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Scent-robbing and fighting among male orchid bees, Eulaema (Apeulaema) nigrita Lepeletier, 1841 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini)
Carvalho Filho, Fernando da Silva;
Biota Neotropica , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032010000200038
Abstract: male neotropical orchid bees (euglossini) collect volatile chemicals from floral and non-floral sources and store then in specialized hind tibial structures. the ultimate causes of euglossine fragrance collection remain a mystery. recent evidence suggests that odoriferous substances play a role in euglossine courtship and serve as indicator of male genetic quality. males of eulaema nigrita were observed robbing scents from the detached hind legs of a conspecific male e. nigrita in belém, brazil. the hind leg seemed to have been detached during fights between males, since one male was missing a hind leg where the observation was made. this behavior appears to be common among males of e. nigrita since more than one case was observed on the same day. the observation reported here shows that males of e. nigrita with tibiae filled with fragrances are attacked by conspecific males that attempt to steal it.
Diversity and distribution of orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) with a revised checklist of species
Nemésio, André;Silveira, Fernando A.;
Neotropical Entomology , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2007000600008
Abstract: the aim of this study was to investigate the diversity and distribution patterns of orchid bees (euglossina). cluster and correlation analyses were applied to data extracted from 28 orchid-bee surveys throughout the neotropical region. the 28 sampling sites were grouped in three main biogeographic areas that roughly correspond to the amazonian basin, the atlantic forest and central america. these three regions, as well as subregions within each of them, correspond approximately to biogeographic components identified through phylogeny-based analyses for other bees and organisms. the amazonian forest as a whole has the richest fauna and the highest levels of endemism. the atlantic forest, on the other hand, showed the poorest fauna and the lowest levels of endemism. however, a major neotropical biome, in which orchid bees are known to occur, has not been sampled yet, the savanna-like cerrado. at least 30% of the species are endemic to each biome. an updated checklist of the species of euglossina is provided.
Floral Resources Used by Euglossini Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Coastal Ecosystems of the Atlantic Forest  [PDF]
L. C. Rocha-Filho,C. Krug,C. I. Silva,C. A. Garófalo
Psyche , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/934951
Abstract: In spite of playing an important ecological role as pollinators of tropical ecosystems, orchid bees are still poorly known regarding their floral resources. Aiming at a better comprehension of the importance of different plants visited by the Euglossini and, consequently, their role in the maintenance and reproduction of plant species in tropical ecosystems, this study aimed at identifying the flowers visited by those bees in two different areas of the Atlantic Forest in the northern coast of the state of S?o Paulo, Brazil. Sampling was carried out from August 2007 to July 2009 in two coastal ecosystems in Ubatuba, Brazil. In order to obtain information on flower resources collected by Euglossini bees in loco, all bees observed on flowers were collected, pollinaria of Orchidaceae occasionally attached to the body of males were identified, and the pollinic analysis of 68 females was carried out. One hundred twelve bees from 14 species were associated to 105 plant species which represented pollen, nectar, resin, and fragrances sources. These data reinforce the relevance of orchid bees to the maintenance and reproductive success of many tropical plants. 1. Introduction There is evidence that Euglossini bees play an important ecological role in the maintenance and reproductive success of a wide range of plant species in tropical ecosystems [1–3]. Females visit the plants to collect resin, which is used for nest building as well as nectar and pollen, which are used for provisioning brood cells [4–10]. They have specific foraging routes, known as “traplines,” which are followed for several days such that the same flowering plant specimens are visited in a particular sequence. This behaviour implies fidelity to collection sites, and Janzen [11] reported that the females can fly considerable distances quickly, which ensures that a given foraging route can cover a large area. This observation by Janzen [11] is related to the fact that the plants producing food are often widely dispersed in a given area and produce few flowers per day, offering high-quality resources over long periods. Similar to females, Euglossini males are also able to fly quickly and over long distances in search of resources to meet their needs [11–13] and may feed on nectar from the same plants utilised by females [4]. It is estimated that approximately 10% of the 600 to 700 species of the Orchidaceae family are pollinated exclusively by male orchid bees, who visit them to collect floral fragrances [14–17]. These aromatic substances are also collected from plants of several other families,
The orchid bee fauna (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of a core area of the Cerrado, Brazil: the role of riparian forests as corridors for forest-associated bees
Faria, Luiz Roberto Ribeiro;Silveira, Fernando Amaral da;
Biota Neotropica , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1676-06032011000400009
Abstract: the composition of local orchid-bee faunas (hymenoptera, apidae, euglossina) in open-vegetation domains is poorly known, making the ecology and biogeography of the group difficult to understand. the aim of this work was to answer the following questions: i) is the orchid-bee fauna composition, species richness and abundance in the cerrado (brazilian savanna) sensu stricto similar to that of riparian forests immersed in that domain? ii) do species from neighboring forest domains use riparian forests as mesic corridors into the cerrado? two sites in cerrado s.s. and two in riparian forests were sampled monthly, one day per month, during one year (nov/2003-oct/2004) in northwestern minas gerais state, brazil. six aromatic compounds (β-ionone, 1,8-cineole, eugenol, methyl trans-cinnamate, methyl salicilate and vanillin) were exposed from 8:00 am to 4:00 pm to attract orchid bees. the results suggest that: i) the composition of the orchid bee fauna in the two kinds of environments is the same; ii) riparian forests apparently have no role as mesic corridors for penetration of forest-dependent euglossine species into the core of the cerrado domain.
Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae)
Santos, Charles Fernando dos;Absy, Maria Lúcia;
Acta Amazonica , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672012000100011
Abstract: competition between two species of bees for the same type of floral resource may generate antagonistic behavior between them, especially in cultivated areas where food resources are limited, seasonally and locally. in this study, was tested the hypothesis of antagonism between two solitary bee species of the family apidae, eulaema mocsaryi (euglossini) and xylocopa frontalis (xylocopini), visiting the brazil nut flowers (bertholletia excelsa: lecythidaceae) in a central amazonia agricultural area. the visitation time was analyzed to detect the possible temporal overlap in the foraging of these bees. furthermore, was analyzed their interspecific interactions for manipulating flower species visited by an opponent species, as well as attempts to attack this opponent. the individuals of xylocopa frontalis visited the brazil nut flowers before eulaema mocsaryi, although the peak visitation of both did not presented significant differences. neither of the species manipulated flowers recently visited by opponent species, and there were practically no antagonistic interactions between them. thus, x. frontalis and e. mocsaryi shared the same food source in the flowers of b. excelsa due to differences in their time of visits and non-aggressive way of interacting with the opponent. this result has important implications for pollinating the brazil nut, and a possible management of x. frontalis and e. mocsaryi, since these two were the most abundant pollinators in the studied locality.
Do euglossine males (Apidae, Euglossini) leave tropical rainforest to collect fragrances in sugarcane monocultures?
Milet-Pinheiro, Paulo;Schlindwein, Clemens;
Revista Brasileira de Zoologia , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-81752005000400008
Abstract: euglossine bees are known to be long-distance pollinators in tropical rainforests. but there is controversy concerning to the flight ranges of these bees between forest fragments. in an isolated fragment of atlantic rainforest in pernambuco, ne brazil, surrounded by sugarcane monocultures, it was examined if euglossine males leave closed rainforest to collect fragrances. in a straight-line transect leading from forest into a sugarcane plantation, euglossine males were simultaneously captured by scent baits at seven distinct points: inside the forest, forest edge, outside the forest in the sugarcane fields at distances of 10 m, 50 m, 100 m, 250 m and 500 m from the forest edge. a total of 945 euglossine bees of 16 species were recorded. the results demonstrate different relations of the euglossini species to the closed forest. males of 11 species did not leave the forest. such species, together with the plants they are linked to, seem to be the most threatened by habitat fragmentation. only bees of five species were found at the scent baits in the sugarcane fields. already the 10 m sampling point outside the forest showed a drastic reduction in species richness, indicating that the forest edge functions as a barrier for most euglossine species.
Community of male Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a secondary forest, Alcantara, MA, Brazil
BRITO, C. M. S. de;RêGO, M. M. C.;
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-69842001000400012
Abstract: from september, 92 to august, 93 bee sampling was done in a secondary forest near the pepital river, in alcantara, ma, in order to study the local euglossini fauna. five aromatic compounds were used: eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate, vanillin, and benzoate. four hundred sixty-seven male euglossini bees were captured, distributed in 4 genus and 19 species. euglossa was the most abundant and with high diversity (302 specimens and 14 species), followed by eulaema (121; 3), eufriesea (41; 1), and exaerete (3; 1). the species which more frequently visited the bait were euglossa piliventris (141 specimens; 30.19%), euglossa cingulata (113; 24.21%), euglossa ignita (45; 9.64%), eufriesea pulchra (41; 8.78%), and euglossa gaianii (33; 7.07%) corresponding to 79.88% of the sampling universe. the bees were active throught the year, however during the rainy season more activity and diversity were observed. the most attractive essence was eucaliptol (44.32% specimens and 84.21% species). in spite of this study having been done in a forest fragment, a secondary vegetation area smaller than other areas studied in maranh?o, it showed a significant diversity rate. this result reinforces the importance of fragments in the conservation of local bee communities.
Community of male Euglossini bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in a secondary forest, Alcantara, MA, Brazil  [cached]
BRITO C. M. S. de,RêGO M. M. C.
Brazilian Journal of Biology , 2001,
Abstract: From September, 92 to August, 93 bee sampling was done in a secondary forest near the Pepital River, in Alcantara, MA, in order to study the local Euglossini fauna. Five aromatic compounds were used: eucaliptol, eugenol, methyl salicylate, vanillin, and benzoate. Four hundred sixty-seven male Euglossini bees were captured, distributed in 4 genus and 19 species. Euglossa was the most abundant and with high diversity (302 specimens and 14 species), followed by Eulaema (121; 3), Eufriesea (41; 1), and Exaerete (3; 1). The species which more frequently visited the bait were Euglossa piliventris (141 specimens; 30.19%), Euglossa cingulata (113; 24.21%), Euglossa ignita (45; 9.64%), Eufriesea pulchra (41; 8.78%), and Euglossa gaianii (33; 7.07%) corresponding to 79.88% of the sampling universe. The bees were active throught the year, however during the rainy season more activity and diversity were observed. The most attractive essence was eucaliptol (44.32% specimens and 84.21% species). In spite of this study having been done in a forest fragment, a secondary vegetation area smaller than other areas studied in Maranh o, it showed a significant diversity rate. This result reinforces the importance of fragments in the conservation of local bee communities.
Diversity of the euglossine bee community (Hymenoptera, Apidae) of an Atlantic Forest remnant in southeastern Brazil
Silveira, Guilherme do Carmo;Nascimento, Anderson Machado;Sofia, Silvia Helena;Augusto, Solange Cristina;
Revista Brasileira de Entomologia , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0085-56262011000100017
Abstract: diversity of the euglossine bee community (hymenoptera, apidae) of an atlantic forest remnant in southeastern brazil. euglossine bees, attracted to scent baits of cineole, eugenol and vanillin, were collected with entomological nets, from december 1998 to november 1999. samplings were carried out once a month simultaneously by two collectors positioned in two different sites in an atlantic forest remnant in northeastern s?o paulo state, brazil. a total of 859 male euglossine bees, belonging to 13 species and four euglossini genera were collected. of the total sample, 506 (12 species) males were captured at site a and 353 (10 species) were collected at site b.in both sites, euglossa pleosticta dressler, 1982 was the most abundant species (45.79%), followed by eulaema nigrita lepeletier, 1841 (20.79%). the results of this study supply new information about the diversity of orchid bee fauna in atlantic forest remnants as well as show that more than one site is needed to sample these bees in a fragmented landascape.
Orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in the coastal forests of southern Brazil: diversity, efficiency of sampling methods and comparison with other Atlantic forest surveys
Mattozo, Vanessa C.;Faria, Luiz R.R.;Melo, Gabriel A.R.;
Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (S?o Paulo) , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0031-10492011003300001
Abstract: surveys of orchid bees at the brazilian atlantic forest have been restricted to a few regions, making difficult to understand latitudinal patterns of distribution and diversity of these bees. for this reason we sampled the euglossine fauna at atlantic forest areas at the coastal region of s?o paulo (sete barras, faz. morro do capim: sp3) and state of paraná (antonina, reserva natural do rio cachoeira: pr3), in southern brazil. in pr3, we also evaluated the efficiency of collecting methods for sampling the fauna, comparing bait traps with direct collecting using entomological nets on fragrance baits. the diversity and abundance of bees was very low: we caught only 39 males of eight species in sp3 (euglossa iopoecila, euglossa roderici, eulaema nigrita, euglossa annectans, eulaema cingulata, euglossa pleosticta, euglossa viridis and exaerete smaragdina) and 254 males of six species in pr3 (euglossa iopoecila, euglossa annectans, euglossa stellfeldi, euglossa roderici, euglossa pleosticta and eulaema nigrita). comparing the sampling methodologies, use of insect nets on fragrance baits (six species; 221 specimens) was more efficient than bait traps (three species; 33 specimens). when comparing the faunas of these two areas with other surveys at the atlantic forest sites, through a dca analysis, we found that the two surveys presented in this paper were placed relatively close to each other, but apart from the other sites analyzed, not clustering with the southernmost survey at the subtropical atlantic forest of rio grande do sul or with the remaining surveys carried out at northern lowland sites of this biome.
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