost all the concentration tested (5-120 mg/ml), the efficient concentrations were low, supported the high inhibitory potential. the reducing power reveled dependence on the extractor solvent and the use of leaf or bark, but independent from the concentration; ethanolic extract of bark exhibited a high reductive potential. ethanolic and aqueous extracts of bark showed greatest phenols amount. the plant can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants, that could resist the excess of free radicals, hence exert the therapeutic properties attributed, more than act as a hypoglycaemic.
Potencial Antioxidante de Bauhinia Kalbreyeri Harms (FABACEAE) Antioxidant Potential of Bauhinia Kalbreyeri Harms (FABACEAE)  [cached]
Elizabeth Murillo,Oscar Lombo,Margarita Tique,Jonh J Méndez
Información Tecnológica , 2007,
Abstract: En este estudio se evaluó la actividad antioxidante de los extractos acuoso y orgánicos de Bauhinia kalbreyeri Harms, reportada por la medicina folclórica Colombiana como antidiabética. Se evaluaron los extractos midiendo su capacidad de captación de radicales libres utilizando el método del 1,1-difenil-2-picrilhidracil (DPPH). Los extractos etanólicos y acuosos, alcanzaron una actividad secuestrante del radical DPPH mayor a 90% en casi todas las concentraciones (5-120 mg/ml); las concentraciones efectivas fueron bajas, confirmando el alto potencial antioxidante. El poder reductor reveló depender del solvente extractor y del uso de hoja o corteza, pero independiente de la concentración; el extracto etanólico de corteza evidenció alto potencial reductor. Los extractos etanólico y acuoso de corteza mostraron la mayor cantidad de fenoles. La planta puede ser considerada una buena fuente de antioxidantes naturales, que podrían contrarrestar el exceso de radicales libres, y así ejercer las propiedades terapéuticas atribuidas, más que actuar como hipoglicemiante. Antioxidant activity of aqueous and organics extracts from the leaf and bark of Bauhinia kalbreyeri Harms it is describes, this plant has been determined by the Colombian ethnomedicine as antidiabetic. The extracts were evaluated for their free radical scavenging activity by DPPH method. Ethanol an aqueous extracts showed the higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than 90% in almost all the concentration tested (5-120 mg/ml), the efficient concentrations were low, supported the high inhibitory potential. The reducing power reveled dependence on the extractor solvent and the use of leaf or bark, but independent from the concentration; ethanolic extract of bark exhibited a high reductive potential. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of bark showed greatest phenols amount. The plant can be considered as a good source of natural antioxidants, that could resist the excess of free radicals, hence exert the therapeutic properties attributed, more than act as a hypoglycaemic.
Leishmanicidal Metabolites from Cochliobolus sp., an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from Piptadenia adiantoides (Fabaceae)  [PDF]
Fernanda Fraga Campos,Luiz Henrique Rosa,Betania Barros Cota,Rachel Basques Caligiorne,Ana Lúcia Teles Rabello,Tania Maria Almeida Alves,Carlos Augusto Rosa,Carlos Leomar Zani
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0000348
Abstract: Protozoan parasites belonging to genera Leishmania and Trypanosoma are the etiological agents of severe neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that cause enormous social and economic impact in many countries of tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In our screening program for new drug leads from natural sources, we found that the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Cochliobolus sp. (UFMGCB-555) could kill 90% of the amastigote-like forms of Leishmania amazonensis and inhibit by 100% Ellman's reagent reduction in the trypanothione reductase (TryR) assay, when tested at 20 μg mL?1. UFMGCB-555 was isolated from the plant Piptadenia adiantoides J.F. Macbr (Fabaceae) and identified based on the sequence of the internally transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of its ribosomal DNA. The chromatographic fractionation of the extract was guided by the TryR assay and resulted in the isolation of cochlioquinone A and isocochlioquinone A. Both compounds were active in the assay with L. amazonensis, disclosing EC50 values (effective concentrations required to kill 50% of the parasite) of 1.7 μM (95% confidence interval = 1.6 to 1.9 μM) and 4.1 μM (95% confidence interval = 3.6 to 4.7 μM), respectively. These compounds were not active against three human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, TK-10, and UACC-62), indicating some degree of selectivity towards the parasites. These results suggest that cochlioquinones are attractive lead compounds that deserve further investigation aiming at developing new drugs to treat leishmaniasis. The findings also reinforce the role of endophytic fungi as an important source of compounds with potential to enter the pipeline for drug development against NTDs.
Enantioselective biotransformation of propranolol to the active metabolite 4-hydroxypropranolol by endophytic fungi
Borges, Keyller Bastos;Bonato, Pierina Sueli;Pupo, M?nica Tallarico;
Química Nova , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-40422011000800011
Abstract: the enantioselective biotransformation of propranolol (prop) by the endophytic fungi phomopsis sp., glomerella cingulata, penicillium crustosum, chaetomium globosum and aspergillus fumigatus was investigated by studying the kinetics of the aromatic hydroxylation reaction with the formation of 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-oh-prop). both prop enantiomers were consumed by the fungi in the biotransformation process, but the 4-hydroxylation reaction yielded preferentially (-)-(s)-4-oh-prop. the quantity of metabolites biosynthesized varied slightly among the evaluated endophytic fungi. these results show that all investigated endophytic fungi could be used as biosynthetic tools in biotransformation processes to obtain the enantiomers of 4-oh-prop.
Research advances in endophytic fungi of mangrove.
红树林内生真菌研究进展

LIU Ai-rong,WU Xiao-peng,XU Tong,
刘爱荣
,吴晓鹏,徐同

应用生态学报 , 2007,
Abstract: Mangrove, a kind of special host plants, is a resource of abundant endophytic fungi. More than 200 species of endophytic fungi are isolated and identified from mangrove, being the second largest community of marine fungi. The reported endophytic fungi of mangrove are mainly Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Phoma, Phomopsis, Phyllosticta and Trichoderma. Most endophytic fungi have wide range of hosts, and a few only have single host. However, the composition and dominant species on each mangrove plant are different. The colonization of endophytic fungi always varies with different parts (leaves, twigs, stems) and age of host plants and with seasons. The endophytic fungi of mangrove can produce many kinds of metabolites with great potential for anti-microbial and anti-tumor medicinal use. In this paper, the research advances in biodiversity of endophytic fungi in mangrove, their distribution, biological and ecological function, and secondary metabolites were reviewed.
Screening of endophytic fungi that promote the growth of Euphorbia pekinensis
C Dai, B Yu, X Li
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2008,
Abstract: This study explored a strategy to use endophytic fungi for promoting the growth of the medicinal plant, Euphorbia pekinensis. The growth of E. pekinensis was examined in pot culture following inoculation of E. pekinensis with endophytic fungal strains (Fusarium spp.) from E. pekinensis (E4 and E5) and those not from E. pekinensis (B3, B6 and S12). The results showed that plants treated with E4 or E5 exhibited significant increase in growth and all tested growth parameters, as compared to the control (CK). The biomass of E4- and E5-treated plants was 2.08 and 1.50 fold higher than that of CK. Analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, the indicator of unsaturated fatty acids (IUFA), showed a similar trend as the growth biomass, indicating that the treatments of E4 and E5 benefited the growth of the host plantlets. Indole acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were found in the fermented broth of E4 and E5. E. pekinensis cell suspensions demonstrated similar responses to treatment with mycelia extract or filtrate of E5 culture medium. Replacement of MS culture medium components with E5 extracts in host cell suspensions suggested that E5 extract could replace auxin to enhance the plant growth. Therefore, strain E5 could be used as a growth-promoting strain for E. pekinensis. The method used in this study could be applicable to similar studies on the relationship between endophytic fungi and their host plants. This method provides a technique to accelerate the growth of E. pekinensis plantlets and suspension cells.
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