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Preliminary Evaluation of 29 Olive (Olea europaea L.) Cultivars for Production and Alternate Bearing, in the Huasco Valley, Northern Chile Evaluación Preliminar de la Produción y A erismo en 29 Variedades de Olivo (Olea europaea L.) en el Valle del Huasco, Norte de Chile  [cached]
Francisco Tapia C,Freddy Mora,Alexandra I Santos
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research , 2009,
Abstract: There is increasing interest in the development of intensively managed olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) in northern Chile. The selection of specific varieties that perform well on a particular site is considered crucial to maximizing productivity. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the productive performance of 29 varieties of olive in the Huasco Valley (28°34' S, 70°47' W), Northern Chile.The traits evaluated were: mean olive production per tree considering a longitudinal (PML) analysis over a period of five years, 2003 to 2007, total olive production in the same period (PA03-07) and alternate bearing index (ABI). The effect of variety was highly significant (p < 0.01) for all traits. In the field trial, IAP was moderate (0.52), with PML 37.7 kg tree-1 and PA-0307 186 kg tree-1. Spearman correlation coefficients between rankings of each trait were positive and significantly different from zero (p < 0.05). ‘Leccino’ performed best based on fruit production alone. ‘Arbequina’, ‘Picholine’, ‘Manzanilla Racimo’, ‘Picual’, ‘Manzanilla de Sevilla’, ‘Frantoio’ and ‘Ascolana Huasco’ evidenced both high productivity and the lowest alternate bearing. These cultivars could be recommended in Huasco if a farmer is seeking to recover establishment costs rapidly, but we emphasize that a longer-term longitudinal study should be carried out before large-scale deployment. En el norte de Chile existe un creciente interés en el desarrollo de huertos de olivo (Olea europaea L.) manejados intensivamente. La selección de variedades específicas que han respondido bien en un sitio en particular es considerada clave para la maximización de la productividad. El presente estudio fue realizado para evaluar el desempe o de algunas características agronómicas en 29 variedades de olivo, en el Valle del Huasco (28°34' S, 70°47' O), norte de Chile. Las características analizadas correspondieron a producción de frutos promedio por árbol (PML) en un análisis longitudinal durante un período de 5 a os, 2003 a 2007, producción acumulada del mismo período (PA03-07) y el índice de alternancia de producción (ABI). El efecto debido a la variedad fue altamente significativo (p < 0,01) para las tres características. El ABI fue moderado (0,52), con una PML de 37,37 kg árbol-1 y PA03-07 de 186 kg árbol-1. Correlaciones de Spearman entre los ranking de cada característica fueron positivas y significativamente diferentes de cero (p < 0,05). ‘Leccino’ tuvo la mejor respuesta considerando únicamente la producción de frutos. ‘Arbequina’, ‘Picholine’, ‘Manzanilla Racimo’, ‘Picual’, ‘Manzanilla
Caracterización histoquimica de la etapa temprana del desarrollo del fruto del olivo (Olea europaea L.)  [cached]
Corrêa Maria José Pinheiro,Rodríguez-García Maria Isabel,Arnal Adela Olmedilla
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2002,
Abstract: Se estudia el desarrollo a nivel histoquimico de la etapa temprana del fruto del olivo (Olea europaea L.) variedad Picual, vigorosa y elevado rendimiento graso. Para ello, se utilizaron flores de olivo recién fecundadas y también com tres, siete y diez días tras la fecundación. Hemos utilizado tinción com "Sudan Black", para hacer un seguimiento de los lípidos en las diferentes etapas de desarrollo del fruto del olivo. Como resultado se puede decir que en la etapa temprana del desarrollo del fruto, el exocarpo se presenta rico en lípidos en todas las etapas de estudio. El mesocarpo y el embrión presentan tinción no homogénea, o sea, hay algunas regiones de ellos que presentan lipidos, mientras que la zona vascular del mesocarpo y el endocarpo se presentan libre de tinción y la zona vascular del embrión se mantiene rica en lipidos.
Caracterización histoquimica de la etapa temprana del desarrollo del fruto del olivo (Olea europaea L.)
Corrêa, Maria José Pinheiro;Rodríguez-García, Maria Isabel;Arnal, Adela Olmedilla;
Acta Botanica Brasilica , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-33062002000100009
Abstract: the histochemical development is studied of the early stage of the fruit of the olive tree (olea europaea l.) variety picual, vigorous and of high fatty yield. recently fecundated olive tree flowers were used and also flowers three, seven and ten days after the fertilisation. sudan black reaction was used for the histochemical detection of lipids in the different stages of development of the olive fruit . the result is that in the early stage of the development of the fruit, the exocarp is rich in lipids in all the study stages. the mesocarp and the embryo do not present homogeneous coloration, that is to say, there are some regions of them that present lipids. the vascular zone of the mesocarp and the endocarp are presented free of coloration and the vascular zone of the embryo in the last two study stages stays rich in lipids.
Procedimiento de obtención y determinación de ácidos terpénicos de la hoja del olivo (Olea europaea)
Albi, T.,Guinda, A.,Lanzón, A.
Grasas y Aceites , 2001,
Abstract: The terpenic acids, mainly the oleanolic acid, are used for the pharmaceutical industry, among other, for its antitumoral, anti-inflammatory and germicide activities. A process of obtainment of oleanolic acid from olive leaves is described. Solid/liquid extraction with ethanol, treatment of the extract and concentration under defined conditions, being possible to obtain in a single extraction stage a yield of 90 % of the leaf content (2-3 %, referred to the leaf weight) and with richness in excess of 95 %. The raw material is a by-product, coming from that of pruning yearly of the olive grove and of the cleaning of the olives. A method is described for the quantification of the terpenic acids from olive leaf of the alcoholic extract, by preparative thin layer chromatography fractionation and gas liquid chromatography quantification with betulinic acid standard. Los ácidos terpénicos y en particular el ácido oleanólico son de utilidad en la industria farmacéutica, entre otras, por su actividad antitumoral, antiinflamatoria y bactericida. Se describe un procedimiento para la obtención de ácido oleanólico, de las hojas de olivo, mediante extracción sólido/líquido con etanol, posterior tratamiento del extracto y concentración en condiciones definidas, siendo posible obtener en una sola etapa de extracción un rendimiento del 90 % del contenido de la hoja (2-3 %, referido al peso de hoja), y con un grado de pureza superior al 95 %. La materia prima es un subproducto, procedente de la poda anual del olivar y de la limpieza de las aceitunas. Se describe un método para la cuantificación de los ácidos terpénicos del extracto alcohólico de la hoja de olivo mediante el fraccionamiento en cromatografía preparativa en capa fina y cuantificación por cromatografía gaseosa con patrón de ácido betulínico.
Naturally fermented black olives of Taggiasca variety (Olea europaea L.)
Amelio, Mauro,DeMuro, Emilio
Grasas y Aceites , 2000,
Abstract: For the first time, a natural fermentation of black Taggiasca variety (Olea europaea L.) olives was studied. This cultivar is typical of Western Liguria (NW of Italy), where it is mainly used for olive oil production. Beside the traditional process, three slightly different processes were taken into account. The fermentation was carried out in 200 litre barrels left at environmental temperature (7-25oC) and took about 6 months to be complete. At the end the olives were pasteurised and stored for a further 6 month period to equilibrate. Throughout the process, pH, NaCl, acidity, free biophenol content and microbiological analysis (Colony count, Coliforms (Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli), Lactobacilli (25oC, 36oC, 45oC), Pseudomonas (P. fluorescens, P. cepacia), Yeasts (Candida spp.), Moulds (Penicillum spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp.) of brines were performed. The results showed that an initial pH correction is recommended and no long soaking of the olives in water (3+3 days) is advisable, except a short washing just before brining. Por primera vez, se ha estudiado una fermentación natural de aceitunas negras de la variedad Taggiasca (Olea europaea L.). Esta variedad es típica del Oeste de Liguria (Noroeste de Italia), donde se usa principalmente para la producción de aceite de oliva. Además del proceso tradicional, tres procesos ligeramente diferentes fueron considerados. La fermentación fue llevada a cabo en barriles de 200 litros mantenidos a temperatura ambiente (7-25oC) y duró aproximadamente 6 meses. Al final las aceitunas fueron pasteurizadas y almacenadas durante otros 6 meses para equilibrarlas. A través de todo el proceso se analizaron: pH, NaCl, acidez, contenido en biofenoles y análisis microbiológico (recuento de colonias, coliformes (Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., Citrobacter spp., Escherichia coli), Lactobacilos (25oC, 36oC, 45oC), Pseudomonas (P. fluorescens, P. cepacia), Levaduras (Candida spp.), Mohos (Penicillum spp., Clostridium spp., Vibrio spp.) de salmueras. Los resultados mostraron que es recomendable una corrección inicial del pH y una inmersión no demasiado larga de las aceitunas en agua (3+3 días), excepto un corto lavado justo antes de ponerlas en salmuera.
Polen atmosférico de Olea europaea L. en Madrid (Ciudad Universitaria) y Aranjuez durante los a os 1994-1997  [cached]
Sáenz Laín, Concepción,Gutiérrez Bustillo, Montserrat
Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid , 1999,
Abstract: The results of four years of study (1994-1997) of the atmospheric levéis of pollen from Olea europaea L. in Madrid and Aranjuez are presented. The principal pollination period (PPP) for each year and each season were calculated, using the mean daily concentrations, and fell between weeks 16 and 26, with maximum daily valúes registered between 3rd May and 7th June. The presence of olive pollen was greater in Aranjuez than in Madrid (mean 3,307 grains of pollen/year and 2,123 grains/year, respectively). The pollen season was similar in each locality. A preliminary comparison of pollen data with temperature and precipitation seems to indicates that accumulated pre-season temperatures, but not rainfall, can have decisive influence on the initiation of pollination. His nuclear what influence rainfall has on the account of pollen collected. Presentamos los resultados obtenidos durante cuatro a os de estudio (1994-1997) del contenido atmosférico de polen de Olea europaea L. en Madrid (Ciudad Universitaria) y en Aranjuez. A partir de las concentraciones medias diarias, hemos calculado el Período de Polinización Principal (PPP) para cada a o y cada estación, que se ha producido siempre entre las semanas 16 y 26, con valores máximos diarios registrados entre el 3 de mayo y el 7 de junio. La presencia del polen de olivo ha sido mayor en Aranjuez que en Madrid (media del período, 3.307 granos de polen/a o y 2.123, respectivamente). Las estación polínica transcurre de forma similar en ambas localidades. De una primera comparación de los datos polínicos con los datos de temperatura y precipitación, parece deducirse que las temperaturas acumuladas durante el período preestacional pueden tener una influencia decisiva en el inicio de la polinización, no así las precipitaciones. Tampoco parece clara su influencia sobre el total anual de polen recogido.
Influencia de tres tipos de lodo de estaciones depuradoras en el desarrollo de estaquillas de olivo  [cached]
Rosario Miralles de,Eulalia Ma. Beltrán,Miguel Angel Porcel,Ma. Luisa Beringola
Revista internacional de contaminación ambiental , 2002,
Abstract: En ensayos previos destinados a estudiar los efectos agronómicos de la aplicación de lodos de depuradora compostados en un olivar se presentaron efectos fitotóxicos en las hojas del olivo Olea europaea L. a los dieciséis meses de su aplicación. Con el fin de buscar las causas que podían producir este fenómeno se decidió realizar un ensayo con estaquillas enraizadas de olivo cv. Cornicabra y tres tipos de lodo para cuantificar el efecto de esos materiales sobre algunos parámetros de crecimiento, nutrición y senescencia. El ensayo se condujo en invernadero. Se evaluaron tres tratamientos: lodo compostado (LC), residuos de poda más lodo compostado (RP+LC), lodo deshidratado por secado térmico (LD). Las dosis estudiadas fueron equivalentes a 0, 10, 20, 40, 80 y 120 t ha-1. Las variables que se estudiaron fueron: disminución del peso fresco (DPF), variación de la longitud del tallo (VLT), disminución de la longitud de la raíz (DLR), disminución del grosor del tallo (DGT), peso seco final (PSF) y porcentaje de nitrógeno total (% NT). Las variables evaluadas: DPF, VLT, DLR, DGT, PSF y % NT, no tuvieron una respuesta significativa para RP mas LC y LD; para LC las variables DPF y % NT fueron significativas (p<0.05), las regresiones lineales fueron para DPF: y= -1.70 - 0.0116x , R2 = 0.1471, para % NT: y=- 1.03 + 0.033x, R2 = 0.2856, x= dosis. En conclusión, este ensayo biológico indica que % NT, DPF, y en este orden, fueron las mejores variables para evaluar la influencia de los tratamientos con lodos y dosis de éstos. En general, las estaquillas fueron más sensibles al tratamiento con lodo compostado, la causa de la fitotoxicidad se atribuyó a su conductividad eléctrica 5.6 dSm-1.
Mycorrhizal status of Olea europaea spp. oleaster in Morocco
F Sghir, M Chliyeh, W Kachkouch, M Khouader, AO Touhami, R Benkirane, A Douira
Journal of Applied Biosciences , 2013,
Abstract: Objective: This study describes the mycorrhizal oleaster status (Olea europaea ssp. oleaster:) in the Moroccan ecosystems. Methodology and results: Soil samples were extracted from the rhizosphere of the oleaster tree groves in several regions of Morocco. The frequency and the levels of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inside the root bark were measured by assigning an index of mycorrhization from 0 to 5 (Derkowska et al., 2008). The results showed that the AM fungal colonization structures were hyphae, coils and vesicles. The mycorrhizal frequency and intensity reached respectively 70 and 6% in the Bnifougass site. The highest spore density was in the order of 364 g soil spores/100 g and the genus Glomus was the dominant one. The tentative identification test of VAM (Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) species, isolated from the rhizosphere of the oleaster trees, revealed the presence of five fungus species: Glomus intraradices, Glomus clarum, Glomus versiforme, Acaulospora colossica, Scutellospora heterogama. Conclusion: In all the studied sites the oleaster roots were Mycorrhized. These results open up many opportunities for the application of the controlled mycorrhization in the oleaster plants nurseries production
Biological Significance of Seed Oil and Polyphenolic of Olea europaea  [PDF]
Mohammad Asif
International Journal of Herbal Medicine , 2013,
Abstract: The olive tree Olea europaea have beneficial properties. Mainly used parts of the olive tree are fruits and seeds. Seeds oil of olive is used as a major component of the “diet.” Chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, polyphenolics and squalene. These main phenolic components are hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest amounts in virgin olive oil and have antioxidant properties. Olive oil has shown activity in against cancer, mainly in colon and breast cancer prevention, while individual component of olive oil, oleic acid and squalene has also been identified as anticancer agent. The olive oil has effects on coronary heart disease, due to its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein level. Some components (such as hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein) of olive oil exhibited antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganism in intestinal and respiratory infections. The oleic acid, polyphenolics, squqlenes are dependable for a number of biological activities as well as whole olive plant also gives health benefits.
Nonsterol Triterpenoids as Major Constituents of Olea europaea  [PDF]
Na?m Stiti,Marie-Andrée Hartmann
Journal of Lipids , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/476595
Abstract: Plant triterpenoids represent a large and structurally diverse class of natural products. A growing interest has been focused on triterpenoids over the past decade due to their beneficial effects on human health. We show here that these bioactive compounds are major constituents of several aerial parts (floral bud, leaf bud, stem, and leaf) of olive tree, a crop exploited so far almost exclusively for its fruit and oil. O. europaea callus cultures were analyzed as well. Twenty sterols and twenty-nine nonsteroidal tetra- and pentacyclic triterpenoids belonging to seven types of carbon skeletons (oleanane, ursane, lupane, taraxerane, taraxastane, euphane, and lanostane) were identified and quantified by GC and GC-MS as free and esterified compounds. The oleanane-type compounds, oleanolic acid and maslinic acid, were largely predominant in all the organs tested, whereas they are practically absent in olive oil. In floral buds, they represented as much as 2.7% of dry matter. In callus cultures, lanostane-type compounds were the most abundant triterpenoids. In all the tissues analyzed, free and esterified triterpene alcohols exhibited different distribution patterns of their carbon skeletons. Taken together, these data provide new insights into largely unknown triterpene secondary metabolism of Olea europaea. 1. Introduction Plant triterpenoids, which include sterols, steroids, and brassinosteroids, constitute a large and structurally diverse group of natural products, with over 100 different carbon skeletons [1, 2]. Oxidative modifications and glycosylations generate more chemical diversity [3]. Sterols and nonsterol triterpenoids are synthesized via the cytoplasmic acetate/mevalonate pathway and share common biosynthetic precursors up to (3S)-2,3-oxidosqualene (OS). The conversion of OS to cycloartenol by the cycloartenol cyclase (CAS, EC 5.4.99.8) is the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, but OS can be also cyclized by distinct OS cyclases (OSCs), also known as triterpene synthases, into a variety of triterpene skeletons including those of α- and β-amyrins, the most commonly occurring plant triterpenes. These nonsterol triterpenoids are then metabolized into multioxygenated compounds, the precursors of triterpene saponins [4]. Thus, OS cyclization by the various triterpene synthases is a major branch point in the regulation of the carbon flux toward either the sterol pathway (primary metabolism) or the nonsterol triterpenoid pathway (secondary metabolism). During these last ten years, triterpenoids isolated from a large number of plant organs
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