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Vulnerability to climate change: people, place and exposure to hazard
C. W. Hutton, S. Kienberger, F. Amoako Johnson, A. Allan, V. Giannini,R. Allen
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2011, DOI: 10.5194/asr-7-37-2011
Abstract: The Human Dimension of the Twinning European and South Asian River Basins to Enhance Capacity and Implement Adaptive Management Approaches Project (EC-Project BRAHMATWINN) is aimed at developing socio-economic tools and context for the effective inclusion of the "Human Dimension" or socio-economic vulnerability into the overall assessment of climate risk in the twinned basins of the Upper Brahmaputra River Basin (UBRB), and the Upper Danube River Basin (UDRB) . This work is conducted in the light of stakeholder/actor analysis and the prevailing legal framework. In order to effectively achieve this end, four key research and associated activities were defined: 1. Identifying stakeholders and actors including: implement an approach to ensure a broad spread of appropriate stakeholder input to the assessment of vulnerability undertaken in Asia and Europe within the research activities of the project. 2. Contextualising legal framework: to provide an assessment of the governance framework relating to socio-environmental policy development within the study site administrative areas leading to the specific identification of related policy and legal recommendations. 3. Spatial analysis and mapping of vulnerability: providing a spatial assessment of the variation of vulnerability to pre-determined environmental stressors across the study areas with an additional specific focus on gender. 4. Inclusion of findings with the broader context of the BRAHMATWINN risk of climate change study through scenarios of hazard and vulnerability (subsequent chapters). This study utilises stakeholder inputs to effectively identify and map relative weightings of vulnerability domains, such as health and education in the context of pre-specified hazards such as flood. The process is underpinned by an adaptation of the IPCC (2001) which characterizes Risk as having the components of Hazard (physiographic component) and Vulnerability (socio-economic component).
Vulnerability assessment of areas affected by Chinese cryospheric changes in future climate change scenarios
Yong He,YongFeng Wu,QiuFeng Liu
Chinese Science Bulletin , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11434-012-5525-0
Abstract: Using the definition of vulnerability provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, this paper assesses the vulnerability of areas affected by Chinese cryospheric changes from 2001 to 2020 and from 2001 to 2050 in A1 and B1scenarios. Seven indices are used in the vulnerability assessment: glacial area fraction, interannual variability of permafrost depth, interannual variability of surface snow area fraction, interannual variability of surface runoff, interannual variability of surface temperature, interannual variability of vegetation growth, and interannual variability of the human development index. Assessment results show that the overall vulnerability of the studied areas in China increases from east to west. The areas in the middle and eastern parts of China are less vulnerable compared with western parts and parts of the Tibetan Plateau. The highest vulnerability values are found from 1981 to 2000, and the least ones are found from 2001 to 2050. The vulnerable areas increase from the period of 1981 to 2000 to the period of 2001 to 2050, and the less vulnerable areas decrease. The highly vulnerable areas increase from the period of 1981 to 2000 to the period of 2001 to 2020 and then decrease from the period of 2001 to 2020 to the period of 2001 to 2050. This decrease in vulnerability is attributed to the decrease in exposure and sensitivity to Chinese cryospheric changes along with a concomitant increase in adaptation.
Sharda Gangwar,Master Sujit Ku. Vishwakarma
International Journal on Research and Development : A Management Review , 2013,
Abstract: This Paper sets out to develop a model of entrepreneurial action that takes its point of departure in entrepreneurs’ experiences of risk-taking, opportunity identification and the role of self. By focusing on what entrepreneurs experience as relevant aspects of their life worlds the goal is to attain a better understanding of the drivers and motivations of venture creation and development, it is also important that how much entrepreneurs thinks about the welfare of the society and do work for them and not for the profit earning . We can also discuss the problems, opportunity and there cure for the entrepreneurs, because education system and the cultural trends is not supportive to develop entrepreneurs skill in the youth of the country. The proportion between the male and female entrepreneurs also and important aspect so, role of women entrepreneurs not to be taken at lighten, and opportunity to these people so that they can enhance their talent and make a good business plan for the country and also for the company. Based on the individual studies, the discussion section outlines the contours of a general model of entrepreneurial action that centers around the questions: Who am I?, What do I see?, What do I do?, and What are the effects? By taking the experiences of the acting entrepreneur as the point of departure, it is also possible to re-examine many questions and assumptions in the study of entrepreneurship. Theoretically the salience of individual experiences suggests a new understanding of who the entrepreneur is. It also indicates that personal and often conflicting perceptions of risks and opportunities, regardless of their realism, constitute important drivers of entrepreneurial action. Practically the results may allow entrepreneurs, managers, educators, venture capitalists and others to take more informed actions. For entrepreneurs the results may increase awareness of their own role, problematize risks and opportunities, and also suggest new and creative ways for developing the venture. More specifically the results can be used as an analytical template in the evaluation of, e.g. financial and technological risks. The thesis also contributes methodologically by demonstrating how phenomenological methodologies may advance understanding of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial action..
Socioeconomics, Policy, or Climate Change: What is Driving Vulnerability in Southern Portugal?
María A. Má?ez Costa,Eddy J. Moors,Evan D. G. Fraser
Ecology and Society , 2011,
Abstract: Although climate change models project that communities in southern Europe may be exposed to increasing drought in coming years, relatively little is known about how socioeconomic factors will exacerbate or reduce this problem. We assess how socioeconomic and policy changes have affected drought vulnerability in the Alentejo region of southern Portugal, where EU agricultural policy and the construction of a major dam have resulted in a shift from a land-extensive mixed agricultural system to the intensive production of irrigated grapes and olives. Following a dynamic systems approach, we use both published socioeconomic data and stakeholder interviews to present a narrative account of how this transition has increased the region's vulnerability to drought. To explore the assumptions made in the narrative, and to present different possible future scenarios, we create a dynamic systems model, the results of which suggest that socioeconomic drivers will play a more important role than projected rainfall changes in increasing vulnerability in the future.
Vulnerability of water resources to climate change scenarios. Impacts on the irrigation districts in the Guayalejo-Tamesí river basin, Tamaulipas, México
Atmósfera , 2011,
Abstract: this paper presents an assessment of the impacts of climate change induced water availability variations on the irrigation districts in the guayalejo-tamesí river basin in tamaulipas, méxico. a model was developed using weap (water evaluation and planning) to describe the vulnerability of the water resources in the case study river basin, taking into account the effects that climate change can have on water availability in the municipal, industrial, and agricultural sectors. the parameter to assess the extent to which the area is vulnerable to climate change was the precipitation/temperature relationship, or lang index. the latest version of the climate change program magicc/scengen was used, considering the mpiech-5, gfdl2.0, and ukhadcm3 models for the a2 and b2 greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. the results indicate that climate change scenarios have the most negative impact on water availability in the agricultural sector. in addition, an analysis of the results suggests that water concessions, irrigation districts and hydraulic infrastructure in the river basin need to be reconsidered and updated to assure water availability to all its users.
Using GIS for the Comparison of Intrinsic Parametric Methods Assessment of Groundwater Vulnerability to Pollution in Scenarios of Semi Arid Climate. The Case of Foussana Groundwater in the Central of Tunisia  [PDF]
Sami Khemiri, Afef Khnissi, Mohsen Ben Alaya, Salwa Saidi, Fouad Zargouni
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.58084

Groundwater vulnerability maps have become a standard tool for protecting groundwater resources from pollution. They are especially valuable in the decision making process related to land use planning. In fact, mangers have mostly little experience and expertise at hand to decide which land uses and activities are to be allowed in certain areas without causing a negative impact on the quality of groundwater. Hence, numerical modeling of various hydrological parameters and assessment of vulnerability to potential pollution of water resources in Tunisia has been the subject of several studies since 1980. These water resources are becoming increasingly scarce, overexploited, poorly distributed and most especially polluted including Mioplio quaternary Foussana Aquifer located in the western of the Kasserine area in the central Tunisia, which is considered as an economic resource priority because it is used in irrigation and domestic consumption. The area of the aquifer is essentially occupied by agricultural areas characterized by an important use of chemical fertilizers which are in addition to the discharge of industrial zones, an ongoing risk to the groundwater quality; this prompts us to a hydrological study and vulnerability late attributed to improve management of water resources in the study area. In this context, the use of GIS and remote sensing seems to be an effective tool the aquifer vulnerability evaluation, by applying various methods: standard DRASTIC, GOD, SINTACS and SI. The application of these methods shows that the most vulnerable zone is the southern part of the Foussana aquifer. So these maps could serve as a scientific basis for sustainable land use planning and groundwater management in the study area.

An Exploration of Social Entrepreneurship in the Entrepreneurship Era  [cached]
Mohammad Reza Noruzi,Jonathan H. Westover,Gholam Reza Rahimi
Asian Social Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/ass.v6n6p3
Abstract: Entrepreneurship has been the engine propelling much of the growth of the business sector as well as a driving force behind the rapid expansion of the social sector. Additionally, the award of the Nobel Peace Prize in 2006 to Mohammad Yunus for founding the Grameen Bank thrust social entrepreneurship into the global spotlight. The Grameen Bank is the world's largest micro-finance organization; it is a profitable business that has helped thousands of people, mostly women, out of poverty. Social entrepreneurship, the simultaneous pursuit of economic, social, and environmental goals by enterprising ventures, has gradually found a place on the world's stage as a human response to social and environmental problems (Haugh, 2007). This paper aims to review and study the recent developments in social entrepreneurship as an important phenomenon in today's entrepreneurship era.
Open Innovation and Stakeholder Engagement
Wayne Gould,Robert;
Journal of technology management & innovation , 2012, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-27242012000300001
Abstract: the paradox of open innovation lies in the conflict between the practical desire to reap the benefits of open innovation and concern over the risk that others will misappropriate those benefits. stakeholder theory and recent developments in value creation through stakeholder engagement can assist with reconciliation of this inherent structural risk. the limitations of existing open innovation typologies are identified, and a process-based model of open innovation is proposed. the model is then expanded to include stakeholder engagement. when integrated with stakeholder engagement, open innovation processes can be understood to generate benefits beyond the acquisition of specific information sought from external experts. the addition of stakeholder engagement to the open innovation model allows for greater understanding and easier acceptance of the risks inherent in the open innovation process.
Vulnerability and power on networks  [PDF]
Enrico Bozzo,Massimo Franceschet,Franca Rinaldi
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Inspired by socio-political scenarios, like dictatorships, in which a minority of people exercise control over a majority of weakly interconnected individuals, we propose vulnerability and power measures defined on groups of actors of networks. We establish an unexpected connection between network vulnerability and graph regularizability. We use the Shapley value of coalition games to introduce fresh notions of vulnerability and power at node level defined in terms of the corresponding measures at group level. We investigate the computational complexity of computing the defined measures, both at group and node levels, and provide effective methods to quantify them. Finally we test vulnerability and power on both artificial and real networks.
Network Approach and Stakeholder Management
Mauro Sciarelli,Mario Tani
Business Systems Review , 2013, DOI: 10.7350/bsr.v09.2013
Abstract: Recent economic crises show that enterprises cannot be managed focusing only on economic values instead managers should acknowledge their own enterprises' responsibilities toward the society as a whole. Stakeholder Management Theory can help managers accomplishing this very same daunting task. This theory demands managers to reckon the reciprocal influences linking other social actors to the enterprise activities and to understand the relative effects. While most of the works in this theory has been geared towards defining, identifying and managing each single dyadic relationship some other scholar have highlighted the need to focus on the stakeholder network to correctly assess each stakeholder's role and to fully grasp the long term effects enterprise's action will have. In this paper after a review of the main topics in stakeholder management theory, we classify the various approach to Stakeholder Management Theory to identify relevant theoretical contributions and to highlight how the theoretical gap can be crossed using the tools of Social Network Analysis and embracing the network approach to stakeholder management.
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