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Comparison of caries detection methods using varying numbers of intra-oral digital photographs with visual examination for epidemiology in children  [cached]
Boye Uriana,Pretty Ian A,Tickle Martin,Walsh Tanya
BMC Oral Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6831-13-6
Abstract: Background This was a method comparison study. The aim of study was to compare caries information obtained from a full mouth visual examination using the method developed by the British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry (BASCD) for epidemiological surveys with caries data obtained from eight, six and four intra-oral digital photographs of index teeth in two groups of children aged 5 years and 10/11 years. Methods Five trained and calibrated examiners visually examined the whole mouth of 240 5-year-olds and 250 10-/11-year-olds using the BASCD method. The children also had intra-oral digital photographs taken of index teeth. The same 5 examiners assessed the intra-oral digital photographs (in groups of 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs) for caries using the BASCD criteria; dmft/DMFT were used to compute Weighted Kappa Statistic as a measure of intra-examiner reliability and intra-class correlation coefficients as a measure of inter-examiner reliability for each method. A method comparison analysis was performed to determine the 95% limits of agreement for all five examiners, comparing the visual examination method with the photographic assessment method using 8, 6 and 4 intra-oral photographs. Results The intra-rater reliability for the visual examinations ranged from 0.81 to 0.94 in the 5-year-olds and 0.90 to 0.97 in the 10-/11-year-olds. Those for the photographic assessments in the 5-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs, 0.86 to 0.94, for 6 intra-oral photographs, 0.85 to 0.98 and for 4 intra-oral photographs, 0.80 to 0.96; for the 10-/11-year-olds were for 8 intra-oral photographs 0.84 to 1.00, for 6 intra-oral photographs 0.82 to 1.00 and for 4 intra-oral photographs 0.72 to 0.98. The 95% limits of agreement were 1.997 to 1.967, -2.375 to 2.735 and 2.250 to 2.921 respectively for the 5-year-olds and 2.614 to 2.027, -2.179 to 3.887 and 2.594 to 2.163 respectively for the 10-/11-year-olds. Conclusions The photographic assessment method, particularly assessment of 8 intra-oral digital photographs is comparable to the visual examination method in the primary dentition. With the additional benefits of archiving, remote scoring, allowing multiple scorers to score images and enabling longitudinal analysis, the photographic assessment method may be used as an alternative caries detection method in the primary dentition in situations where the visual examination method may not be applicable such as when examiner blinding is required and in practice based randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
Digital MGH Digital MGH  [cached]
Tiziana Lazzari
Reti Medievali Rivista , 2005, DOI: 10.6092/1593-2214/193
Abstract: Review of Digital MGH Recensione a Digital MGH
The many faces of epidemiology: evolutionary epidemiology
Struchiner,Claudio José; Luz,Paula Mendes; Code?o,Claudia Torres; Massad,Eduardo;
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S1413-81232008000600009
Abstract: we review important issues revealed by the application of the evolutionary theory to epidemiological problems. the scope is restricted to infectious diseases and the evolution of virulence as a consequence of public health strategies to control transmission. we focus on the discussion about the possibility of virulence management and explore current scenarios in which recent advances in molecular biology and genetics offer new tools to monitor and change diversity among pathogens, vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. we stress the need to integrate the analytical framework of epidemiology into population genetics and evolutionary theory. we anticipate as an outcome of this process the development of study designs and analytical tools to predict the evolutionary implications of control measures in the population and surveillance mechanisms to continuously monitor the changes in pathogen virulence patterns. communication among modelers, epidemiologists and molecular biologists is essential in order to design model-driven field trials and to develop data-driven analytical tools leading to conclusive findings that can inform the public health oriented decision making process.
The Epidemiology of Sarcoma
Zachary Burningham, Mia Hashibe, Logan Spector, Joshua D Schiffman
Clinical Sarcoma Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2045-3329-2-14
Abstract: Sarcomas, tumors of putative mesenchymal origin, account for nearly 21% of all pediatric solid malignant cancers and less than 1% of all adult solid malignant cancers [1]. In addition, sarcomas represent multiple malignancies rather than a single cancer [2]. For example, more than 50 distinct histologic sarcoma subtypes exist. Furthermore, many of these subtypes can occur at any age and are not restricted to a specific location of the body. The rarity of the disease combined with the diverse number of subtypes can make sarcomas very difficult to study. In order for the evaluation of the epidemiology and etiology of sarcomas to be feasible, this review will take a broad perspective, noting differences primarily between the two most common and distinct sarcoma groupings, malignant bone tumors and soft tissue sarcomas [2].Soft tissue sarcomas often form in the body’s muscles, joints, fat, nerves, deep skin tissues, and blood vessels. As the name implies, malignant bone tumors such as osteosarcomas and Ewing’s sarcomas are found throughout the bones of the body, but also can commonly be found in the cartilage [3]. In 2010, the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) projected that 10,520 and 2,650 Americans, including all ages, will have been diagnosed with soft tissue and malignant bone tumors, respectively [4]. Furthermore, it is also projected that 3,920 and 1,460 Americans will die in 2010 from soft tissue and malignant bone tumors, respectively.Sarcomas, although relatively rare, are quite deadly, especially soft tissue sarcomas. The primary reason for this is due to delayed diagnosis and advanced disease, or metastasis, at presentation [3]. Early stage sarcomas lack distinct symptoms that would potentially allow for early diagnosis. In addition to being a deadly disease, sarcomas also occur more frequently in young adults and adolescents compared to other cancers. Thus, despite lower incidence rates, the years of life lost can often be substantial. These fact
Editorial - Clinical Epidemiology
Henrik Toft S rensen
Clinical Epidemiology , 2009, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S5309
Abstract: Editorial - Clinical Epidemiology Other (5586) Total Article Views Authors: Henrik Toft S rensen Published Date February 2009 Volume 2009:1 Pages 17 - 18 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S5309 Henrik Toft S rensen Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark; Department of Epidemiology, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Clinical Epidemiology – a fast new way to publish important research When starting a new journal, Clinical Epidemiology, it is important to define some key concepts, our mission, and to delineate our discipline. The classic concept of epidemiology is an old discipline with centuries-old roots. It is a discipline of central importance for public health and its impact for clinical medicine has increased over the last few decades. Epidemiology can thus be broadly divided into population and clinical epidemiology. Population epidemiology deals with the variation in disease occurrence and reasons for this variation. The description of the variation is the subject of descriptive epidemiology and the study of the causes or correlates of this variation is the subject of analytical epidemiology. Population epidemiology is a core tool for disease prevention and is central to public health. Post to: Cannotea Citeulike Del.icio.us Facebook LinkedIn Twitter Readers of this article also read: Bone resorption in incompletely impacted mandibular third molars and acute pericoronitis Periosteoplasty for covering gingival recessions: Clinical results Radiolucency below the crown of mandibular horizontal incompletely impacted third molars and acute inflammation in men with diabetes The cognitive impact of anticholinergics: A clinical review Improving reporting of adverse drug reactions: Systematic review Perceptions of risk: understanding cardiovascular disease Oxidized galectin-1 reduces lipopolysaccharide-induced increase of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in cultured macrophages Microscope-controlled glass bead blasting: a new technique Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: critical appraisal and role in therapy Causal diagrams and the logic of matched case-control studies
Study Designs in Genetic Epidemiology  [PDF]
Leyla Sahebi,Saeed Dastgiri,Khalil Ansarin,Roya Sahebi,Seyyed Abolghasem Mohammadi
ISRN Genetics , 2013, DOI: 10.5402/2013/952518
Abstract: Genetic epidemiology, as a relatively new issue, aims to explore the independent role of genetic-environmental determinants of diseases. Genetic epidemiology studies, depending on the objective, encompass the most preliminary surveys from the attempts to find family history in the occurrence of diseases to the most advanced surveys including specific strategies by clinical trials in the prevention of genetic diseases. Different objectives in genetic epidemiology studies require special methods and study designs. In this review, chief designs including familial aggregation, heritability, segregation, linkage, and association are evaluated; likewise, the purpose of diverse kinds of studies and analyses is briefly discussed. The utilization of study designs and related analyses according to the aims are the main issues and necessary in the accurate implementation of the study. Some methodological issues in relation to studies on tuberculosis are also reported. Attention to these issues might be useful in the implementation of these methods in the studies designed for the prevention and treatment of genetic disorders. 1. Introduction Epidemiology is the study of distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human populations and the use of this information to control and promote health [1]. The goal of epidemiologic research is to collect valid and precise information on the causes, prevention, and treatment of disease [1]. Genetic epidemiology is the study of the role of genes and their interaction with environmental factors in the occurrence of disease in human populations [2]. The branch of genetic epidemiology is still quite young, although the parents of that (epidemiology and genetics) have rather long history [3]. The objectives of epidemiological studies in genetic science are to determine the risks related to allelic variants of candidate genes, to map more accurately regions of the genome for which there is evidence of linkage to disease susceptibility, and to contribute cases to a genome-wide search for susceptibility genes [4]. 2. Study Designs in Classic Epidemiology The selection of one design over another in studies depends on the particular research question [3] and also on cost, time, and ethical considerations. The most common types of studies are listed with brief explanations about them in Table 1 [1, 5–8]. Table 1: Main study designs in classic epidemiology. 3. Study Designs in Genetic Epidemiology Similar to classical epidemiology, observational studies in genetic epidemiology are divided into descriptive and analytical
Epidemiology of lung cancer  [cached]
Bahader Yasser,Jazieh Abdul-Rahman
Annals of Thoracic Medicine , 2008,
Abstract: Lung cancer ranks first in the world in incidence and mortality. Multiple risk factors have been identified and the majority of lung cancer cases are preventable. This manuscript presents a summary of the epidemiology of lung cancer and the risk factors.
Using Lie symmetries in epidemiology  [cached]
Maria Clara Nucci
Electronic Journal of Differential Equations , 2005,
Abstract: Lie symmetry method has been and still is successfully applied in different problems of physics for about a hundred years, but its application in epidemiology has been rare perhaps because the ordinary differential equations studied in this field are generally of first-order in contrast with those in physics which are usually of second-order. Here we exemplify the use of Lie symmetry method in the study of mathematical models in epidemiology, and show how it complements the mathematical techniques (qualitative and numerical analysis) traditionally used.
On the digital homology groups of digital images  [PDF]
Dae-Woong Lee
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: In this article we study the digital homology groups of digital images which are based on the singular homology groups of topological spaces in algebraic topology. Specifically, we define a digitally standard $n$-simplex, a digitally singular $n$-simplex, and the digital homology groups of digital images with $k$-adjacency relations. We then construct a covariant functor from a category of digital images and digitally continuous functions to the one of abelian groups and group homomorphisms, and investigate some fundamental and interesting properties of digital homology groups of digital images, such as the digital version of the dimension axiom which is one of the Eilenberg-Steenrod axioms.
Molecular epidemiology: The impact of molecular biology in epidemiology research
Dorman,Janice S;
Revista médica de Chile , 2000, DOI: 10.4067/S0034-98872000001100012
Abstract: progress in molecular biology and genetics is changing the practice of medicine and public health through the development of molecular diagnostics and targeted interventions for susceptible individuals. the ethical, legal and social issues that are becoming apparent as these important discoveries are introduced into practice will have an enormous impact on society. the accurate translation of this new genetic information from the laboratory to the community is an urgent need. molecular epidemiology is at the foundation of this important link, and represents the scientific basis of public health for the 21st century. (rev méd chile 2000; 128: 1261-68)
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