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“Darwin’s butterflies”? DNA barcoding and the radiation of the endemic Caribbean butterfly genus Calisto (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)  [cached]
Andrei Sourakov,Evgeny Zakharov
Comparative Cytogenetics , 2011, DOI: 10.3897/compcytogen.v5i3.1730
Abstract: The genus Calisto Hübner, 1823 is the only member of the diverse, global subfamily Satyrinae found in the West Indies, and by far the richest endemic Caribbean butterfly radiation. Calisto species occupy an extremely diverse array of habitats, suggestive of adaptive radiation on the scale of other classic examples such as the Galápagos or Darwin’s finches. However, a reliable species classification is a key requisite before further evolutionary or ecological research. An analysis of 111 DNA ‘barcodes’ (655 bp of the mitochondrial gene COI) from 29 putative Calisto species represented by 31 putative taxa was therefore conducted to elucidate taxonomic relationships among these often highly cryptic and confusing taxa. The sympatric, morphologically and ecologically similar taxa C. confusa Lathy, 1899 and C. confusa debarriera Clench, 1943 proved to be extremely divergent, and we therefore recognize Calisto debarriera stat. n. as a distinct species, with Calisto neiba Schwartz et Gali, 1984 as a junior synonym syn. n. Species status of certain allopatric, morphologically similar sister species has been confirmed: Calisto hysius (Godart, 1824) (including its subspecies C. hysius aleucosticha Correa et Schwartz, 1986, stat. n.), and its former subspecies C. batesi Michener, 1943 showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%) and should be considered separate species. Calisto lyceius Bates, 1935/C. crypta Gali, 1985/C. franciscoi Gali, 1985 complex, also showed a high degree of divergence (above 6%), confirming the species status of these taxa. In contrast, our data suggest that the Calisto grannus Bates, 1939 species complex (including Calisto grannus dilemma González, 1987, C. grannus amazona González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus micrommata Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., C. grannus dystacta González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus phoinix González, 1987, stat. n., C. grannus sommeri Schwartz et Gali, 1984, stat. n., and C. grannus micheneri Clench, 1944, stat. n.) should be treated as a single polytypic species, as genetic divergence among sampled populations representing these taxa is low (and stable morphological apomorphies are absent). A widely-distributed pest of sugar cane, Calisto pulchella Lathy, 1899 showed higher diversification among isolated populations (3.5%) than expected, hence supporting former separation of this species into two taxa (pulchella and darlingtoni Clench, 1943), of which the latter might prove to be a separate species rather than subspecies. The taxonomic revisions presented here result in Calisto now containing 34 species and 17 s
Determinants of Within-Patch Microdistribution and Movements of Endangered Butterfly Coenonympha Oedippus (Fabricius, 1787) (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae)
Tatjana elik, Branko Vre , Andrej Seli kar
Hacquetia , 2009, DOI: 10.2478/v10028-009-0007-x
Abstract: The within-patch microdistribution and movements of adults of the critically endangered butterfly, Coenonympha oedippus, were studied using mark-recapture data from an isolated patch network, which consisted of 8 patches in central Slovenia. The impact of patch characteristics on both parameters was analyzed. Males fly longer distances and spend more time flying than females. The distances and seasonal pattern of male movements were dependent on the patch size, and on the microdistribution and density of freshly emerged (receptive) females. The spatial and temporal pattern of female microdistribution was influenced by vegetation height, the homogeneity of host plant stands and the shading of the ground and/or the lowest parts of herb layer. In the case of near continuous distribution of host plants within a patch, the structure of herb vegetation appears to be the major determinant of adult microdistribution. It affects the dynamics of butterfly emergence and the selection of oviposition sites. The per cent cover of the nectar plant, Potentilla erecta, does not play an important role in butterfly microdistribution.
Nomenclatural notes on Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)  [cached]
G. Lamas
SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología , 2010,
Abstract: Se exponen y discuten 19 problemas nomenclaturales que afectan a diversos nombres del grupo de especie de los Satyrinae del mundo. Se proponen los siguientes nombres de reemplazo (entre paréntesis los nombres reemplazados): Elymnias esaca tateishii (E. e. lautensis Tateishi), E. hypermnestra uemurai (E. nigrescens meliophila Fruhstorfer), Lethe confusa kalisi (L. rohria borneensis Kalis), L. sinorix xironis (L. s. obscura Mell), Oeneis buddha pelhami (O. b. pygmea Gross), Pharneuptychia haywardiana (Euptychia phares boliviana Hayward), e Ypthima taiwana (Y. methora formosana Fruhstorfer). Bicyclus denina (Godart, [1824] es una nueva combinación, y Mycalesis safitza Westwood, 1850 es un nuevo sinónimo de B. denina. Se restablece el estatus específico de Melanargia nemausiaca (Esper, 1789) y el de Quilaphoetosus limonias (Philippi, 1859), siendo esta última una nueva combinación. En cinco de los casos, la resolución de sus problemas nomenclaturales deberá ser efectuada por la Comisión Internacional de Nomenclatura Zoológica por medio de su poder plenario.
A new species of Cyllopsis (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from Costa Rica  [cached]
Isidro Chacón,Kenji Nishida
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2002,
Abstract: Cyllopsis emilia Chacón and Nishida, a new satyrine species, is described from a single male specimen from Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. This new species can be distinguished from other species of Cyllopsis by its white coloration Una especie nueva de Satyrinae, Cyllopsis emilia Chacón y Nishida, es descrita a partir de un solo espécimen macho procedente del Cerro de la Muerte, San José, Costa Rica. Esta nueva especie puede distinguirse de las otras especies del género por su coloración blanca
Congruence and Diversity of Butterfly-Host Plant Associations at Higher Taxonomic Levels  [PDF]
José R. Ferrer-Paris, Ada Sánchez-Mercado, ángel L. Viloria, John Donaldson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063570
Abstract: We aggregated data on butterfly-host plant associations from existing sources in order to address the following questions: (1) is there a general correlation between host diversity and butterfly species richness?, (2) has the evolution of host plant use followed consistent patterns across butterfly lineages?, (3) what is the common ancestral host plant for all butterfly lineages? The compilation included 44,148 records from 5,152 butterfly species (28.6% of worldwide species of Papilionoidea) and 1,193 genera (66.3%). The overwhelming majority of butterflies use angiosperms as host plants. Fabales is used by most species (1,007 spp.) from all seven butterfly families and most subfamilies, Poales is the second most frequently used order, but is mostly restricted to two species-rich subfamilies: Hesperiinae (56.5% of all Hesperiidae), and Satyrinae (42.6% of all Nymphalidae). We found a significant and strong correlation between host plant diversity and butterfly species richness. A global test for congruence (Parafit test) was sensitive to uncertainty in the butterfly cladogram, and suggests a mixed system with congruent associations between Papilionidae and magnoliids, Hesperiidae and monocots, and the remaining subfamilies with the eudicots (fabids and malvids), but also numerous random associations. The congruent associations are also recovered as the most probable ancestral states in each node using maximum likelihood methods. The shift from basal groups to eudicots appears to be more likely than the other way around, with the only exception being a Satyrine-clade within the Nymphalidae that feed on monocots. Our analysis contributes to the visualization of the complex pattern of interactions at superfamily level and provides a context to discuss the timing of changes in host plant utilization that might have promoted diversification in some butterfly lineages.
Diversidad y distribución de mariposas Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en la cuenca del río Coello, Colombia
García-Perez,Jack F; Ospina-López,Leonardo A; Villa-Navarro,Francisco A; Reinoso-Flórez,Gladys;
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: diversity and distribution of satyrinae butterflies (lepidoptera: nymphalidae) in the coello river basin, colombia. we describe the patterns of diversity and distribution of the subfamily satyrinae in the coello river basin (4o 17? 08?? n - 74o 35? 36?? w; 1 899.31 km2) from 433 to 3 600 m. eleven sampling stations were located, in several ecosystems. the samples were collected during a period of 11 days, in march, may, july and october 2003, in three types of habitat (forest, forest edge and meadow). we collected at random, between 09:00 and 15:00 hr, using entomological nets. a total of 239 individuals (13 genera, 34 species) were collected. the most abundant species were in the genus pedaliodes (41.4 %). richness and diversity had high values in mountainous zones and paramo (> 2 000 m). the greater diversity was measured in the forest edge. the similarity analysis produced two groups: species from warm (euptychia hesione and hermeuptychia hermes) and middle (pseudohaetera hypaesia and taygetis celia) climate zones; and species from mountain and paramo (lymanopoda obsoleta, pedaliodes polusca and eretris calisto). rev. biol. trop. 55 (2): 645-653. epub 2007 june, 29.
From the Phylogeny of the Satyrinae Butterflies to the Systematics of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): History, Progress and Prospects
Marín, MA;Pe?a, C;Freitas, AVL;Wahlberg, N;Uribe, SI;
Neotropical Entomology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000100001
Abstract: we review the various proposals of evolutionary and classification schemes for satyrinae and particularly euptychiina butterflies, assessing progress and prospects of research for the group. among the highlights is the proposal to include morphini, brassolini and amathusiini as part of satyrinae. although it is clear that this hypothesis requires further investigation, phylogenetic studies recently conducted recover this clade as part of satyrinae with high support. the phylogenetic analyses for euptychiina carried out to date recover the monophyly of the group and have identified a variety of genera as non-monophyletic. further work is necessary to resolve the position of the subtribe and the evolutionary relationships of several genera.
Mariposas de la tribu Pronophilini en la Cordillera Occidental de los Andes de Colombia(Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae, Satyrinae)  [cached]
T. W. Pyrcz,G. Rodríguez
SHILAP Revista de Lepidopterología , 2007,
Abstract: Se elabora el catálogo de especies de mariposas de la tribu Pronophilini (Nymphalidae, Satyrinae) de laCordillera Occidental de los Andes en Colombia. Se incluyen datos de los primeros muestreos de lepidópterosdiurnos realizados en los páramos de esta cadena monta osa, en los macizos de Tatamá, Citará y Cerro Frontino. Sereporta un total de 85 especies. Se describen cinco nuevas especies y cinco subespecies, tres de ellas, NeopedaliodesyeyoPyrcz & Rodríguez, sp. n., Pedaliodes tatamaPyrcz & Rodríguez, sp. n. y Lymanopoda zebra Pyrcz &Rodríguez, sp. n., endémicas del páramo. 18 especies son citadas por primera vez de la Cordillera Occidental y una,Panyapedaliodes traceyannaePyrcz & Viloria, de Colombia. Se evalúa la identidad del taxón P. pheretias formagriseolaWeymer y la del paratipo hembra de P. gustavi Viloria, L. Miller & J. Miller. Se analizan los patronesbiogeográficos, en particular la riqueza de especies, el índice de endemismo y las afinidades de la CordilleraOccidental con otros sistemas monta osos del norte de los Andes.
Diversidad y distribución de mariposas Satyrinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) en la cuenca del río Coello, Colombia  [cached]
Jack F García-Perez,Leonardo A Ospina-López,Francisco A Villa-Navarro,Gladys Reinoso-Flórez
Revista de Biología Tropical , 2007,
Abstract: Este estudio describe los patrones de diversidad y distribución de la subfamilia Satyrinae en la cuenca del río Coello (4o 17’ 08’’ N y 74o 35′ 36" W; 1 899.31 km2), en un gradiente altitudinal de 433 a 3 600 m.s.n.m, con el fin de determinar la diversidad y composición regional y local de este grupo de mariposas y su posible uso como indicador biológico de zonas montanas y de Páramo. Se establecieron 11 estaciones de muestreo las cuales incluyen distintas zonas de vida. Las muestras se recolecciónron durante un periodo de 11 días en marzo, mayo, julio y octubre de 2003, en tres tipos de hábitat (bosque, borde de bosque y pradera). La recolección fue al azar en transectos de longitud no definida, entre las 09:00 y las 15:00 hr, empleando para ello redes lepidopterológicas de 0.5 m de diámetro y 1.20 m de longitud. Para el análisis de datos se calculó el índice de riqueza de Margalef (D) y se registró el porcentaje de abundancia relativa para las especies. La diversidad total por localidad y por hábitat se analizó a través del índice de Shannon (H’). De las matrices de presencia-ausencia se obtuvo índices de similitud entre estaciones, según coeficiente de Jaccard. Se recolectó un total de 239 individuos de 13 géneros y 34 especies. Las especies más abundantes fueron especialmente del género Pedaliodes, representando el 41.4%. La riqueza y diversidad, presentaron un comportamiento similar, mostrando altos valores en zonas montanas y de Páramo (> 2000 m.s.n.m). En cuanto a la diversidad por hábitat, se observó la mayor diversidad en el borde de bosque. El análisis de similitud evidenció dos grupos claramente definidos. El primer grupo contempla especies propias de zonas cálidas (Euptychia hesione y Hermeuptychia hermes) y templadas (Pseudohaetera hypaesia y Taygetis celia), mientras el segundo presenta especies exclusivas de zonas montanas y de Páramo (Lymanopoda obsoleta, Pedaliodes polusca y Eretris calisto). Diversity and distribution of Satyrinae butterflies (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in the Coello river basin, Colombia. We describe the patterns of diversity and distribution of the subfamily Satyrinae in the Coello river basin (4o 17’ 08’’ N - 74o 35’ 36’’ W; 1 899.31 km2) from 433 to 3 600 m. Eleven sampling stations were located, in several ecosystems. The samples were collected during a period of 11 days, in March, May, July and October 2003, in three types of habitat (forest, forest edge and meadow). We collected at random, between 09:00 and 15:00 hr, using entomological nets. A total of 239 individuals (13 genera, 34 species) were collected. The
A new genus and species of Euptychiina (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae) from southern Brazil
Freitas, AVL;Mielke, OHH;Moser, A;Silva-Brand?o, KL;Iserhard, CA;
Neotropical Entomology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1519-566X2011000200012
Abstract: this paper describes a new genus and a new species of euptychiina from open grassland habitats (campos de cima da serra) in southern brazil. the systematic position of this new taxon is discussed based on morphological and molecular data, and it is considered sister to taydebis freitas. since the campos vegetation is considered endangered due to anthropogenic activities, this butterfly species deserves attention and should be included in future conservation plans for this biome.
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